This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Secondary Metabolites Biosynthesis → Terpenoids Biosynthesis → Monoterpenoids Biosynthesis|
Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Salvia stenophylla
Expected Taxonomic Range: Viridiplantae
The carane structural family of monoterpenes includes the unique (+)-3-carene with a bicyclic skeleton, this unusual monoterpene olefin is a major constituent of the turpentine of several Pinidae [Bohlmann99]. It is also found in trichomes of members of the Lamiaceae which has derivative monoterpenes from the carene precursor [Turner00]. The abundant peltate glandular trichomes on Salvia stenophylla are storehouses of terpenoids [Gershenzon92]. The volatile oil extracted from this plant has 3 main terpenoid components; the monoterpene, (+)-3-carene (22%), the sesquiterpenoid (-)-α-bisabolol (44%) and the diterpenol manool (25%).
The enzyme responsible for the production of (+)-3-carene was cloned and characterized. The main product is (+)-3-carene (73%) and to a lesser extent, 4-carene, (4R)-limonene, β-myrcene and (+)-β-phellandrene. This single enzyme appears to be responsible for the production of all the monoterpenes in Salvia stenophylla essential oil [Hoelscher03]. The composition of the monoterpenes remained the same, in young, mature and old leaves [Turner00]. This pathway has been curated as a distinct one from the oleoresin monoterpene volatiles biosynthesis pathway of conifers as the product here is formed as a component of essential oil, and not a resin.
Bohlmann99: Bohlmann J, Phillips M, Ramachandiran V, Katoh S, Croteau R (1999). "cDNA cloning, characterization, and functional expression of four new monoterpene synthase members of the Tpsd gene family from grand fir (Abies grandis)." Arch Biochem Biophys 368(2);232-43. PMID: 10441373
Gershenzon92: Gershenzon J, McCaskill D, Rajaonarivony JI, Mihaliak C, Karp F, Croteau R (1992). "Isolation of secretory cells from plant glandular trichomes and their use in biosynthetic studies of monoterpenes and other gland products." Anal Biochem 200(1);130-8. PMID: 1595887
Faldt03: Faldt J, Martin D, Miller B, Rawat S, Bohlmann J (2003). "Traumatic resin defense in Norway spruce (Picea abies): methyl jasmonate-induced terpene synthase gene expression, and cDNA cloning and functional characterization of (+)-3-carene synthase." Plant Mol Biol 51(1);119-33. PMID: 12602896
Martin04: Martin DM, Faldt J, Bohlmann J (2004). "Functional characterization of nine Norway Spruce TPS genes and evolution of gymnosperm terpene synthases of the TPS-d subfamily." Plant Physiol 135(4);1908-27. PMID: 15310829
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