Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
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BioCyc websites down
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Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
12/28 - 12/31
for maintenance.
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
12/28 - 12/31
for maintenance.
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
12/28 - 12/31
for maintenance.
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
12/28 - 12/31
for maintenance.
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MetaCyc Reaction: 2.1.1.161

Superclasses: Reactions Classified By Conversion Type Simple Reactions Chemical Reactions
Reactions Classified By Substrate Small-Molecule Reactions

EC Number: 2.1.1.161

Enzymes and Genes:
dimethylglycine-betaine methyltransferase Inferred from experiment : AF216283 ( Actinopolyspora halophila )
dimethylglycine-betaine methyltransferase Inferred from experiment : AF216282 ( Halorhodospira halochloris )
dimethylglycine-betaine methyltransferase Inferred from experiment : AB094498 ( Aphanothece halophytica )
glycine/sarcosine/N,N-dimethylglycine methyltransferase Inferred from experiment ( Methanohalophilus portucalensis )

Sub-reaction of:
2.1.1.157: 2 S-adenosyl-L-methionine + sarcosine → 2 S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + glycine betaine + 2 H+ ,
2.1.1.162: 3 S-adenosyl-L-methionine + glycine → 3 S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + glycine betaine + 3 H+

In Pathway: glycine betaine biosynthesis V (from glycine) , glycine betaine biosynthesis IV (from glycine)

The reaction direction shown, that is, A + B ↔ C + D versus C + D ↔ A + B, is in accordance with the Enzyme Commission system.

Most BioCyc compounds have been protonated to a reference pH value of 7.3, and some reactions have been computationally balanced for hydrogen by adding free protons. Please see the PGDB Concepts Guide for more information.

Mass balance status: Balanced.

Direct generic reaction:
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + a demethylated methyl acceptor → S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + a methylated methyl acceptor + H+ (2.1.1.-)

Enzyme Commission Primary Name: dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase

Enzyme Commission Synonyms: BsmB, DMT

Standard Gibbs Free Energy (ΔrG in kcal/mol): -38.160004 Inferred by computational analysis [Latendresse13]

Enzyme Commission Summary:
This enzyme, from the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain WH8102, differs from EC 2.1.1.157, sarcosine/dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase in that it cannot use sarcosine as an alternative substrate [Lu06b]. Betaine is a 'compatible solute' that enables cyanobacteria to cope with osmotic stress by maintaining a positive cellular turgor.

Citations: [Waditee03, Nyyssola01, Nyyssola00]

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?

Unification Links: KEGG:R07244 , Rhea:10072

Relationship Links: BRENDA:EC:2.1.1.161 , ENZYME:EC:2.1.1.161 , IUBMB-ExplorEnz:EC:2.1.1.161

Credits:
Revised 03-May-2012 by Caspi R , SRI International


References

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Lu06b: Lu WD, Chi ZM, Su CD (2006). "Identification of glycine betaine as compatible solute in Synechococcus sp. WH8102 and characterization of its N-methyltransferase genes involved in betaine synthesis." Arch Microbiol 186(6);495-506. PMID: 17019606

Nyyssola00: Nyyssola A, Kerovuo J, Kaukinen P, von Weymarn N, Reinikainen T (2000). "Extreme halophiles synthesize betaine from glycine by methylation." J Biol Chem 2000;275(29);22196-201. PMID: 10896953

Nyyssola01: Nyyssola A, Reinikainen T, Leisola M (2001). "Characterization of glycine sarcosine N-methyltransferase and sarcosine dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase." Appl Environ Microbiol 67(5);2044-50. PMID: 11319079

Waditee03: Waditee R, Tanaka Y, Aoki K, Hibino T, Jikuya H, Takano J, Takabe T, Takabe T (2003). "Isolation and functional characterization of N-methyltransferases that catalyze betaine synthesis from glycine in a halotolerant photosynthetic organism Aphanothece halophytica." J Biol Chem 278(7);4932-42. PMID: 12466265


Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 18.5 on Mon Dec 22, 2014, BIOCYC13A.