MetaCyc Pathway: phosphatidylglycerol biosynthesis II (non-plastidic)
Inferred from experiment

Enzyme View:

Pathway diagram: phosphatidylglycerol biosynthesis II (non-plastidic)

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Superclasses: BiosynthesisFatty Acid and Lipid BiosynthesisPhospholipid BiosynthesisPhosphatidylglycerol Biosynthesis

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Arabidopsis thaliana col, Glycine max, Limnanthes douglasii, Pisum sativum, Ricinus communis, Triticum aestivum, Vigna radiata radiata

Expected Taxonomic Range: Bacteria , Eukaryota

Phosphatidylglycerol is the only phospholipid found in chloroplast thylakoids, and is critical for the structural and functional integrity of the thylakoid membranes.

The acyl donors for the two acyltransferase reactions leading to the formation of a 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate, the precursor of phosphatidylglycerol, can be either an acyl-ACP or an acyl-CoA, depending on the location of the pathway. In plants the biosynthesis of phosphatidylglycerol can occur at three subcellular locations - chloroplast, mitochondrion and ER. In the plastid (see phosphatidylglycerol biosynthesis I (plastidic)), phosphatidylglycerol is assembled de novo from the newly synthesized fatty acids, and acyl-ACPs are the acyl donors [Xu06b]. In the non-plastidic pathway depicted here acyl-CoA are used as the acyl-donor [Moore82].

Superpathways: superpathway of phospholipid biosynthesis II (plants)

Subpathways: CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthesis I

Variants: phosphatidylglycerol biosynthesis I (plastidic)

Created 29-Sep-2008 by Zhang P, TAIR


Moore82: Moore, Thomas S. Jr. (1982). "Phospholipid biosynthesis." Annual Review of Plant Physiology, 1982, 33: 235-259.

Xu06b: Xu C, Yu B, Cornish AJ, Froehlich JE, Benning C (2006). "Phosphatidylglycerol biosynthesis in chloroplasts of Arabidopsis mutants deficient in acyl-ACP glycerol-3- phosphate acyltransferase." Plant J 47(2);296-309. PMID: 16774646

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Babiychuk03: Babiychuk E, Muller F, Eubel H, Braun HP, Frentzen M, Kushnir S (2003). "Arabidopsis phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthase 1 is essential for chloroplast differentiation, but is dispensable for mitochondrial function." Plant J 33(5);899-909. PMID: 12609031

Beisson07: Beisson F, Li Y, Bonaventure G, Pollard M, Ohlrogge JB (2007). "The acyltransferase GPAT5 is required for the synthesis of suberin in seed coat and root of Arabidopsis." Plant Cell 19(1);351-68. PMID: 17259262

BRENDA14: BRENDA team (2014). Imported from BRENDA version existing on Aug 2014.

Brown02a: Brown AP, Carnaby S, Brough C, Brazier M, Slabas AR (2002). "Limnanthes douglasii lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferases: immunological quantification, acyl selectivity and functional replacement of the Escherichia coli plsC gene." Biochem J 364(Pt 3);795-805. PMID: 12049644

Chang67: Chang YY, Kennedy EP (1967). "Phosphatidyl glycerophosphate phosphatase." J Lipid Res 8(5);456-62. PMID: 4292860

Clark80a: Clark D, Lightner V, Edgar R, Modrich P, Cronan JE, Bell RM (1980). "Regulation of phospholipid biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. Cloning of the structural gene for the biosynthetic sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase." J Biol Chem 255(2);714-7. PMID: 6985897

Coleman90: Coleman J (1990). "Characterization of Escherichia coli cells deficient in 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3- phosphate acyltransferase activity." J Biol Chem 1990;265(28);17215-21. PMID: 2211622

COMMUNICATION: TIGR Arabidopsis annotation team Communication.

COMMUNICATIONa: communication,

Douce72: Douce, Roland, Mannella, Carmen, Bonner, Walter D (1972). "Site of the biosynthesis of CDP-diglyceride in plant mitochondria." Biochem. Biophys. Res. Communications.

Dowhan92: Dowhan W (1992). "Phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthase from Escherichia coli." Methods Enzymol 1992;209;313-21. PMID: 1323047

Dowhan92a: Dowhan W, Funk CR (1992). "Phosphatidylglycerophosphate phosphatase from Escherichia coli." Methods Enzymol 209;224-30. PMID: 1323035

Eccleston95: Eccleston VS, Harwood JL (1995). "Solubilisation, partial purification and properties of acyl-CoA: glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase from avocado (Persea americana) fruit mesocarp." Biochim Biophys Acta 1995;1257(1);1-10. PMID: 7599174

Edgar78: Edgar JR, Bell RM (1978). "Biosynthesis in Escherichia coli fo sn-glycerol 3-phosphate, a precursor of phospholipid." J Biol Chem 1978;253(18);6348-53. PMID: 355254

Edgar78a: Edgar JR, Bell RM (1978). "Biosynthesis in Escherichia coli of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate, a precursor of phospholipid. Kinetic characterization of wild type and feedback-resistant forms of the biosynthetic sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase." J Biol Chem 253(18);6354-63. PMID: 28326

Edgar79: Edgar JR, Bell RM (1979). "Biosynthesis in Escherichia coli of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate, a precursor of phospholipid. Palmitoyl-CoA inhibition of the biosynthetic sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase." J Biol Chem 1979;254(4);1016-21. PMID: 368067

Edgar80: Edgar JR, Bell RM (1980). "Biosynthesis in Escherichia coli of sn-glycerol-3-phosphate, a precursor of phospholipid. Further kinetic characterization of wild type and feedback-resistant forms of the biosynthetic sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase." J Biol Chem 255(8);3492-7. PMID: 6767719

Funk92: Funk CR, Zimniak L, Dowhan W (1992). "The pgpA and pgpB genes of Escherichia coli are not essential: evidence for a third phosphatidylglycerophosphate phosphatase." J Bacteriol 1992;174(1);205-13. PMID: 1309518

Gopalakrishnan86: Gopalakrishnan AS, Chen YC, Temkin M, Dowhan W (1986). "Structure and expression of the gene locus encoding the phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthase of Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 1986;261(3);1329-38. PMID: 3003065

Green81: Green PR, Merrill AH, Bell RM (1981). "Membrane phospholipid synthesis in Escherichia coli. Purification, reconstitution, and characterization of sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase." J Biol Chem 1981;256(21);11151-9. PMID: 7026564

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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