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MetaCyc Pathway: superpathway of demethylmenaquinol-6 biosynthesis I

If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Synonyms: superpathway of demethylmenaquinone-6 biosynthesis

Superclasses: Biosynthesis Cofactors, Prosthetic Groups, Electron Carriers Biosynthesis Quinol and Quinone Biosynthesis Demethylmenaquinol Biosynthesis Demethylmenaquinol-6 Biosynthesis
Superpathways

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include ? : Haemophilus parainfluenzae

Expected Taxonomic Range: Haemophilus

Summary:
General Background

Menaquinones (MK) and demethylmenaquinones (DMK) are low-molecular weight lipophilic components of the cytoplasmic membrane, found in many bacterial species. These quinones function as a reversible redox component of the electron transfer chain, mediating electron transfer between hydrogenases and cytochromes. Menaquinones have also been implicated in regulation, as they are necessary for sporulation and proper regulation of cytochrome formation in some Gram-positive bacteria [Farrand73, Farrand74].

Most aerobic Gram-negative bacteria contain ubiquinone as the sole quinone, while most aerobic Gram-positive bacteria contain menaquinone and/or demethylmenaquinones as the main quinone. However, most of the anaerobic bacteria, regardless whether they are Gram-negative or Gram-positive, contain menaquinone or demethylmenaquinone as their main quinones. Some facultatively anaerobic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, contain ubiquinone, menaquinone, and demethylmenaquinone, which they use under different growth conditions [Meganathan01a]. The main difference between these quinone molecules is their redox potential. For example, the redox potential for ubiquinone, demethylmenaquinone, and menaquinone has been measured as +112 mv, +36 mv, and -74 mv, respectively, in the bacterium Haemophilus parainfluenzae [Hollander76].

Menaquinones are considered a vitamin (vitamin K2), since they are essential for animals, mostly for the posttranslational modification of certain proteins required for blood coagulation. Animals can not synthesize menaquinones, but usually receive a sufficient amount from bacteria growing in their intestines. In the absence of menaquinone or the related compound phylloquinone (vitamin K1) which is synthesized in plants, animals suffer from hemorrhage [Dam35]. Menaquinone was first isolated from putrefied fish meal by McKee in 1939 [Doisy40], and its structure resolved in 1958 [Isler58].

The biosynthesis of menaquinones is essentially identical to that of demethylmenaquinones, with one additional step, comprising the addition of a methyl group to the naphthoquinone ring. Many bacterial species do not have this methylase and produce demethylmenaquinone as their sole quinone [Collins81].

All three quinones are synthesized from chorismate, an intermediate of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis. However, the pathways of (demethyl)menaquinone synthesis diverts from that for ubiquinones early on. Most organisms synthesize their menaquinones via isochorismate, although some organisms, including Helicobacter pylori, Campylobacter jejuni, Streptomyces coelicolor and Thermus thermophilus, synthesize menaquinones in alternative pathways, via futalosine or 6-amino-6-deoxyfutalosine [Hiratsuka08, Li11, Goble13].

About This Pathway

In this pathway menaquinone is synthesized from chorismate via isochorismate. In a series of reactions, isochorismate is converted to the two-ring compound 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate via several intermediates that include 2-succinylbenzoate. At this point a prenyltransferase enzyme attaches a polyprenyl tail to form a demethylmenaquinone, which can be converted to a menaquinone by a dedicated methylase.

Demethylquinones were first discovered in Haemophilus parainfluenzae [Lester64]. The main form was demethylmenaquinone-6 (DMK-6), although lesser amounts of DMK-5 and DMK-7 were also detected. Additional studies found that DMK-6 is involved in respiration in Haemophilus parainfluenzae, and could mediate electron transfer between NADH and succinate, similar to ubiquinone (Q). In addition, DMK-6 could act as a mediator in fumarate reduction, similar to menaquinone (MK). Thus, in contrast to Q and MK, DMK acts equally well in succinate respiration and in fumarate reduction [Hollander76].

