This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Synonyms: salicylic acid biosynthesis
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Aromatic Compounds Biosynthesis|
|Biosynthesis → Secondary Metabolites Biosynthesis → Phenylpropanoid Derivatives Biosynthesis → Benzenoids Biosynthesis → Salicylate Biosynthesis|
Salicylate is common throughout the plant kingdom and is also found in bacteria. It is an important regulator of induced plant resistance to pathogens.
Salicylic acid can be synthesized from cinnamate. Previous isotope feeding experiments in tobacco and other higher plants, including rice, demonstrated that the direct precursor of salicylic acid is free benzoic acid [Yalpani93, Ribnicky98]. Benzoic acid is synthesized by cinnamate chain shortening reactions via the so-called β-oxidation, analogous to fatty acid β-oxidation [Jarvis00]. Benzoic acid is then converted to salicylic acid by benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase [Leon95]. Recent studies in tobacco indicated that conjugated benzoic acid, CoA thioesters or glucose esters, are more likely to be the precursors of salicylic acid [Chong01]. More recent genetic studies in Arabidopsis have shown that salicylic acid can also be synthesized from chorismate and that the bulk of salicylic acid is produced from chorismate (see salicylate biosynthesis I) [Wildermuth01, Metraux02].
Unification Links: AraCyc:PWY-981
Chong01: Chong J, Pierrel MA, Atanassova R, Werck-Reichhart D, Fritig B, Saindrenan P (2001). "Free and conjugated benzoic acid in tobacco plants and cell cultures. induced accumulation upon elicitation of defense responses and role as salicylic acid precursors." Plant Physiol 125(1);318-28. PMID: 11154339
Jarvis00: Jarvis AP, Schaaf O, Oldham NJ (2000). "3-hydroxy-3-phenylpropanoic acid is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of benzoic acid and salicylic acid but benzaldehyde is not." Planta 212(1);119-26. PMID: 11219576
Leon95: Leon J, Shulaev V, Yalpani N, Lawton MA, Raskin I (1995). "Benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase, a soluble oxygenase from tobacco, catalyzes salicylic acid biosynthesis." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92(22);10413-7. PMID: 7479795
Rubio06: Rubio S, Larson TR, Gonzalez-Guzman M, Alejandro S, Graham IA, Serrano R, Rodriguez PL (2006). "An Arabidopsis mutant impaired in coenzyme A biosynthesis is sugar dependent for seedling establishment." Plant Physiol 140(3);830-43. PMID: 16415216
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