This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
|Superclasses:||Degradation/Utilization/Assimilation → Inorganic Nutrients Metabolism → Phosphorus Compounds Metabolism|
Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Nicotiana tabacum
Expected Taxonomic Range: Viridiplantae
This pathway depicts the role of wall-bound purple acid phosphatases during cell wall regeneration in Nicotiana tabacum. The plant cell wall is a dynamic compartment of the plant cell [Cosgrove05]. The cell wall is composed of many different kinds of polysaccahrides, proteins, fibers and aromatic substances; their composition and arrangements are varied in different tissues, organs and plants. The polysaccharides contribute to the main structural framework of the cell wall. Polysaccharides act as building blocks and provide excellent flexibility since they posses the ability to form linkages at multiple points. The cell wall once formed is not static rather it is subject to continuous stress, therefore cell wall regeneration is an important and ongoing process. However, very little is known about metabolic pathways responsible for all the changes in cell wall regeneration [Farrokhi06]. At the genetic level, several multigene families are implicated in the plant cell wall formation and its regeneration.
The discovery of wall modifying enzymes which directly or indirectly contribute to the cell wall expansion has helped the elucidation of enzymatic steps as partial metabolic pathways [Darley01]. Purple acid phosphatases isolated from cell walls are implicated in the cell wall regeneration [Kaida08], [Kaida03]. These phosphorylating enzymes catalyze the steps involved in regulating cell growth processes by phosphorylating specific enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of cell wall β-glucans [Kaida03]. Experiments with protoplasts were done showing that the addition of the phosphatase accelerated β-glucan deposition, whereas the addition of antibodies of the enzyme prevented β-glucan deposition [Kaida09]. Using several lines of evidences it has been proposed that wall-bound purple acid phosphatases activate β-glucan synthases involved in the regeneration of cell wall in Nicotiana tabacum [Gibeaut94]
Farrokhi06: Farrokhi N, Burton RA, Brownfield L, Hrmova M, Wilson SM, Bacic A, Fincher GB (2006). "Plant cell wall biosynthesis: genetic, biochemical and functional genomics approaches to the identification of key genes." Plant Biotechnol J 4(2);145-67. PMID: 17177793
Kaida03: Kaida R, Sage-Ono K, Kamada H, Okuyama H, Syono K, Kaneko TS (2003). "Isolation and characterization of four cell wall purple acid phosphatase genes from tobacco cells." Biochim Biophys Acta 1625(2);134-40. PMID: 12531472
Kaida09: Kaida R, Satoh Y, Bulone V, Yamada Y, Kaku T, Hayashi T, Kaneko TS (2009). "Activation of beta-glucan synthases by wall-bound purple acid phosphatase in tobacco cells." Plant Physiol 150(4);1822-30. PMID: 19493971
Bozzo02: Bozzo GG, Raghothama KG, Plaxton WC (2002). "Purification and characterization of two secreted purple acid phosphatase isozymes from phosphate-starved tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cell cultures." Eur J Biochem 269(24);6278-86. PMID: 12473124
Passariello06: Passariello C, Forleo C, Micheli V, Schippa S, Leone R, Mangani S, Thaller MC, Rossolini GM (2006). "Biochemical characterization of the class B acid phosphatase (AphA) of Escherichia coli MG1655." Biochim Biophys Acta 1764(1);13-9. PMID: 16297670
Rossolini94: Rossolini GM, Thaller MC, Pezzi R, Satta G (1994). "Identification of an Escherichia coli periplasmic acid phosphatase containing of a 27 kDa-polypeptide component." FEMS Microbiol Lett 118(1-2);167-73. PMID: 8013875
Schenk99: Schenk G, Ge Y, Carrington LE, Wynne CJ, Searle IR, Carroll BJ, Hamilton S, de Jersey J (1999). "Binuclear metal centers in plant purple acid phosphatases: Fe-Mn in sweet potato and Fe-Zn in soybean." Arch Biochem Biophys 370(2);183-9. PMID: 10510276
Thaller97: Thaller MC, Schippa S, Bonci A, Cresti S, Rossolini GM (1997). "Identification of the gene (aphA) encoding the class B acid phosphatase/phosphotransferase of Escherichia coli MG1655 and characterization of its product." FEMS Microbiol Lett 1997;146(2);191-8. PMID: 9011040
Tran10: Tran HT, Qian W, Hurley BA, She YM, Wang D, Plaxton WC (2010). "Biochemical and molecular characterization of AtPAP12 and AtPAP26: the predominant purple acid phosphatase isozymes secreted by phosphate-starved Arabidopsis thaliana." Plant Cell Environ 33(11);1789-803. PMID: 20545876
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