Subpathways: hexaprenyl diphosphate biosynthesis , 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate biosynthesis I , demethylmenaquinol-6 biosynthesis I

Credits:
Created 18-Mar-2008 by Caspi R , SRI International


References

Collins81: Collins MD, Jones D (1981). "Distribution of isoprenoid quinone structural types in bacteria and their taxonomic implication." Microbiol Rev 45(2);316-54. PMID: 7022156

Dam35: Dam, H. (1935). "The antihaemorrhagic vitamin of the chick: occurrence and chemical nature." Nature 135:652-653.

Doisy40: Doisy EA, Binkley SB, Thayer SA, McKee RW (1940). "Vitamin K." Science 91(2351);58-62. PMID: 17783315

Farrand73: Farrand SK, Taber HW (1973). "Physiological effects of menaquinone deficiency in Bacillus subtilis." J Bacteriol 115(3);1035-44. PMID: 4353869

Farrand74: Farrand SK, Taber HW (1974). "Changes in menaquinone concentration during growth and early sporulation in Bacillus subtilis." J Bacteriol 117(1);324-6. PMID: 4202999

Fujimoto12: Fujimoto N., Kosaka T., Yamada M. (2012). "Menaquinone as Well as Ubiquinone as a Crucial Component in the Escherichia coli Respiratory Chain." Chapter 10 in Chemical Biology, edited by D Ekinci, ISBN 978-953-51-0049-2.

Goble13: Goble AM, Toro R, Li X, Ornelas A, Fan H, Eswaramoorthy S, Patskovsky Y, Hillerich B, Seidel R, Sali A, Shoichet BK, Almo SC, Swaminathan S, Tanner ME, Raushel FM (2013). "Deamination of 6-aminodeoxyfutalosine in menaquinone biosynthesis by distantly related enzymes." Biochemistry 52(37);6525-36. PMID: 23972005

Hiratsuka08: Hiratsuka T, Furihata K, Ishikawa J, Yamashita H, Itoh N, Seto H, Dairi T (2008). "An alternative menaquinone biosynthetic pathway operating in microorganisms." Science 321(5896);1670-3. PMID: 18801996

Hollander76: Hollander R (1976). "Correlation of the function of demethylmenaquinone in bacterial electron transport with its redox potential." FEBS Lett 72(1);98-100. PMID: 187454

Isler58: Isler, O, Ruegg, R., Chopard-dit-Jean, L. H., Winterstein, A., Wiss, O. (1958). "Synthese und Isolierung von Vitamin K und Isoprenologen Verbindungen." Helv. Chim. Acta 41:786-807.

Lester64: Lester, R.L., White, D.C., Smith, S.L. (1964). "The 2-desmethyl vitamin K2's. A new group of naphthoquinones isolated from Hemophilus parainfluenzae." Biochemistry 3;949-54. PMID: 14214086

Li11: Li X, Apel D, Gaynor EC, Tanner ME (2011). "5'-methylthioadenosine nucleosidase is implicated in playing a key role in a modified futalosine pathway for menaquinone biosynthesis in Campylobacter jejuni." J Biol Chem 286(22);19392-8. PMID: 21489995

Meganathan01a: Meganathan R (2001). "Biosynthesis of menaquinone (vitamin K2) and ubiquinone (coenzyme Q): a perspective on enzymatic mechanisms." Vitam Horm 61;173-218. PMID: 11153266

Shimada01: Shimada H, Shida Y, Nemoto N, Oshima T, Yamagishi A (2001). "Quinone profiles of Thermoplasma acidophilum HO-62." J Bacteriol 183(4);1462-5. PMID: 11157962

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Ashby90: Ashby MN, Edwards PA (1990). "Elucidation of the deficiency in two yeast coenzyme Q mutants. Characterization of the structural gene encoding hexaprenyl pyrophosphate synthetase." J Biol Chem 265(22);13157-64. PMID: 2198286

Bhasin03: Bhasin M, Billinsky JL, Palmer DR (2003). "Steady-state kinetics and molecular evolution of Escherichia coli MenD [(1R,6R)-2-succinyl-6-hydroxy-2,4-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylate synthase], an anomalous thiamin diphosphate-dependent decarboxylase-carboligase." Biochemistry 42(46);13496-504. PMID: 14621995

Bhattacharyya97: Bhattacharyya DK, Kwon O, Meganathan R (1997). "Vitamin K2 (menaquinone) biosynthesis in Escherichia coli: evidence for the presence of an essential histidine residue in o-succinylbenzoyl coenzyme A synthetase." J Bacteriol 1997;179(19);6061-5. PMID: 9324253

BRENDA14: BRENDA team (2014). "Imported from BRENDA version existing on Aug 2014." http://www.brenda-enzymes.org.

