MetaCyc Reaction:

Superclasses: Reactions Classified By Conversion TypeSimple ReactionsChemical Reactions
Reactions Classified By SubstrateSmall-Molecule Reactions

EC Number:

Enzymes and Genes:

Homo sapiens: ketimine reductase mu-crystallinInferred from experiment: CRYM
Pseudomonas putida: Δ1-piperideine-2-carboxylate reductaseInferred from experiment: dpkA

In Pathway: L-lysine degradation V, L-lysine degradation II (L-pipecolate pathway)

The direction shown, i.e. which substrates are on the left and right sides, is in accordance with the Enzyme Commission system.

Most BioCyc compounds have been protonated to a reference pH value of 7.3. Please see the PGDB Concepts Guide for more information.

Mass balance status: Balanced.

Instance reaction:
L-pipecolate + NAD+ = 1-piperideine-2-carboxylate + NADH + 2 H+ (

Enzyme Commission Primary Name: pyrroline-2-carboxylate reductase

Enzyme Commission Synonyms: δ1-pyrroline-2-carboxylate reductase

Standard Gibbs Free Energy (ΔrG in kcal/mol): -24.103516Inferred by computational analysis [Latendresse13]

Enzyme Commission Summary:
The enzymes, characterized from from the bacterium Azospirillum brasilense, is involved in trans-3-hydroxy-L-proline metabolism. In contrast to EC, Δ1-piperideine-2-carboxylate reductase, which is specific for NADPH, this enzyme shows similar activity with NADPH and NADH.

Citations: [Watanabe14, Meister57]

Gene-Reaction Schematic

Gene-Reaction Schematic

Instance reaction of [L-pipecolate + NAD(P)+ ← 1-piperideine-2-carboxylate + NAD(P)H + 2 H+] (
i1: L-pipecolate + NAD+ = 1-piperideine-2-carboxylate + NADH + 2 H+ (

Unification Links: KEGG:R02203, Rhea:12524

Relationship Links: BRENDA:EC:, ENZYME:EC:, IUBMB-ExplorEnz:EC:


Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Meister57: Meister A, Radhakrishnan AN, Buckley SD (1957). "Enzymatic synthesis of L-pipecolic acid and L-proline." J Biol Chem 229(2);789-800. PMID: 13502341

Watanabe14: Watanabe S, Tanimoto Y, Yamauchi S, Tozawa Y, Sawayama S, Watanabe Y (2014). "Identification and characterization of trans-3-hydroxy-l-proline dehydratase and Δ(1)-pyrroline-2-carboxylate reductase involved in trans-3-hydroxy-l-proline metabolism of bacteria." FEBS Open Bio 4;240-50. PMID: 24649405

Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by Pathway Tools version 19.5 (software by SRI International) on Sat Nov 28, 2015, biocyc11.