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MetaCyc Reaction:

Superclasses: Reactions Classified By Conversion TypeSimple ReactionsChemical Reactions
Reactions Classified By SubstrateSmall-Molecule Reactions

EC Number:

Enzymes and Genes:

Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: alcohol dehydrogenase / acetaldehyde dehydrogenaseInferred from experiment: ADH1
Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824: alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenaseInferred from experiment: adhE
Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032:
Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655:
Glycine max: alcohol dehydrogenaseInferred from experiment
Homo sapiens: alcohol dehydrogenase 2Traceable author statement to experimental support: ADH1B
Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv: alcohol dehydrogenase: adhE
Nicotiana tabacum: alcohol dehydrogenaseInferred from experiment: ADH2
Pelobacter acetylenicus: alcohol dehydrogenaseInferred from experiment
Pisum sativum: alcohol dehydrogenaseInferred from experiment: adh
Ralstonia eutropha JMP134: furfuryl alcohol dehydrogenaseInferred from experiment: furX
Saccharomyces cerevisiae:
Solanum tuberosum: alcohol dehydrogenaseInferred from experiment: ADH1
Streptococcus mutans: NAD-dependent alcohol dehydrogenaseInferred from experiment: adhE
Zea mays: alcohol dehydrogenaseInferred from experiment: ADH1

In Pathway: ethanol degradation I, ethanol degradation II, pyruvate fermentation to ethanol I, pyruvate fermentation to ethanol II, acetylene degradation, mixed acid fermentation, pyruvate fermentation to ethanol III, superpathway of fermentation (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii), chitin degradation to ethanol, heterolactic fermentation, acetaldehyde biosynthesis I

Note that this reaction equation differs from the official Enzyme Commission reaction equations for this EC number, which can be found here and here .

The direction shown, i.e. which substrates are on the left and right sides, is in accordance with the direction in which it was curated.

Most BioCyc compounds have been protonated to a reference pH value of 7.3. Please see the PGDB Concepts Guide for more information.

Mass balance status: Balanced.

Direct generic reaction:
a primary alcohol + NAD+ ↔ an aldehyde + NADH + H+ (

Enzyme Commission Primary Name: alcohol dehydrogenase

Enzyme Commission Synonyms: aldehyde reductase, ADH, alcohol dehydrogenase (NAD), aliphatic alcohol dehydrogenase, ethanol dehydrogenase, NAD-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase, NAD-specific aromatic alcohol dehydrogenase, NADH-alcohol dehydrogenase, NADH-aldehyde dehydrogenase, primary alcohol dehydrogenase, yeast alcohol dehydrogenase

Standard Gibbs Free Energy (ΔrG in kcal/mol): 3.1017761Inferred by computational analysis [Latendresse13]

Enzyme Commission Summary:
A zinc protein. Acts on primary or secondary alcohols or hemi-acetals with very broad specificity; however the enzyme oxidizes methanol much more poorly than ethanol. The animal, but not the yeast, enzyme acts also on cyclic secondary alcohols.

Citations: [Jornvall77, THEORELL58]

Unification Links: KEGG:R00754, Rhea:25290

Relationship Links: BRENDA:EC:, ENZYME:EC:, IUBMB-ExplorEnz:EC:


Jornvall77: Jornvall H (1977). "Differences between alcohol dehydrogenases. Structural properties and evolutionary aspects." Eur J Biochem 72(3);443-52. PMID: 320001

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

THEORELL58: THEORELL H (1958). "Kinetics and equilibria in the liver alcohol dehydrogenase system." Adv Enzymol Relat Subj Biochem 20;31-49. PMID: 13605979

Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by Pathway Tools version 19.5 (software by SRI International) on Fri Apr 29, 2016, biocyc14.