This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Fatty Acid and Lipid Biosynthesis → Phospholipid Biosynthesis → Phosphatidylglycerol Biosynthesis|
Phosphatidylglycerol is the only phospholipid found in chloroplast thylakoids, and is critical for the structural and functional integrity of the thylakoid membranes.
The acyl donors for the two acyltransferase reactions leading to the formation of a 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate, the precursor of phosphatidylglycerol, can be either an acyl-ACP or an acyl-CoA, depending on the location of the pathway. In plants the biosynthesis of phosphatidylglycerol can occur at three subcellular locations - chloroplast, mitochondrion and ER. In the plastid (see phosphatidylglycerol biosynthesis I (plastidic)), phosphatidylglycerol is assembled de novo from the newly synthesized fatty acids, and acyl-ACPs are the acyl donors [Xu06]. In the non-plastidic pathway depicted here acyl-CoA are used as the acyl-donor [Moore82].
Superpathways: superpathway of phospholipid biosynthesis II (plants)
Subpathways: CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthesis I
Xu06: Xu C, Yu B, Cornish AJ, Froehlich JE, Benning C (2006). "Phosphatidylglycerol biosynthesis in chloroplasts of Arabidopsis mutants deficient in acyl-ACP glycerol-3- phosphate acyltransferase." Plant J 47(2);296-309. PMID: 16774646
Babiychuk03: Babiychuk E, Muller F, Eubel H, Braun HP, Frentzen M, Kushnir S (2003). "Arabidopsis phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthase 1 is essential for chloroplast differentiation, but is dispensable for mitochondrial function." Plant J 33(5);899-909. PMID: 12609031
Beisson07: Beisson F, Li Y, Bonaventure G, Pollard M, Ohlrogge JB (2007). "The acyltransferase GPAT5 is required for the synthesis of suberin in seed coat and root of Arabidopsis." Plant Cell 19(1);351-68. PMID: 17259262
Brown02b: Brown AP, Carnaby S, Brough C, Brazier M, Slabas AR (2002). "Limnanthes douglasii lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferases: immunological quantification, acyl selectivity and functional replacement of the Escherichia coli plsC gene." Biochem J 364(Pt 3);795-805. PMID: 12049644
Clark80: Clark D, Lightner V, Edgar R, Modrich P, Cronan JE, Bell RM (1980). "Regulation of phospholipid biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. Cloning of the structural gene for the biosynthetic sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase." J Biol Chem 255(2);714-7. PMID: 6985897
Eccleston95: Eccleston VS, Harwood JL (1995). "Solubilisation, partial purification and properties of acyl-CoA: glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase from avocado (Persea americana) fruit mesocarp." Biochim Biophys Acta 1995;1257(1);1-10. PMID: 7599174
Edgar78a: Edgar JR, Bell RM (1978). "Biosynthesis in Escherichia coli of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate, a precursor of phospholipid. Kinetic characterization of wild type and feedback-resistant forms of the biosynthetic sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase." J Biol Chem 253(18);6354-63. PMID: 28326
Edgar79: Edgar JR, Bell RM (1979). "Biosynthesis in Escherichia coli of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate, a precursor of phospholipid. Palmitoyl-CoA inhibition of the biosynthetic sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase." J Biol Chem 1979;254(4);1016-21. PMID: 368067
Edgar80: Edgar JR, Bell RM (1980). "Biosynthesis in Escherichia coli of sn-glycerol-3-phosphate, a precursor of phospholipid. Further kinetic characterization of wild type and feedback-resistant forms of the biosynthetic sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase." J Biol Chem 255(8);3492-7. PMID: 6767719
Funk92: Funk CR, Zimniak L, Dowhan W (1992). "The pgpA and pgpB genes of Escherichia coli are not essential: evidence for a third phosphatidylglycerophosphate phosphatase." J Bacteriol 1992;174(1);205-13. PMID: 1309518
Gopalakrishnan86: Gopalakrishnan AS, Chen YC, Temkin M, Dowhan W (1986). "Structure and expression of the gene locus encoding the phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthase of Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 1986;261(3);1329-38. PMID: 3003065
Green81: Green PR, Merrill AH, Bell RM (1981). "Membrane phospholipid synthesis in Escherichia coli. Purification, reconstitution, and characterization of sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase." J Biol Chem 1981;256(21);11151-9. PMID: 7026564
Green84: Green PR, Bell RM (1984). "The triose-phosphate site of homogeneous reconstituted sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase of Escherichia coli." Biochim Biophys Acta 1984;795(2);348-55. PMID: 6383480
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