If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Synonyms: purine biosynthesis 2
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Nucleosides and Nucleotides Biosynthesis → Purine Nucleotide Biosynthesis → Purine Nucleotides De Novo Biosynthesis|
Purine nucleotides participate in many aspects of cellular metabolism including the structure of DNA and RNA, serving as enzyme cofactors, functioning in cellular signaling, acting as phosphate group donors, and generating cellular energy. Maintenance of the proper balance of intracellular pools of these nucleotides is critical to normal function. This occurs through a combination of de novo biosynthesis and salvage pathways for pre-existing purine bases, nucleosides and nucleotides.
The de novo biosynthetic pathway for purine nucleotides is highly conserved among organisms, but its regulation and the organization of the genes encoding the enzymes vary. This fourteen step pathway contains ten steps that branch at IMP to form AMP and GMP, each in two steps. Regulation of the pathway has been well studied in microbes such as Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but little is known about its regulation in higher eukaryotes (metazoa and plants [Senecoff et al., 1996]). The pathway appears to vary in archaea [White, 1997]. Some organisms, such as the mycoplasmas, do not biosynthesize purine and pyrimidine bases de novo and must rely on salvage pathways [Wang et al., 2001].
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae regulation of the pathway occurs at both the enzyme level as shown in this pathway, and at the genetic level. For example, at the genetic level positive-acting regulatory proteins Bas1 and Pho2 and biosynthetic intermediates 5'-phosphoribosyl-4-(N-succinocarboxamide)-5-aminoimidazole and/or 5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxamide are required to derepress ADE gene expression. Reviewed in [Rolfes, 2006] and [Zalkin & Dixon, 1992].
Subpathways: guanosine deoxyribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis I , guanosine ribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis , adenosine ribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis , adenosine deoxyribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis , inosine-5'-phosphate biosynthesis II , 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide biosynthesis I
Variants: superpathway of adenosine nucleotides de novo biosynthesis I , superpathway of adenosine nucleotides de novo biosynthesis II , superpathway of guanosine nucleotides de novo biosynthesis I , superpathway of guanosine nucleotides de novo biosynthesis II , superpathway of purine nucleotides de novo biosynthesis II
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