MetaCyc Pathway: CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthesis III
Inferred from experiment

Enzyme View:

Pathway diagram: CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthesis III

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Superclasses: BiosynthesisFatty Acid and Lipid BiosynthesisPhospholipid BiosynthesisCDP-diacylglycerol Biosynthesis

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae R6

Expected Taxonomic Range: Bacteria

General Background

Phospholipids are important membrane components. Most of the phospholipids belong to the category of phosphoglycerides. The simplest phosphoglycerides, which are known as phosphatidates, are composed of a glycerol molecule attached to two fatty acids and one phosphate group. The carboxyl group of each fatty acid is esterified to the hydroxyl groups on carbon-1 and carbon-2 of the glycerol molecule, while the phosphate group is attached to carbon-3 by an ester link. Phosphatidates are precursors for many phosphoglycerides found in animals, plants and yeast, including a phosphatidylinositol, an L-1-phosphatidylserine, an L-1-phosphatidylethanolamine, and a cardiolipin.

As part of the synthesis of phosphoglycerides, either the phosphatidate or the modifying compound need to be activated by CTP. In some cases, the modifying compound is activated, as in the case of choline and ethanolamine, which form CDP-choline and CDP-ethanolamine, respectively. However, in the case of other compounds, such as L-serine and myo-inositol, the phosphatidate is activated first, forming a CDP-diacylglycerol, which then reacts with the modifying compound to form the phosphoglyceride.

About This Pathway

In this pathway, which is the most common pathway in bacteria, the intermediate a 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate is produced via an acyl phosphate by two enzymes encoded by plsX and plsY [Lu06a]. PlsX is a soluble protein that catalyzes the formation of an acyl phosphate from an acyl-[acyl-carrier protein]. This activated fatty acid is then used by the membrane-bound PlsY acyltransferase to acylate the 1-position of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. The second acyltransferase, PlsC, is universally expressed in bacteria and completes the synthesis of a 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate by transferring an acyl chain from acyl-ACP or acyl-CoA to the 2-position of a 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate.

Alternative routes for synthesizing a CDP-diacylglycerol are described in CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthesis I and CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthesis II. More information can be found in superpathway of phospholipid biosynthesis II (plants).

Variants: CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthesis I, CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthesis II

Created 29-Jul-2008 by Caspi R, SRI International


Lu06a: Lu YJ, Zhang YM, Grimes KD, Qi J, Lee RE, Rock CO (2006). "Acyl-phosphates initiate membrane phospholipid synthesis in Gram-positive pathogens." Mol Cell 23(5);765-72. PMID: 16949372

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

BRENDA14: BRENDA team (2014). Imported from BRENDA version existing on Aug 2014.

Byers07: Byers DM, Gong H (2007). "Acyl carrier protein: structure-function relationships in a conserved multifunctional protein family." Biochem Cell Biol 85(6);649-62. PMID: 18059524

Clark80a: Clark D, Lightner V, Edgar R, Modrich P, Cronan JE, Bell RM (1980). "Regulation of phospholipid biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. Cloning of the structural gene for the biosynthetic sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase." J Biol Chem 255(2);714-7. PMID: 6985897

Coleman90: Coleman J (1990). "Characterization of Escherichia coli cells deficient in 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3- phosphate acyltransferase activity." J Biol Chem 1990;265(28);17215-21. PMID: 2211622

COMMUNICATION: communication,

Douce72: Douce, Roland, Mannella, Carmen, Bonner, Walter D (1972). "Site of the biosynthesis of CDP-diglyceride in plant mitochondria." Biochem. Biophys. Res. Communications.

Edgar78: Edgar JR, Bell RM (1978). "Biosynthesis in Escherichia coli fo sn-glycerol 3-phosphate, a precursor of phospholipid." J Biol Chem 1978;253(18);6348-53. PMID: 355254

Edgar78a: Edgar JR, Bell RM (1978). "Biosynthesis in Escherichia coli of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate, a precursor of phospholipid. Kinetic characterization of wild type and feedback-resistant forms of the biosynthetic sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase." J Biol Chem 253(18);6354-63. PMID: 28326

Edgar79: Edgar JR, Bell RM (1979). "Biosynthesis in Escherichia coli of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate, a precursor of phospholipid. Palmitoyl-CoA inhibition of the biosynthetic sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase." J Biol Chem 1979;254(4);1016-21. PMID: 368067

Edgar80: Edgar JR, Bell RM (1980). "Biosynthesis in Escherichia coli of sn-glycerol-3-phosphate, a precursor of phospholipid. Further kinetic characterization of wild type and feedback-resistant forms of the biosynthetic sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase." J Biol Chem 255(8);3492-7. PMID: 6767719

Hsu70: Hsu CC, Fox CF (1970). "Induction of the lactose transport system in a lipid-synthesis-defective mutant of Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 103(2);410-6. PMID: 4914567

Kito69: Kito M, Pizer LI (1969). "Purification and regulatory properties of the biosynthetic L-glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 244(12);3316-23. PMID: 4389388

Kopka97: Kopka J, Ludewig M, Muller-Rober B (1997). "Complementary DNAs encoding eukaryotic-type cytidine-5'-diphosphate-diacylglycerol synthases of two plant species." Plant Physiol 113(3);997-1002. PMID: 9085581

Langley78: Langley KE, Kennedy EP (1978). "Partial purification and properties of CTP:phosphatidic acid cytidylyltransferase from membranes of Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1978;136(1);85-95. PMID: 30751

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Lin76: Lin EC (1976). "Glycerol dissimilation and its regulation in bacteria." Annu Rev Microbiol 1976;30;535-78. PMID: 825019

Lu07: Lu YJ, Zhang F, Grimes KD, Lee RE, Rock CO (2007). "Topology and active site of PlsY: the bacterial acylphosphate:glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase." J Biol Chem 282(15);11339-46. PMID: 17308305

Rock81: Rock CO, Goelz SE, Cronan JE (1981). "Phospholipid synthesis in Escherichia coli. Characteristics of fatty acid transfer from acyl-acyl carrier protein to sn-glycerol 3-phosphate." J Biol Chem 1981;256(2);736-42. PMID: 7005223

Sparrow85: Sparrow CP, Raetz CR (1985). "Purification and properties of the membrane-bound CDP-diglyceride synthetase from Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 1985;260(22);12084-91. PMID: 2995359

TIGR: TIGR Arabidopsis annotation team Communication.

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by Pathway Tools version 19.5 (software by SRI International) on Fri Nov 27, 2015, biocyc14.