|Superclasses:||Reactions Classified By Conversion Type → Simple Reactions → Chemical Reactions|
|Reactions Classified By Substrate → Small-Molecule Reactions|
EC Number: 126.96.36.199
Enzymes and Genes:
|Actinopolyspora halophila:||dimethylglycine-betaine methyltransferase: AF216283|
|Aphanothece halophytica:||dimethylglycine-betaine methyltransferase: AB094498|
|Halorhodospira halochloris:||dimethylglycine-betaine methyltransferase: AF216282|
|Methanohalophilus portucalensis:||glycine/sarcosine/N,N-dimethylglycine methyltransferase|
188.8.131.52: 2 S-adenosyl-L-methionine + sarcosine → 2 S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + glycine betaine + 2 H+,
184.108.40.206: 3 S-adenosyl-L-methionine + glycine → 3 S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + glycine betaine + 3 H+
The direction shown, i.e. which substrates are on the left and right sides, is in accordance with the direction in which it was curated.
Most BioCyc compounds have been protonated to a reference pH value of 7.3. Please see the PGDB Concepts Guide for more information.
Mass balance status: Balanced.
Enzyme Commission Primary Name: dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase
Enzyme Commission Synonyms: BsmB, DMT
Standard Gibbs Free Energy (ΔrG'° in kcal/mol): -38.160004 [Latendresse13]
Enzyme Commission Summary:
This enzyme, from the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain WH8102, differs from EC 220.127.116.11, sarcosine/dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase in that it cannot use sarcosine as an alternative substrate [Lu06]. Betaine is a 'compatible solute' that enables cyanobacteria to cope with osmotic stress by maintaining a positive cellular turgor.
Lu06: Lu WD, Chi ZM, Su CD (2006). "Identification of glycine betaine as compatible solute in Synechococcus sp. WH8102 and characterization of its N-methyltransferase genes involved in betaine synthesis." Arch Microbiol 186(6);495-506. PMID: 17019606
Nyyssola00: Nyyssola A, Kerovuo J, Kaukinen P, von Weymarn N, Reinikainen T (2000). "Extreme halophiles synthesize betaine from glycine by methylation." J Biol Chem 2000;275(29);22196-201. PMID: 10896953
Nyyssola01: Nyyssola A, Reinikainen T, Leisola M (2001). "Characterization of glycine sarcosine N-methyltransferase and sarcosine dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase." Appl Environ Microbiol 67(5);2044-50. PMID: 11319079
Waditee03: Waditee R, Tanaka Y, Aoki K, Hibino T, Jikuya H, Takano J, Takabe T, Takabe T (2003). "Isolation and functional characterization of N-methyltransferases that catalyze betaine synthesis from glycine in a halotolerant photosynthetic organism Aphanothece halophytica." J Biol Chem 278(7);4932-42. PMID: 12466265
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