|Superclasses:||Reactions Classified By Conversion Type → Simple Reactions → Chemical Reactions|
|Reactions Classified By Substrate → Small-Molecule Reactions|
EC Number: 18.104.22.168
Enzymes and Genes:
dimethylglycine-betaine methyltransferase : AF216283 ( Actinopolyspora halophila )
dimethylglycine-betaine methyltransferase : AF216282 ( Halorhodospira halochloris )
dimethylglycine-betaine methyltransferase : AB094498 ( Aphanothece halophytica )
glycine/sarcosine/N,N-dimethylglycine methyltransferase ( Methanohalophilus portucalensis )
22.214.171.124: 2 S-adenosyl-L-methionine + sarcosine → 2 S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + glycine betaine + 2 H+ ,
126.96.36.199: 3 S-adenosyl-L-methionine + glycine → 3 S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + glycine betaine + 3 H+
The reaction direction shown, that is, A + B ↔ C + D versus C + D ↔ A + B, is in accordance with the Enzyme Commission system.
Most BioCyc compounds have been protonated to a reference pH value of 7.3, and some reactions have been computationally balanced for hydrogen by adding free protons. Please see the PGDB Concepts Guide for more information.
Mass balance status: Balanced.
Enzyme Commission Primary Name: dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase
Enzyme Commission Synonyms: BsmB, DMT
Standard Gibbs Free Energy (ΔrG'° in kcal/mol): -38.160004 [Latendresse13]
Enzyme Commission Summary:
This enzyme, from the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain WH8102, differs from EC 188.8.131.52, sarcosine/dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase in that it cannot use sarcosine as an alternative substrate [Lu06b]. Betaine is a 'compatible solute' that enables cyanobacteria to cope with osmotic stress by maintaining a positive cellular turgor.
Lu06b: Lu WD, Chi ZM, Su CD (2006). "Identification of glycine betaine as compatible solute in Synechococcus sp. WH8102 and characterization of its N-methyltransferase genes involved in betaine synthesis." Arch Microbiol 186(6);495-506. PMID: 17019606
Nyyssola00: Nyyssola A, Kerovuo J, Kaukinen P, von Weymarn N, Reinikainen T (2000). "Extreme halophiles synthesize betaine from glycine by methylation." J Biol Chem 2000;275(29);22196-201. PMID: 10896953
Nyyssola01: Nyyssola A, Reinikainen T, Leisola M (2001). "Characterization of glycine sarcosine N-methyltransferase and sarcosine dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase." Appl Environ Microbiol 67(5);2044-50. PMID: 11319079
Waditee03: Waditee R, Tanaka Y, Aoki K, Hibino T, Jikuya H, Takano J, Takabe T, Takabe T (2003). "Isolation and functional characterization of N-methyltransferases that catalyze betaine synthesis from glycine in a halotolerant photosynthetic organism Aphanothece halophytica." J Biol Chem 278(7);4932-42. PMID: 12466265
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