This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
|Superclasses:||Degradation/Utilization/Assimilation → Inorganic Nutrients Metabolism → Sulfur Compounds Metabolism|
Expected Taxonomic Range:
dimethyl sulfone is a major product of the chemical oxidation in the atmosphere of the principal biogenic sulfur gas, dimethyl sulfide (DMS). It is also produced by enzymatic oxidation of DMS (see dimethyl sulfide degradation II (oxidation)).
Several methylophilic organisms can utilize dimethyl sulfone as the only carbon and energy substrate [Borodina00]. Three such organisms, namely Arthrobacter methylotrophus, Arthrobacter sulfonivorans and Hyphomicrobium sulfonivorans, have been isolated based on this ability. These organism possess a dimethylsulfone reductase enzyme that reduces dimethyl sulfone to dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Further reduction of DMSO to dimethyl sulfide is followed by monooxygenation to produce methanethiol and formaldehyde, which is incorporated into the cell carbon. The methanethiol is oxidized to yield a second molecule of formaldehyde. The sulfide that is produced is oxidized to sulfate, and used as a sulfur source for biosynthesis [Borodina02].
Borodina00: Borodina E, Kelly DP, Rainey FA, Ward-Rainey NL, Wood AP (2000). "Dimethylsulfone as a growth substrate for novel methylotrophic species of Hyphomicrobium and Arthrobacter." Arch Microbiol 173(5-6);425-37. PMID: 10896224
Borodina02: Borodina E, Kelly DP, Schumann P, Rainey FA, Ward-Rainey NL, Wood AP (2002). "Enzymes of dimethylsulfone metabolism and the phylogenetic characterization of the facultative methylotrophs Arthrobacter sulfonivorans sp. nov., Arthrobacter methylotrophus sp. nov., and Hyphomicrobium sulfonivorans sp. nov." Arch Microbiol 177(2);173-83. PMID: 11807567
Boden11a: Boden R, Borodina E, Wood AP, Kelly DP, Murrell JC, Schafer H (2011). "Purification and Characterization of Dimethylsulfide Monooxygenase from Hyphomicrobium sulfonivorans." J Bacteriol 193(5);1250-8. PMID: 21216999
De97b: De Zwart J, Sluis J, Kuenen JG (1997). "Competition for Dimethyl Sulfide and Hydrogen Sulfide by Methylophaga sulfidovorans and Thiobacillus thioparus T5 in Continuous Cultures." Appl Environ Microbiol 63(8);3318-3322. PMID: 16535680
DeBont81: DeBont J. A. M., Dijken J. P. van, Harder W. (1981). "Dimethyl sulphoxide and dimethyl sulphide as a carbon, sulphur and energy source for growth of Hyphomicrobium S." J. Gen. Microbiol. 127: 315-323.
Howard06: Howard EC, Henriksen JR, Buchan A, Reisch CR, Burgmann H, Welsh R, Ye W, Gonzalez JM, Mace K, Joye SB, Kiene RP, Whitman WB, Moran MA (2006). "Bacterial taxa that limit sulfur flux from the ocean." Science 314(5799);649-52. PMID: 17068264
Kanagawa89: Kanagawa T, Mikami E (1989). "Removal of methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, and hydrogen sulfide from contaminated air by Thiobacillus thioparus TK-m." Appl Environ Microbiol 55(3);555-8. PMID: 2930168
Moore89a: Moore MD, Kaplan S (1989). "Construction of TnphoA gene fusions in Rhodobacter sphaeroides: isolation and characterization of a respiratory mutant unable to utilize dimethyl sulfoxide as a terminal electron acceptor during anaerobic growth in the dark on glucose." J Bacteriol 171(8);4385-94. PMID: 2546920
Muller05: Muller JA, DasSarma S (2005). "Genomic analysis of anaerobic respiration in the archaeon Halobacterium sp. strain NRC-1: dimethyl sulfoxide and trimethylamine N-oxide as terminal electron acceptors." J Bacteriol 187(5);1659-67. PMID: 15716436
MurakamiNitta02: Murakami-Nitta T, Kurimura H, Kirimura K, Kino K, Usami S (2002). "Continuous degradation of dimethyl sulfoxide to sulfate ion by Hyphomicrobium denitrificans WU-K217." J Biosci Bioeng 94(1);52-6. PMID: 16233269
Schafer07: Schafer H (2007). "Isolation of Methylophaga spp. from marine dimethylsulfide-degrading enrichment cultures and identification of polypeptides induced during growth on dimethylsulfide." Appl Environ Microbiol 73(8);2580-91. PMID: 17322322
Schwalb03: Schwalb C, Chapman SK, Reid GA (2003). "The tetraheme cytochrome CymA is required for anaerobic respiration with dimethyl sulfoxide and nitrite in Shewanella oneidensis." Biochemistry 42(31);9491-7. PMID: 12899636
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