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MetaCyc Pathway: L-tyrosine degradation III
Inferred from experiment

Pathway diagram: L-tyrosine degradation III

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Superclasses: Degradation/Utilization/AssimilationAmino Acids DegradationProteinogenic Amino Acids DegradationL-tyrosine Degradation

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Expected Taxonomic Range: Fungi

While Saccharomyces cerevisiae can utilize only a limited range of carbon sources [Barnett92] it can obtain its nitrogen from many different sources, including most amino acids [Large68]. The most common mechanism for retreiving the nitrogen from amino acids is transamination, using 2-oxoglutarate or other 2-oxo acids as amino acceptors. This process leaves the carbon skeleton of the amino acid intact, in the form of a 2-oxo acid. In a few cases the resulting 2-oxo acid can be directly fed into central metabolism (such as the case of L-alanine and its derived 2-keto acid, pyruvate). In most cases, though, the 2-oxo acids resulting from transamination are not intermediates of central metabolism, and are excreted from the cells after some transformation.

An important and common pathway for catabolism of amino acids by yeast is the Ehrlich pathway [Ehrlich07]. In this pathway, following transamination of an amino acid into the corresponding 2-oxo acid, the 2-oxo acid is decarboxylated to an aldehyde. Depending on the redox status of the cells [Vuralhan03], the aldehydes can then be either reduced (by alcohol dehydrogenases) to alcohols, which are called collectively "fusel alcohols", or oxidized by aldehyde dehydrogenases to organic acids ("fusel acids") [Vuralhan05].

This pathway illustrates the Ehrlich pathway for L-tyrosine. The first reaction of this pathway can be catalyzed by both the constitutive aromatic amino acid aminotransferase I ( ARO8) and the inducible aromatic amino acid aminotransferase II ( ARO9) [Kradolfer82].

In vitro studies demonstrated that Aro9p is active with 2-oxo-3-phenylpropanoate, pyruvate, or 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate, but not 2-oxoglutarate as the amino acceptor, while Aro8p is active with 2-oxo-3-phenylpropanoate, pyruvate, or 2-oxoglutarate [Kradolfer82].

Aro9p is induced by aromatic amino acids and is subject to nitrogen regulation [Kradolfer82, Iraqui99].

Citations: [Sentheshanmugan60, Urrestarazu98, Iraqui98 ]

Variants: L-tyrosine degradation I, L-tyrosine degradation II, L-tyrosine degradation IV (to 4-methylphenol)

Created 16-May-2006 by Krieger CJ, Saccharomyces Genome Database
Revised 09-Jan-2008 by Caspi R, SRI International


Barnett92: Barnett JA (1992). "Some controls on oligosaccharide utilization by yeasts: the physiological basis of the Kluyver effect." FEMS Microbiol Lett 79(1-3);371-8. PMID: 1478472

Ehrlich07: Ehrlich, F. (1907). "Uber die Bedingungen der Fuselolbildung und uber ihren Zusammenhang mit dem Eiweissaufbau der Hefe." Ber. Dtsch. Chem. Ges. 40:1027-1047.

Iraqui98: Iraqui I, Vissers S, Cartiaux M, Urrestarazu A (1998). "Characterisation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ARO8 and ARO9 genes encoding aromatic aminotransferases I and II reveals a new aminotransferase subfamily." Mol Gen Genet 257(2);238-48. PMID: 9491083

Iraqui99: Iraqui I, Vissers S, Andre B, Urrestarazu A (1999). "Transcriptional induction by aromatic amino acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Mol Cell Biol 19(5);3360-71. PMID: 10207060

Kradolfer82: Kradolfer P, Niederberger P, Hutter R (1982). "Tryptophan degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: characterization of two aromatic aminotransferases." Arch Microbiol 133(3);242-8. PMID: 6763508

Large68: Large, P. J. (1968). "Degradation of organic nitrogen compounds by yeasts." Yeast 2:1-34.

Sentheshanmugan58: Sentheshanmuganathan, S., Eldsen, S.R. (1958). "The mechanism of the formation of tyrosol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Biochem J 69(2);210-8. PMID: 13546168

Sentheshanmugan60: Sentheshanmuganathan, S. (1960). "The purification and properties of the tyrosine-2-oxoglutarate transaminase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Biochem J 77;619-25. PMID: 13750129

Urrestarazu98: Urrestarazu A, Vissers S, Iraqui I, Grenson M (1998). "Phenylalanine- and tyrosine-auxotrophic mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae impaired in transamination." Mol Gen Genet 257(2);230-7. PMID: 9491082

Vuralhan03: Vuralhan Z, Morais MA, Tai SL, Piper MD, Pronk JT (2003). "Identification and characterization of phenylpyruvate decarboxylase genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Appl Environ Microbiol 69(8);4534-41. PMID: 12902239

Vuralhan05: Vuralhan Z, Luttik MA, Tai SL, Boer VM, Morais MA, Schipper D, Almering MJ, Kotter P, Dickinson JR, Daran JM, Pronk JT (2005). "Physiological characterization of the ARO10-dependent, broad-substrate-specificity 2-oxo acid decarboxylase activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Appl Environ Microbiol 71(6);3276-84. PMID: 15933030

