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Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
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MetaCyc Reaction:

Superclasses: Reactions Classified By Conversion Type Simple Reactions Chemical Reactions
Reactions Classified By Substrate Small-Molecule Reactions

EC Number:

Enzymes and Genes:
fatty acyl-CoA synthetase Inferred from experiment : fadD ( Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 )
short chain acyl-CoA synthetase Inferred by computational analysis Inferred from experiment : fadK ( Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 )
acyl-CoA synthetase Inferred from experiment : FAA2 ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae )
Long-chain-fatty-acid--CoA ligase 3 : ACSL3 ( Homo sapiens )
Long-chain-fatty-acid--CoA ligase 6 : ACSL6 ( Homo sapiens )
Long-chain-fatty-acid--CoA ligase 5 : ACSL5 ( Homo sapiens )
Long-chain-fatty-acid--CoA ligase 4 : ACSL4 ( Homo sapiens )
fatty-acid-Coenzyme A ligase, long-chain 6 : FACL6 ( Homo sapiens )
Long-chain-fatty-acid--CoA ligase ACSBG1 : ACSBG1 ( Homo sapiens )
Long-chain-fatty-acid--CoA ligase ACSBG2 : ACSBG2 ( Homo sapiens )
very long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase Inferred from experiment : SLC27A2 ( Homo sapiens )
long-chain-fatty-acid--CoA ligase 1 Inferred from experiment : ACSL1 ( Homo sapiens )
acyl-CoA synthetase Inferred from experiment : LACS7 ( Arabidopsis thaliana col )
acyl-CoA synthetase Inferred from experiment : LACS6 ( Arabidopsis thaliana col )
acyl-CoA synthetase Inferred from experiment : alkK ( Pseudomonas oleovorans )

In Pathway: fatty acid β-oxidation I , fatty acid β-oxidation II (peroxisome) , fatty acid β-oxidation VI (peroxisome) , fatty acid β-oxidation (peroxisome, yeast)

Note that this reaction equation differs from the official Enzyme Commission reaction equation for this EC number, which can be found here .

The reaction direction shown, that is, A + B ↔ C + D versus C + D ↔ A + B, is in accordance with the Enzyme Commission system.

Mass balance status: Balanced.

Instance reactions:
phytanate + ATP + coenzyme A → phytanoyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate (

octanoate + ATP + coenzyme A → octanoyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate (

decanoate + ATP + coenzyme A → decanoyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate (

hexanoate + ATP + coenzyme A → hexanoyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate (6.2.1.-)

palmitate + ATP + coenzyme A → palmitoyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate (

pristanate + ATP + coenzyme A → pristanoyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate (

Enzyme Commission Primary Name: long-chain-fatty-acid—CoA ligase

Enzyme Commission Synonyms: acyl-CoA synθse, fatty acid thiokinase (long chain), acyl-activating enzyme, palmitoyl-CoA synthase, lignoceroyl-CoA synthase, arachidonyl-CoA synθse, acyl coenzyme A synθse, acyl-CoA ligase, palmitoyl coenzyme A synθse, thiokinase, palmitoyl-CoA ligase, acyl-coenzyme A ligase, fatty acid CoA ligase, long-chain fatty acyl coenzyme A synθse, oleoyl-CoA synθse, stearoyl-CoA synθse, long chain fatty acyl-CoA synθse, long-chain acyl CoA synθse, fatty acid elongase, LCFA synθse, pristanoyl-CoA synθse, ACS3, long-chain acyl-CoA synθse I, long-chain acyl-CoA synθse II, fatty acyl-coenzyme A synθse, long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synθse, FAA1

Standard Gibbs Free Energy (ΔrG in kcal/mol): -331.11646 Inferred by computational analysis [Latendresse13]

Enzyme Commission Summary:
Acts on a wide range of long-chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, but the enzymes from different tissues show some variation in specificity. The liver enzyme acts on acids from C6 to C20; that from brain shows high activity up to C24.

Citations: [Bakken89, Hosaka79, Nagamatsu85, Tanaka79]

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?

Relationship Links: BRENDA:EC: , ENZYME:EC: , IUBMB-ExplorEnz:EC: , UniProt:RELATED-TO:O15840 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:O30039 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:O51162 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:O51539 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:O60135 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:O81614 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:O83181 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P18163 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P30624 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P33121 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P33124 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P39002 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P39518 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P44446 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P47912 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P69451 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P69452 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P73004 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P94547 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q8JZR0 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q96338 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q96537 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q96538 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q9CHR0 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q9JTK0 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q9JYJ7 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q9RTR4 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q9RYK3 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q9T009 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q9T0A0 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q9X7Y5 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q9X7Z0 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q9YCF0 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q9ZBW6 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q02602 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q10776


Bakken89: Bakken AM, Farstad M (1989). "Identical subcellular distribution of palmitoyl-CoA and arachidonoyl-CoA synthetase activities in human blood platelets." Biochem J 261(1);71-6. PMID: 2528345

Hosaka79: Hosaka K, Mishina M, Tanaka T, Kamiryo T, Numa S (1979). "Acyl-coenzyme-A synthetase I from Candida lipolytica. Purification, properties and immunochemical studies." Eur J Biochem 93(1);197-203. PMID: 108099

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Nagamatsu85: Nagamatsu K, Soeda S, Mori M, Kishimoto Y (1985). "Lignoceroyl-coenzyme A synthetase from developing rat brain: partial purification, characterization and comparison with palmitoyl-coenzyme A synthetase activity and liver enzyme." Biochim Biophys Acta 836(1);80-8. PMID: 3161545

Tanaka79: Tanaka T, Hosaka K, Hoshimaru M, Numa S (1979). "Purification and properties of long-chain acyl-coenzyme-A synthetase from rat liver." Eur J Biochem 98(1);165-72. PMID: 467438

Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 18.5 on Fri Feb 27, 2015, biocyc12.