MetaCyc Pathway: superpathway of dimethylsulfone degradation
Inferred from experiment

Enzyme View:

Pathway diagram: superpathway of dimethylsulfone degradation

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Superclasses: Degradation/Utilization/AssimilationInorganic Nutrients MetabolismSulfur Compounds Metabolism

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Arthrobacter methylotrophus, Arthrobacter sulfonivorans, Hyphomicrobium sulfonivorans

Expected Taxonomic Range: Bacteria

dimethyl sulfone is a major product of the chemical oxidation in the atmosphere of the principal biogenic sulfur gas, dimethyl sulfide (DMS). It is also produced by enzymatic oxidation of DMS (see dimethyl sulfide degradation II (oxidation)).

Several methylophilic organisms can utilize dimethyl sulfone as the only carbon and energy substrate [Borodina00]. Three such organisms, namely Arthrobacter methylotrophus, Arthrobacter sulfonivorans and Hyphomicrobium sulfonivorans, have been isolated based on this ability. These organism possess a dimethylsulfone reductase enzyme that reduces dimethyl sulfone to dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Further reduction of DMSO to dimethyl sulfide is followed by monooxygenation to produce methanethiol and formaldehyde, which is incorporated into the cell carbon. The methanethiol is oxidized to yield a second molecule of formaldehyde. The sulfide that is produced is oxidized to sulfate, and used as a sulfur source for biosynthesis [Borodina02].

Subpathways: dimethyl sulfone degradation, dimethyl sulfoxide degradation, dimethyl sulfide degradation I

Created 27-Oct-2008 by Caspi R, SRI International


Borodina00: Borodina E, Kelly DP, Rainey FA, Ward-Rainey NL, Wood AP (2000). "Dimethylsulfone as a growth substrate for novel methylotrophic species of Hyphomicrobium and Arthrobacter." Arch Microbiol 173(5-6);425-37. PMID: 10896224

Borodina02: Borodina E, Kelly DP, Schumann P, Rainey FA, Ward-Rainey NL, Wood AP (2002). "Enzymes of dimethylsulfone metabolism and the phylogenetic characterization of the facultative methylotrophs Arthrobacter sulfonivorans sp. nov., Arthrobacter methylotrophus sp. nov., and Hyphomicrobium sulfonivorans sp. nov." Arch Microbiol 177(2);173-83. PMID: 11807567

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Andreae80: Andreae M. O. (1980). "Dimethylsulfoxide in marine and freshwaters." Limnol. Oceanogr. 25: 1054-1063.

Boden11: Boden R, Borodina E, Wood AP, Kelly DP, Murrell JC, Schafer H (2011). "Purification and Characterization of Dimethylsulfide Monooxygenase from Hyphomicrobium sulfonivorans." J Bacteriol 193(5);1250-8. PMID: 21216999

Charlson87: Charlson, RJ, Lovelock, JE, Andreae, MO, Warren, SG (1987). "Oceanic phytoplankton, atmospheric sulphur, cloud albedo and climate." Nature 326:655-661.

De97: De Zwart J, Sluis J, Kuenen JG (1997). "Competition for Dimethyl Sulfide and Hydrogen Sulfide by Methylophaga sulfidovorans and Thiobacillus thioparus T5 in Continuous Cultures." Appl Environ Microbiol 63(8);3318-3322. PMID: 16535680

DeBont81: DeBont J. A. M., Dijken J. P. van, Harder W. (1981). "Dimethyl sulphoxide and dimethyl sulphide as a carbon, sulphur and energy source for growth of Hyphomicrobium S." J. Gen. Microbiol. 127: 315-323.

Distefano64: Distefano, V, Borgstedt, HH (1964). "Reduction of dimethylsulfoxide to dimethylsulfide in the cat." Science 144;1137-8. PMID: 14148434

Gould92: Gould, WD., Kanagawa, T. (1992). "Purification and properties of methyl-lmercaptan oxidase from Thiobacillus thioparus TK-m." J. Gen. Microbiol. 138: 217 - 221.

Howard06: Howard EC, Henriksen JR, Buchan A, Reisch CR, Burgmann H, Welsh R, Ye W, Gonzalez JM, Mace K, Joye SB, Kiene RP, Whitman WB, Moran MA (2006). "Bacterial taxa that limit sulfur flux from the ocean." Science 314(5799);649-52. PMID: 17068264

Kanagawa82: Kanagawa, T., Dazai, M., Kukuoka, S. (1982). "Degradation of O,O-dimethyl phosphodithioate by Thiobacillus thioparus TK-1 and Pseudomonas AK-2." Agric. Biol. Chem. 46: 2571-2578.

Kanagawa86: Kanagawa, T., Kelly, D.P. (1986). "Breakdown of dimethylsulphide by mixed cultures and by Thiobacillus thioparus." FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 34: 13 - 19.

Kanagawa89: Kanagawa T, Mikami E (1989). "Removal of methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, and hydrogen sulfide from contaminated air by Thiobacillus thioparus TK-m." Appl Environ Microbiol 55(3);555-8. PMID: 2930168

Kiene88: Kiene RP, Taylor BF (1988). "Demethylation of Dimethylsulfoniopropionate and Production of Thiols in Anoxic Marine Sediments." Appl Environ Microbiol 54(9);2208-2212. PMID: 16347732

Kiene90: Kiene, R. P., Bates, T. S. (1990). "Biological removal of dimethyl sulfide from sea-water." Nature 345:702-705.

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Moore89a: Moore MD, Kaplan S (1989). "Construction of TnphoA gene fusions in Rhodobacter sphaeroides: isolation and characterization of a respiratory mutant unable to utilize dimethyl sulfoxide as a terminal electron acceptor during anaerobic growth in the dark on glucose." J Bacteriol 171(8);4385-94. PMID: 2546920

Muller05: Muller JA, DasSarma S (2005). "Genomic analysis of anaerobic respiration in the archaeon Halobacterium sp. strain NRC-1: dimethyl sulfoxide and trimethylamine N-oxide as terminal electron acceptors." J Bacteriol 187(5);1659-67. PMID: 15716436

MurakamiNitta02: Murakami-Nitta T, Kurimura H, Kirimura K, Kino K, Usami S (2002). "Continuous degradation of dimethyl sulfoxide to sulfate ion by Hyphomicrobium denitrificans WU-K217." J Biosci Bioeng 94(1);52-6. PMID: 16233269

Otte04: Otte ML, Wilson G, Morris JT, Moran BM (2004). "Dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP) and related compounds in higher plants." J Exp Bot 55(404);1919-25. PMID: 15181109

Schafer07: Schafer H (2007). "Isolation of Methylophaga spp. from marine dimethylsulfide-degrading enrichment cultures and identification of polypeptides induced during growth on dimethylsulfide." Appl Environ Microbiol 73(8);2580-91. PMID: 17322322

Schwalb03: Schwalb C, Chapman SK, Reid GA (2003). "The tetraheme cytochrome CymA is required for anaerobic respiration with dimethyl sulfoxide and nitrite in Shewanella oneidensis." Biochemistry 42(31);9491-7. PMID: 12899636

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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