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Updated BioCyc iOS App now
available in iTunes store
Updated BioCyc iOS App now
available in iTunes store
Updated BioCyc iOS App now
available in iTunes store
Updated BioCyc iOS App now
available in iTunes store

MetaCyc Reaction:

Superclasses: Reactions Classified By Conversion TypeSimple ReactionsChemical Reactions
Reactions Classified By SubstrateSmall-Molecule Reactions

EC Number:

Enzymes and Genes:

Homo sapiens: ketimine reductase mu-crystallinInferred from experiment: CRYM
Pseudomonas putida: Δ1-piperideine-2-carboxylate reductaseInferred from experiment: dpkA

In Pathway: L-lysine degradation V, L-lysine degradation II (L-pipecolate pathway)

The direction shown, i.e. which substrates are on the left and right sides, is in accordance with the Enzyme Commission system.

Most BioCyc compounds have been protonated to a reference pH value of 7.3. Please see the PGDB Concepts Guide for more information.

Mass balance status: Balanced.

Instance reaction:
L-pipecolate + NAD+ = 1-piperideine-2-carboxylate + NADH + 2 H+ (

Enzyme Commission Primary Name: pyrroline-2-carboxylate reductase

Enzyme Commission Synonyms: δ1-pyrroline-2-carboxylate reductase

Standard Gibbs Free Energy (ΔrG in kcal/mol): -24.103516Inferred by computational analysis [Latendresse13]

Enzyme Commission Summary:
The enzymes, characterized from from the bacterium Azospirillum brasilense, is involved in trans-3-hydroxy-L-proline metabolism. In contrast to EC, Δ1-piperideine-2-carboxylate reductase, which is specific for NADPH, this enzyme shows similar activity with NADPH and NADH.

Citations: [Watanabe14, Meister57]

Gene-Reaction Schematic

Gene-Reaction Schematic

Instance reaction of [L-pipecolate + NAD(P)+ ← 1-piperideine-2-carboxylate + NAD(P)H + 2 H+] (
i1: L-pipecolate + NAD+ = 1-piperideine-2-carboxylate + NADH + 2 H+ (

Unification Links: KEGG:R02203, Rhea:12524

Relationship Links: BRENDA:EC:, ENZYME:EC:, IUBMB-ExplorEnz:EC:


Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Meister57: Meister A, Radhakrishnan AN, Buckley SD (1957). "Enzymatic synthesis of L-pipecolic acid and L-proline." J Biol Chem 229(2);789-800. PMID: 13502341

Watanabe14: Watanabe S, Tanimoto Y, Yamauchi S, Tozawa Y, Sawayama S, Watanabe Y (2014). "Identification and characterization of trans-3-hydroxy-l-proline dehydratase and Δ(1)-pyrroline-2-carboxylate reductase involved in trans-3-hydroxy-l-proline metabolism of bacteria." FEBS Open Bio 4;240-50. PMID: 24649405

Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by Pathway Tools version 19.5 (software by SRI International) on Sun May 1, 2016, biocyc14.