This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Synonyms: methionine biosynthesis from homoserine II
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Amino Acids Biosynthesis → Individual Amino Acids Biosynthesis → Methionine Biosynthesis → Methionine De Novo Biosynthesis|
Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Arabidopsis thaliana col
Expected Taxonomic Range: Embryophyta
L-methionine (met) is an essential amino acid and is required for a number of important cellular functions, including the initiation of protein synthesis, the methylation of DNA, rRNA and xenobiotics, and the biosynthesis of cysteine, phospholipids and polyamines.
The nitrogen and carbon skeleton of methionine comes from homoserine, the sulfur atom from cysteine, and the methyl group from folate. Methionine biosynthesis in plants differs from that in microorganisms. O-phospho-homoserine, instead of O-succinyl-homoserine, is the intermediate converting homoserine to cystathionine. In addition, plants can utilize 5-methyltetrahydropteroyltriglutamate, S-methylmethionine, or S-adenosylmethionine as the methyl donors in converting homocysteine to methionine.
Unification Links: AraCyc:PWY-702
Cynthia J. Krieger on Wed Oct 15, 2003:
This pathway was formerly called methionine biosynthesis from homoserine II.
Kim02c: Kim J, Lee M, Chalam R, Martin MN, Leustek T, Boerjan W (2002). "Constitutive overexpression of cystathionine gamma-synthase in Arabidopsis leads to accumulation of soluble methionine and S-methylmethionine." Plant Physiol 2002;128(1);95-107. PMID: 11788756
Ranocha00: Ranocha P, Bourgis F, Ziemak MJ, Rhodes D, Gage DA, Hanson AD (2000). "Characterization and functional expression of cDNAs encoding methionine-sensitive and -insensitive homocysteine S-methyltransferases from Arabidopsis." J Biol Chem 275(21);15962-8. PMID: 10747987
Ravanel98a: Ravanel S, Gakiere B, Job D, Douce R (1998). "Cystathionine gamma-synthase from Arabidopsis thaliana: purification and biochemical characterization of the recombinant enzyme overexpressed in Escherichia coli." Biochem J 1998;331 ( Pt 2);639-48. PMID: 9531508
Balish67: Balish E, Shapiro SK (1967). "Methionine biosynthesis in Escherichia coli: induction and repression of methylmethionine(or adenosylmethionine):homocysteine methyltransferase." Arch Biochem Biophys 119(1);62-8. PMID: 4861151
Belfaiza86: Belfaiza J, Parsot C, Martel A, de la Tour CB, Margarita D, Cohen GN, Saint-Girons I (1986). "Evolution in biosynthetic pathways: two enzymes catalyzing consecutive steps in methionine biosynthesis originate from a common ancestor and possess a similar regulatory region." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 83(4);867-71. PMID: 3513164
Breitinger01: Breitinger U, Clausen T, Ehlert S, Huber R, Laber B, Schmidt F, Pohl E, Messerschmidt A (2001). "The three-dimensional structure of cystathionine beta-lyase from Arabidopsis and its substrate specificity." Plant Physiol 2001;126(2);631-42. PMID: 11402193
Clausen96: Clausen T, Huber R, Laber B, Pohlenz HD, Messerschmidt A (1996). "Crystal structure of the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate dependent cystathionine beta-lyase from Escherichia coli at 1.83 A." J Mol Biol 262(2);202-24. PMID: 8831789
Eichel95: Eichel J, Gonzalez JC, Hotze M, Matthews RG, Schroder J (1995). "Vitamin-B12-independent methionine synthase from a higher plant (Catharanthus roseus). Molecular characterization, regulation, heterologous expression, and enzyme properties." Eur J Biochem 230(3);1053-8. PMID: 7601135
Gakiere99: Gakiere B, Job D, Douce R, Ravanel S "Characterization of the cDNA and Gene for a Cytosolic Cobalamin-Independent Methionine Synthase in Arabidopsis thaliana (Accession No. U97200). (PGR99-115)." Plant Physiol. (1999), 120, 1206.
Grundy02: Grundy,F.J., Henkin,T.M. (2002). "Synthesis of serine, glycine, cysteine, and methionine." in Sonenshein,A.L., Hoch,J.A. and Losick,R. (eds), Bacillus subtilis and its Relatives: From Genes to Cells. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC, pp. 245–254.
Guest64: Guest JR, Friedman S, Foster MA, Tejerina G, Woods DD (1964). "Transfer of the methyl group from N5-methyltetrahydrofolates to homocysteine in Escherichia coli." Biochem J 92(3);497-504. PMID: 5319972
Hansen00: Hansen J, Johannesen PF (2000). "Cysteine is essential for transcriptional regulation of the sulfur assimilation genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Mol Gen Genet 263(3);535-42. PMID: 10821189
Hansen97: Hansen J, Muldbjerg M, Cherest H, Surdin-Kerjan Y (1997). "Siroheme biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires the products of both the MET1 and MET8 genes." FEBS Lett 401(1);20-4. PMID: 9003798
Lee99: Lee M, Leustek T (1999). "Identification of the gene encoding homoserine kinase from Arabidopsis thaliana and characterization of the recombinant enzyme derived from the gene." Arch Biochem Biophys 1999;372(1);135-42. PMID: 10562426
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