Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
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Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
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MetaCyc Reaction: 2.1.1.161

Superclasses: Reactions Classified By Conversion Type Simple Reactions Chemical Reactions
Reactions Classified By Substrate Small-Molecule Reactions

EC Number: 2.1.1.161

Enzymes and Genes:
dimethylglycine-betaine methyltransferase Inferred from experiment : AF216283 ( Actinopolyspora halophila )
dimethylglycine-betaine methyltransferase Inferred from experiment : AF216282 ( Halorhodospira halochloris )
dimethylglycine-betaine methyltransferase Inferred from experiment : AB094498 ( Aphanothece halophytica )
glycine/sarcosine/N,N-dimethylglycine methyltransferase Inferred from experiment ( Methanohalophilus portucalensis )

Sub-reaction of:
2.1.1.157: 2 S-adenosyl-L-methionine + sarcosine → 2 S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + glycine betaine + 2 H+ ,
2.1.1.162: 3 S-adenosyl-L-methionine + glycine → 3 S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + glycine betaine + 3 H+

In Pathway: glycine betaine biosynthesis V (from glycine) , glycine betaine biosynthesis IV (from glycine)

The reaction direction shown, that is, A + B ↔ C + D versus C + D ↔ A + B, is in accordance with the Enzyme Commission system.

Most BioCyc compounds have been protonated to a reference pH value of 7.3, and some reactions have been computationally balanced for hydrogen by adding free protons. Please see the PGDB Concepts Guide for more information.

Mass balance status: Balanced.

Direct generic reaction:
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + a demethylated methyl acceptor → S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + a methylated methyl acceptor + H+ (2.1.1.-)

Enzyme Commission Primary Name: dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase

Enzyme Commission Synonyms: BsmB, DMT

Standard Gibbs Free Energy (ΔrG in kcal/mol): -38.160004 Inferred by computational analysis [Latendresse13]

Enzyme Commission Summary:
This enzyme, from the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain WH8102, differs from EC 2.1.1.157, sarcosine/dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase in that it cannot use sarcosine as an alternative substrate [Lu06c]. Betaine is a 'compatible solute' that enables cyanobacteria to cope with osmotic stress by maintaining a positive cellular turgor.

Citations: [Waditee03, Nyyssola01, Nyyssola00]

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?

Unification Links: KEGG:R07244 , Rhea:10072

Relationship Links: BRENDA:EC:2.1.1.161 , ENZYME:EC:2.1.1.161 , IUBMB-ExplorEnz:EC:2.1.1.161

Credits:
Revised 03-May-2012 by Caspi R , SRI International


References

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Lu06c: Lu WD, Chi ZM, Su CD (2006). "Identification of glycine betaine as compatible solute in Synechococcus sp. WH8102 and characterization of its N-methyltransferase genes involved in betaine synthesis." Arch Microbiol 186(6);495-506. PMID: 17019606

Nyyssola00: Nyyssola A, Kerovuo J, Kaukinen P, von Weymarn N, Reinikainen T (2000). "Extreme halophiles synthesize betaine from glycine by methylation." J Biol Chem 2000;275(29);22196-201. PMID: 10896953

Nyyssola01: Nyyssola A, Reinikainen T, Leisola M (2001). "Characterization of glycine sarcosine N-methyltransferase and sarcosine dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase." Appl Environ Microbiol 67(5);2044-50. PMID: 11319079

Waditee03: Waditee R, Tanaka Y, Aoki K, Hibino T, Jikuya H, Takano J, Takabe T, Takabe T (2003). "Isolation and functional characterization of N-methyltransferases that catalyze betaine synthesis from glycine in a halotolerant photosynthetic organism Aphanothece halophytica." J Biol Chem 278(7);4932-42. PMID: 12466265


Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 18.5 on Tue Nov 25, 2014, biocyc14.