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Andersson82: Andersson SM, Pispa JP (1982). "Purification and properties of human liver tyrosine aminotransferase." Clin Chim Acta 125(2);117-23. PMID: 6128088

Bennetzen82: Bennetzen JL, Hall BD (1982). "The primary structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene for alcohol dehydrogenase." J Biol Chem 257(6);3018-25. PMID: 6277922

Blakley77: Blakley ER (1977). "The catabolism of L-tyrosine by an Arthrobacter sp." Can J Microbiol 23(9);1128-39. PMID: 20216

Boer03: Boer VM, de Winde JH, Pronk JT, Piper MD (2003). "The genome-wide transcriptional responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown on glucose in aerobic chemostat cultures limited for carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, or sulfur." J Biol Chem 278(5);3265-74. PMID: 12414795

Cheraiti08: Cheraiti N, Sauvage FX, Salmon JM (2008). "Acetaldehyde addition throughout the growth phase alleviates the phenotypic effect of zinc deficiency in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 77(5);1093-109. PMID: 17938904

Collier72: Collier RH, Kohlhaw G (1972). "Nonidentity of the aspartate and the aromatic aminotransferase components of transaminase A in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1972;112(1);365-71. PMID: 4404056

DeEknamkul87: De-Eknamkul W, Ellis BE (1987). "Purification and characterization of tyrosine aminotransferase activities from Anchusa officinalis cell cultures." Arch Biochem Biophys 257(2);430-8. PMID: 2889425

DeEknamkul87a: De-Eknamkul W, Ellis BE (1987). "Tyrosine aminotransferase: the entrypoint enzyme of the tyrosine-derived pathway in rosmarinic acid biosynthesis." Phytochemistry, 26(7), 1941-1946.

Dickinson03: Dickinson JR, Salgado LE, Hewlins MJ (2003). "The catabolism of amino acids to long chain and complex alcohols in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." J Biol Chem 278(10);8028-34. PMID: 12499363

Dickinson98: Dickinson JR, Harrison SJ, Hewlins MJ (1998). "An investigation of the metabolism of valine to isobutyl alcohol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." J Biol Chem 273(40);25751-6. PMID: 9748245

Dietrich91: Dietrich JB, Lorber B, Kern D (1991). "Expression of mammalian tyrosine aminotransferase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli. Purification to homogeneity and characterization of the enzyme overproduced in the bacteria." Eur J Biochem 201(2);399-407. PMID: 1682148

Drewke88: Drewke C, Ciriacy M (1988). "Overexpression, purification and properties of alcohol dehydrogenase IV from Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Biochim Biophys Acta 950(1);54-60. PMID: 3282541

Fauchon02: Fauchon M, Lagniel G, Aude JC, Lombardia L, Soularue P, Petat C, Marguerie G, Sentenac A, Werner M, Labarre J (2002). "Sulfur sparing in the yeast proteome in response to sulfur demand." Mol Cell 9(4);713-23. PMID: 11983164

Feldmann94: Feldmann H, Aigle M, Aljinovic G, Andre B, Baclet MC, Barthe C, Baur A, Becam AM, Biteau N, Boles E (1994). "Complete DNA sequence of yeast chromosome II." EMBO J 13(24);5795-809. PMID: 7813418

Flikweert96: Flikweert MT, Van Der Zanden L, Janssen WM, Steensma HY, Van Dijken JP, Pronk JT (1996). "Pyruvate decarboxylase: an indispensable enzyme for growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on glucose." Yeast 12(3);247-57. PMID: 8904337

Ganzhorn87: Ganzhorn AJ, Green DW, Hershey AD, Gould RM, Plapp BV (1987). "Kinetic characterization of yeast alcohol dehydrogenases. Amino acid residue 294 and substrate specificity." J Biol Chem 262(8);3754-61. PMID: 3546317

Gelfand77: Gelfand DH, Steinberg RA (1977). "Escherichia coli mutants deficient in the aspartate and aromatic amino acid aminotransferases." J Bacteriol 1977;130(1);429-40. PMID: 15983

Gu98: Gu W, Song J, Bonner CA, Xie G, Jensen RA (1998). "PhhC is an essential aminotransferase for aromatic amino acid catabolism in Pseudomonas aeruginosa." Microbiology 144 ( Pt 11);3127-34. PMID: 9846749

Hohmann91: Hohmann S (1991). "Characterization of PDC6, a third structural gene for pyruvate decarboxylase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." J Bacteriol 173(24);7963-9. PMID: 1744053

Huh03: Huh WK, Falvo JV, Gerke LC, Carroll AS, Howson RW, Weissman JS, O'Shea EK (2003). "Global analysis of protein localization in budding yeast." Nature 425(6959);686-91. PMID: 14562095

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by Pathway Tools version 19.5 (software by SRI International) on Sat Apr 30, 2016, biocyc14.