Updated BioCyc iOS App now
available in iTunes store
Updated BioCyc iOS App now
available in iTunes store
Updated BioCyc iOS App now
available in iTunes store
Updated BioCyc iOS App now
available in iTunes store
Updated BioCyc iOS App now
available in iTunes store

MetaCyc Pathway: dimethyl sulfoxide degradation
Inferred from experiment

Enzyme View:

Pathway diagram: dimethyl sulfoxide degradation

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Synonyms: DMSO degradation

Superclasses: Degradation/Utilization/AssimilationInorganic Nutrients MetabolismSulfur Compounds Metabolism

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Arthrobacter methylotrophus, Arthrobacter sulfonivorans, Halobacterium sp. NRC-1, Hyphomicrobium denitrificans WU-K217, Hyphomicrobium sp. EG, Hyphomicrobium sp. S, Hyphomicrobium sulfonivorans

Expected Taxonomic Range: Archaea, Bacteria , Eukaryota

dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is naturally present in significant amounts (1-200 nM) in ocean surface waters, probably originating from marine phytoplankton [Andreae80]. In addition, DMSO is widely used in various industries since it dissolves many organic and inorganic substances. In Japan alone a total of 5000 tons of DMSO is produced per year for use in various industries. Much of the DMSO accumulates in wastewater, where it has toxic effects on many organisms [MurakamiNitta02].

DMSO-reducing capacity is widespread among aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, plants, and animals [Distefano64, Yen77]. Some organisms, including Hyphomicrobium sp. S and Hyphomicrobium denitrificans WU-K217, are able to utilize DMSO aerobically as the sole source of carbon, by the use of an NADH-dependent dimethylsulfoxide reductase [DeBont81, MurakamiNitta02]. A similar organism, Hyphomicrobium sp. EG, could do the same using an NADPH-dependent enzyme [Suylen86, Suylen86a].

Other organisms, such as Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 and Escherichia coli K-12, can not utilze DMSO as a carbon source, but are able to utilize it as as an alternative terminal electron acceptor (in the absence of nitrate), using the complex dimethyl sulfoxide reductase [Zinder78, Moore89, Schwalb03, Muller05] (see formate to dimethyl sulfoxide electron transfer).

Superpathways: superpathway of dimethylsulfone degradation

Relationship Links: Eawag-BBD-Pathways:PART-OF:sulf

Created 22-Sep-2008 by Caspi R, SRI International


Andreae80: Andreae M. O. (1980). "Dimethylsulfoxide in marine and freshwaters." Limnol. Oceanogr. 25: 1054-1063.

DeBont81: DeBont J. A. M., Dijken J. P. van, Harder W. (1981). "Dimethyl sulphoxide and dimethyl sulphide as a carbon, sulphur and energy source for growth of Hyphomicrobium S." J. Gen. Microbiol. 127: 315-323.

Distefano64: Distefano, V, Borgstedt, HH (1964). "Reduction of dimethylsulfoxide to dimethylsulfide in the cat." Science 144;1137-8. PMID: 14148434

Moore89: Moore MD, Kaplan S (1989). "Construction of TnphoA gene fusions in Rhodobacter sphaeroides: isolation and characterization of a respiratory mutant unable to utilize dimethyl sulfoxide as a terminal electron acceptor during anaerobic growth in the dark on glucose." J Bacteriol 171(8);4385-94. PMID: 2546920

Muller05: Muller JA, DasSarma S (2005). "Genomic analysis of anaerobic respiration in the archaeon Halobacterium sp. strain NRC-1: dimethyl sulfoxide and trimethylamine N-oxide as terminal electron acceptors." J Bacteriol 187(5);1659-67. PMID: 15716436

MurakamiNitta02: Murakami-Nitta T, Kurimura H, Kirimura K, Kino K, Usami S (2002). "Continuous degradation of dimethyl sulfoxide to sulfate ion by Hyphomicrobium denitrificans WU-K217." J Biosci Bioeng 94(1);52-6. PMID: 16233269

Schwalb03: Schwalb C, Chapman SK, Reid GA (2003). "The tetraheme cytochrome CymA is required for anaerobic respiration with dimethyl sulfoxide and nitrite in Shewanella oneidensis." Biochemistry 42(31);9491-7. PMID: 12899636

Suylen86: Suylen GM, Kuenen JG (1986). "Chemostat enrichment and isolation of Hyphomicrobium EG. A dimethyl-sulphide oxidizing methylotroph and reevaluation of Thiobacillus MS1." Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 52(4);281-93. PMID: 3767349

Suylen86a: Suylen, G. M. H., Stefess,G. C., Kuenen,J. G. (1986). "Chemolithotrophic potential of a Hyphomicrobium species, capable of growth on methylated sulphur compounds." Arch Microbiol 146:192 - 198.

Yen77: Yen HC, Marrs B (1977). "Growth of Rhodopseudomonas capsulata under anaerobic dark conditions with dimethyl sulfoxide." Arch Biochem Biophys 181(2);411-8. PMID: 900930

Zinder78: Zinder SH, Brock TD (1978). "Dimethyl sulfoxide as an electron acceptor for anaerobic growth." Arch Microbiol 116(1);35-40. PMID: 414686

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Borodina02: Borodina E, Kelly DP, Schumann P, Rainey FA, Ward-Rainey NL, Wood AP (2002). "Enzymes of dimethylsulfone metabolism and the phylogenetic characterization of the facultative methylotrophs Arthrobacter sulfonivorans sp. nov., Arthrobacter methylotrophus sp. nov., and Hyphomicrobium sulfonivorans sp. nov." Arch Microbiol 177(2);173-83. PMID: 11807567

Charlson87: Charlson, RJ, Lovelock, JE, Andreae, MO, Warren, SG (1987). "Oceanic phytoplankton, atmospheric sulphur, cloud albedo and climate." Nature 326:655-661.

Howard06: Howard EC, Henriksen JR, Buchan A, Reisch CR, Burgmann H, Welsh R, Ye W, Gonzalez JM, Mace K, Joye SB, Kiene RP, Whitman WB, Moran MA (2006). "Bacterial taxa that limit sulfur flux from the ocean." Science 314(5799);649-52. PMID: 17068264

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by Pathway Tools version 19.5 (software by SRI International) on Thu Feb 11, 2016, biocyc13.