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MetaCyc Pathway: arginine dependent acid resistance
Inferred from experiment

Pathway diagram: arginine dependent acid resistance

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Superclasses: DetoxificationAcid Resistance

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655

Expected Taxonomic Range: Bacteria

Enteric bacteria must be able to survive extremely acidic conditions in order pass through the stomachs of their hosts. Escherichia coli contains acid resistance systems in order to maintain an internal pH of about 4.0 to 5.0 in a highly acidic environment with a pH of 2.0 to 2.5. Acid resistance system 3 (AR3) is the arginine-dependent acid resistance system which couples the transport activity of an arginine:agmatine antiporter, AdiC, with arginine decarboxylase, AdiA. AdiC functions by exchanging external arginine for internal agmatine. Arginine is imported into the cell through AdiC. Within the cell arginine is decarboxylated by AdiA to agmatine, releasing CO2 and replacing it with a proton. Agmatine is then exported through AdiC. This effectively consumes protons within the cytoplasm, raising the pH. An additional effect of the acid resistance systems that may be more important for survival is a reversal of the membrane potential such that a build-up of positive charges within the cell due to influx of protons and increased agmatine concentrations will counteract proton influx beyond a certain limit. ClC chloride channels provide a control mechanism to help maintain appropriate membrane potential by mediating chloride import coupled to proton export. AR2 is more efficient than AR3 or AR4 as a mediator of acid resistance at low pH. [Foster04, Richard03]

Citations: [Stim93]

Unification Links: EcoCyc:PWY0-1299

Created 13-Feb-2007 by Johnson A, TIGR


Foster04: Foster JW (2004). "Escherichia coli acid resistance: tales of an amateur acidophile." Nat Rev Microbiol 2(11);898-907. PMID: 15494746

Richard03: Richard HT, Foster JW (2003). "Acid resistance in Escherichia coli." Adv Appl Microbiol 52;167-86. PMID: 12964244

Stim93: Stim KP, Bennett GN (1993). "Nucleotide sequence of the adi gene, which encodes the biodegradative acid-induced arginine decarboxylase of Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1993;175(5);1221-34. PMID: 8383109

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Andrell09: Andrell J, Hicks MG, Palmer T, Carpenter EP, Iwata S, Maher MJ (2009). "Crystal structure of the acid-induced arginine decarboxylase from Escherichia coli: reversible decamer assembly controls enzyme activity." Biochemistry 48(18);3915-27. PMID: 19298070

Bell90: Bell E, Malmberg RL (1990). "Analysis of a cDNA encoding arginine decarboxylase from oat reveals similarity to the Escherichia coli arginine decarboxylase and evidence of protein processing." Mol Gen Genet 224(3);431-6. PMID: 2266946

Bitonti87: Bitonti AJ, Casara PJ, McCann PP, Bey P (1987). "Catalytic irreversible inhibition of bacterial and plant arginine decarboxylase activities by novel substrate and product analogues." Biochem J 1987;242(1);69-74. PMID: 3297044

Blethen68: Blethen SL, Boeker EA, Snell EE (1968). "Argenine decarboxylase from Escherichia coli. I. Purification and specificity for substrates and coenzyme." J Biol Chem 1968;243(8);1671-7. PMID: 4870599

Boeker68: Boeker EA, Snell EE (1968). "Arginine decarboxylase from Escherichia coli. II. Dissociation and reassociation of subunits." J Biol Chem 243(8);1678-84. PMID: 4870600

BRENDA14: BRENDA team (2014). Imported from BRENDA version existing on Aug 2014.

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Forouhar10: Forouhar F, Lew S, Seetharaman J, Xiao R, Acton TB, Montelione GT, Tong L (2010). "Structures of bacterial biosynthetic arginine decarboxylases." Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun 66(Pt 12);1562-6. PMID: 21139196

Fukuda08: Fukuda W, Morimoto N, Imanaka T, Fujiwara S (2008). "Agmatine is essential for the cell growth of Thermococcus kodakaraensis." FEMS Microbiol Lett 287(1);113-20. PMID: 18702616

Giles07: Giles TN, Graham DE (2007). "Characterization of an acid-dependent arginine decarboxylase enzyme from Chlamydophila pneumoniae." J Bacteriol 189(20);7376-83. PMID: 17693492

GOA01: GOA, MGI (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation based on Enzyme Commission mapping." Genomics 74;121-128.

GOA01a: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

Gong03: Gong S, Richard H, Foster JW (2003). "YjdE (AdiC) is the arginine:agmatine antiporter essential for arginine-dependent acid resistance in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 185(15);4402-9. PMID: 12867448

Hanfrey11: Hanfrey CC, Pearson BM, Hazeldine S, Lee J, Gaskin DJ, Woster PM, Phillips MA, Michael AJ (2011). "Alternative spermidine biosynthetic route is critical for growth of Campylobacter jejuni and is the dominant polyamine pathway in human gut microbiota." J Biol Chem 286(50);43301-12. PMID: 22025614

Helmward89: Helmward Z "Handbook of Enzyme Inhibitors. 2nd, revised and enlarged edition." Weinheim, Federal Republic of Germany ; New York, NY, USA , 1989.

Lasserre06: Lasserre JP, Beyne E, Pyndiah S, Lapaillerie D, Claverol S, Bonneu M (2006). "A complexomic study of Escherichia coli using two-dimensional blue native/SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis." Electrophoresis 27(16);3306-21. PMID: 16858726

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Melnykovych58: Melnykovych G, Snell EE (1958). "Nutritional requirements for the formation of arginine decarboxylase in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 76(5);518-23. PMID: 13598712

Mo02: Mo H, Pua EC (2002). "Up-regulation of arginine decarboxylase gene expression and accumulation of polyamines in mustard (Brassica juncea)in response to stress." Physiol Plant 114(3);439-449. PMID: 12060267

Morris66: Morris DR, Pardee AB (1966). "Multiple pathways of putrescine biosynthesis in Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 241(13);3129-35. PMID: 5330264

Showing only 20 references. To show more, press the button "Show all references".

Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by Pathway Tools version 19.5 (software by SRI International) on Sat Apr 30, 2016, biocyc14.