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MetaCyc Pathway: salicylate biosynthesis II
Inferred from experiment

Enzyme View:

Pathway diagram: salicylate biosynthesis II

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Synonyms: salicylic acid biosynthesis

Superclasses: BiosynthesisAromatic Compounds Biosynthesis
BiosynthesisSecondary Metabolites BiosynthesisPhenylpropanoid Derivatives BiosynthesisBenzenoids BiosynthesisSalicylate Biosynthesis

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Arabidopsis thaliana col, Catharanthus roseus, Cucumis sativus, Nicotiana tabacum

Expected Taxonomic Range: Bacteria , Viridiplantae

Salicylate is common throughout the plant kingdom and is also found in bacteria. It is an important regulator of induced plant resistance to pathogens.

Salicylic acid can be synthesized from cinnamate. Previous isotope feeding experiments in tobacco and other higher plants, including rice, demonstrated that the direct precursor of salicylic acid is free benzoic acid [Yalpani93, Ribnicky98]. Benzoic acid is synthesized by cinnamate chain shortening reactions via the so-called β-oxidation, analogous to fatty acid β-oxidation [Jarvis00]. Benzoic acid is then converted to salicylic acid by benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase [Leon95]. Recent studies in tobacco indicated that conjugated benzoic acid, CoA thioesters or glucose esters, are more likely to be the precursors of salicylic acid [Chong01]. More recent genetic studies in Arabidopsis have shown that salicylic acid can also be synthesized from chorismate and that the bulk of salicylic acid is produced from chorismate (see salicylate biosynthesis I) [Wildermuth01, Metraux02].

Variants: salicylate biosynthesis I, salicylate glucosides biosynthesis I, salicylate glucosides biosynthesis II, salicylate glucosides biosynthesis III, salicylate glucosides biosynthesis IV

Unification Links: AraCyc:PWY-981


Chong01: Chong J, Pierrel MA, Atanassova R, Werck-Reichhart D, Fritig B, Saindrenan P (2001). "Free and conjugated benzoic acid in tobacco plants and cell cultures. induced accumulation upon elicitation of defense responses and role as salicylic acid precursors." Plant Physiol 125(1);318-28. PMID: 11154339

Jarvis00: Jarvis AP, Schaaf O, Oldham NJ (2000). "3-hydroxy-3-phenylpropanoic acid is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of benzoic acid and salicylic acid but benzaldehyde is not." Planta 212(1);119-26. PMID: 11219576

Leon95: Leon J, Shulaev V, Yalpani N, Lawton MA, Raskin I (1995). "Benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase, a soluble oxygenase from tobacco, catalyzes salicylic acid biosynthesis." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92(22);10413-7. PMID: 7479795

Metraux02: Metraux JP (2002). "Recent breakthroughs in the study of salicylic acid biosynthesis." Trends Plant Sci 7(8);332-4. PMID: 12167322

Ribnicky98: Ribnicky DM, Shulaev V, Raskin I (1998). "Intermediates of salicylic acid biosynthesis in tobacco." Plant Physiol 118(2);565-72. PMID: 9765542

Wildermuth01: Wildermuth MC, Dewdney J, Wu G, Ausubel FM (2001). "Isochorismate synthase is required to synthesize salicylic acid for plant defence." Nature 414(6863);562-5. PMID: 11734859

Yalpani93: Yalpani N, Leon J, Lawton MA, Raskin I (1993). "Pathway of Salicylic Acid Biosynthesis in Healthy and Virus-Inoculated Tobacco." Plant Physiol 103(2);315-321. PMID: 12231938

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Rubio06: Rubio S, Larson TR, Gonzalez-Guzman M, Alejandro S, Graham IA, Serrano R, Rodriguez PL (2006). "An Arabidopsis mutant impaired in coenzyme A biosynthesis is sugar dependent for seedling establishment." Plant Physiol 140(3);830-43. PMID: 16415216

Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by Pathway Tools version 19.5 (software by SRI International) on Tue May 3, 2016, biocyc14.