This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Fatty Acid and Lipid Biosynthesis → Phospholipid Biosynthesis → CDP-diacylglycerol Biosynthesis|
Expected Taxonomic Range: Bacteria
Phospholipids are important membrane components. Most of the phospholipids belong to the category of phosphoglycerides. The simplest phosphoglycerides, which are known as phosphatidates, are composed of a glycerol molecule attached to two fatty acids and one phosphate group. The carboxyl group of each fatty acid is esterified to the hydroxyl groups on carbon-1 and carbon-2 of the glycerol molecule, while the phosphate group is attached to carbon-3 by an ester link. Phosphatidates are precursors for many phosphoglycerides found in animals, plants and yeast, including a phosphatidylinositol, an L-1-phosphatidylserine, an L-1-phosphatidylethanolamine, and a cardiolipin.
As part of the synthesis of phosphoglycerides, either the phosphatidate or the modifying compound need to be activated by CTP. In some cases, the modifying compound is activated, as in the case of choline and ethanolamine, which form CDP-choline and CDP-ethanolamine, respectively. However, in the case of other compounds, such as L-serine and myo-inositol, the phosphatidate is activated first, forming a CDP-diacylglycerol, which then reacts with the modifying compound to form the phosphoglyceride.
About This Pathway
In this pathway, which is the most common pathway in bacteria, the intermediate a 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate is produced via an acyl phosphate by two enzymes encoded by plsX and plsY [Lu06a]. PlsX is a soluble protein that catalyzes the formation of an acyl phosphate from an acyl-[acyl-carrier protein]. This activated fatty acid is then used by the membrane-bound PlsY acyltransferase to acylate the 1-position of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. The second acyltransferase, PlsC, is universally expressed in bacteria and completes the synthesis of a 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate by transferring an acyl chain from acyl-ACP or acyl-CoA to the 2-position of a 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate.
Alternative routes for synthesizing a CDP-diacylglycerol are described in CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthesis I and CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthesis II. More information can be found in superpathway of phospholipid biosynthesis II (plants).
Clark80a: Clark D, Lightner V, Edgar R, Modrich P, Cronan JE, Bell RM (1980). "Regulation of phospholipid biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. Cloning of the structural gene for the biosynthetic sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase." J Biol Chem 255(2);714-7. PMID: 6985897
Edgar78a: Edgar JR, Bell RM (1978). "Biosynthesis in Escherichia coli of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate, a precursor of phospholipid. Kinetic characterization of wild type and feedback-resistant forms of the biosynthetic sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase." J Biol Chem 253(18);6354-63. PMID: 28326
Edgar79: Edgar JR, Bell RM (1979). "Biosynthesis in Escherichia coli of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate, a precursor of phospholipid. Palmitoyl-CoA inhibition of the biosynthetic sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase." J Biol Chem 1979;254(4);1016-21. PMID: 368067
Edgar80: Edgar JR, Bell RM (1980). "Biosynthesis in Escherichia coli of sn-glycerol-3-phosphate, a precursor of phospholipid. Further kinetic characterization of wild type and feedback-resistant forms of the biosynthetic sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase." J Biol Chem 255(8);3492-7. PMID: 6767719
Kopka97: Kopka J, Ludewig M, Muller-Rober B (1997). "Complementary DNAs encoding eukaryotic-type cytidine-5'-diphosphate-diacylglycerol synthases of two plant species." Plant Physiol 113(3);997-1002. PMID: 9085581
Langley78a: Langley KE, Kennedy EP (1978). "Partial purification and properties of CTP:phosphatidic acid cytidylyltransferase from membranes of Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1978;136(1);85-95. PMID: 30751
Lu07a: Lu YJ, Zhang F, Grimes KD, Lee RE, Rock CO (2007). "Topology and active site of PlsY: the bacterial acylphosphate:glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase." J Biol Chem 282(15);11339-46. PMID: 17308305
Rock81: Rock CO, Goelz SE, Cronan JE (1981). "Phospholipid synthesis in Escherichia coli. Characteristics of fatty acid transfer from acyl-acyl carrier protein to sn-glycerol 3-phosphate." J Biol Chem 1981;256(2);736-42. PMID: 7005223
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