MetaCyc Reaction:

Superclasses: Reactions Classified By Conversion TypeSimple ReactionsChemical Reactions
Reactions Classified By SubstrateSmall-Molecule Reactions

EC Number:

Enzymes and Genes:

Actinopolyspora halophila: dimethylglycine-betaine methyltransferaseInferred from experiment: AF216283
Aphanothece halophytica: dimethylglycine-betaine methyltransferaseInferred from experiment: AB094498
Halorhodospira halochloris: dimethylglycine-betaine methyltransferaseInferred from experiment: AF216282
Methanohalophilus portucalensis: glycine/sarcosine/N,N-dimethylglycine methyltransferaseInferred from experiment

Sub-reaction of: 2 S-adenosyl-L-methionine + sarcosine → 2 S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + glycine betaine + 2 H+, 3 S-adenosyl-L-methionine + glycine → 3 S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + glycine betaine + 3 H+

In Pathway: glycine betaine biosynthesis V (from glycine), glycine betaine biosynthesis IV (from glycine)

The direction shown, i.e. which substrates are on the left and right sides, is in accordance with the direction in which it was curated.

Most BioCyc compounds have been protonated to a reference pH value of 7.3. Please see the PGDB Concepts Guide for more information.

Mass balance status: Balanced.

Direct generic reaction:
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + a demethylated methyl donor → S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + a methylated methyl donor + H+ (2.1.1.-)

Enzyme Commission Primary Name: dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase

Enzyme Commission Synonyms: BsmB, DMT

Standard Gibbs Free Energy (ΔrG in kcal/mol): -38.160004Inferred by computational analysis [Latendresse13]

Enzyme Commission Summary:
This enzyme, from the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain WH8102, differs from EC, sarcosine/dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase in that it cannot use sarcosine as an alternative substrate [Lu06]. Betaine is a 'compatible solute' that enables cyanobacteria to cope with osmotic stress by maintaining a positive cellular turgor.

Citations: [Waditee03, Nyyssola01, Nyyssola00]

Gene-Reaction Schematic

Gene-Reaction Schematic

Unification Links: KEGG:R07244, Rhea:10072

Relationship Links: BRENDA:EC:, ENZYME:EC:, IUBMB-ExplorEnz:EC:

Revised 03-May-2012 by Caspi R, SRI International


Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Lu06: Lu WD, Chi ZM, Su CD (2006). "Identification of glycine betaine as compatible solute in Synechococcus sp. WH8102 and characterization of its N-methyltransferase genes involved in betaine synthesis." Arch Microbiol 186(6);495-506. PMID: 17019606

Nyyssola00: Nyyssola A, Kerovuo J, Kaukinen P, von Weymarn N, Reinikainen T (2000). "Extreme halophiles synthesize betaine from glycine by methylation." J Biol Chem 2000;275(29);22196-201. PMID: 10896953

Nyyssola01: Nyyssola A, Reinikainen T, Leisola M (2001). "Characterization of glycine sarcosine N-methyltransferase and sarcosine dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase." Appl Environ Microbiol 67(5);2044-50. PMID: 11319079

Waditee03: Waditee R, Tanaka Y, Aoki K, Hibino T, Jikuya H, Takano J, Takabe T, Takabe T (2003). "Isolation and functional characterization of N-methyltransferases that catalyze betaine synthesis from glycine in a halotolerant photosynthetic organism Aphanothece halophytica." J Biol Chem 278(7);4932-42. PMID: 12466265

Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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