Chen11a: Chen M, Jiang M, Sun Y, Guo ZF, Guo Z (2011). "Stabilization of the second oxyanion intermediate by 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoyl-coenzyme A synthase of the menaquinone pathway: spectroscopic evidence of the involvement of a conserved aspartic acid." Biochemistry 50(26);5893-904. PMID: 21627110

Chen13a: Chen M, Ma X, Chen X, Jiang M, Song H, Guo Z (2013). "Identification of a Hotdog Fold Thioesterase Involved in the Biosynthesis of Menaquinone in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 195(12);2768-75. PMID: 23564174

Dahm98: Dahm C, Muller R, Schulte G, Schmidt K, Leistner E (1998). "The role of isochorismate hydroxymutase genes entC and menF in enterobactin and menaquinone biosynthesis in Escherichia coli." Biochim Biophys Acta 1425(2);377-86. PMID: 9795253

Daruwala96: Daruwala R, Kwon O, Meganathan R, Hudspeth ME (1996). "A new isochorismate synthase specifically involved in menaquinone (vitamin K2) biosynthesis encoded by the menF gene." FEMS Microbiol Lett 1996;140(2-3);159-63. PMID: 8764478

Daruwala97: Daruwala R, Bhattacharyya DK, Kwon O, Meganathan R (1997). "Menaquinone (vitamin K2) biosynthesis: overexpression, purification, and characterization of a new isochorismate synthase from Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1997;179(10);3133-8. PMID: 9150206

Fang11: Fang M, Macova A, Hanson KL, Kos J, Palmer DR (2011). "Using substrate analogues to probe the kinetic mechanism and active site of Escherichia coli MenD." Biochemistry 50(40);8712-21. PMID: 21928762

Fujii82: Fujii H, Koyama T, Ogura K (1982). "Hexaprenyl pyrophosphate synthetase from Micrococcus luteus B-P 26. Separation of two essential components." J Biol Chem 257(24);14610-2. PMID: 7174655

Gross06b: Gross J, Cho WK, Lezhneva L, Falk J, Krupinska K, Shinozaki K, Seki M, Herrmann RG, Meurer J (2006). "A plant locus essential for phylloquinone (vitamin K1) biosynthesis originated from a fusion of four eubacterial genes." J Biol Chem 281(25);17189-96. PMID: 16617180

Heide81: Heide L, Leistner E (1981). "Enzymatic synthesis of the coenzyme A ester of o-succinylbenzoic acid, an intermediate in menaquinone (vitamin K2) biosynthesis." FEBS Lett 128(2);201-4. PMID: 7262311

Heide82: Heide L, Arendt S, Leistner E (1982). "Enzymatic synthesis, characterization, and metabolism of the coenzyme A ester of o-succinylbenzoic acid, an intermediate in menaquinone (vitamin K2) biosynthesis." J Biol Chem 1982;257(13);7396-400. PMID: 7045104

Huycke01: Huycke MM, Moore D, Joyce W, Wise P, Shepard L, Kotake Y, Gilmore MS (2001). "Extracellular superoxide production by Enterococcus faecalis requires demethylmenaquinone and is attenuated by functional terminal quinol oxidases." Mol Microbiol 42(3);729-40. PMID: 11722738

Jiang07: Jiang M, Cao Y, Guo ZF, Chen M, Chen X, Guo Z (2007). "Menaquinone biosynthesis in Escherichia coli: identification of 2-succinyl-5-enolpyruvyl-6-hydroxy-3-cyclohexene-1-carboxylate as a novel intermediate and re-evaluation of MenD activity." Biochemistry 46(38);10979-89. PMID: 17760421

Jiang08: Jiang M, Chen X, Guo ZF, Cao Y, Chen M, Guo Z (2008). "Identification and Characterization of (1R,6R)-2-Succinyl-6-hydroxy-2,4-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylate Synthase in the Menaquinone Biosynthesis of Escherichia coli." Biochemistry 47(11);3426-34. PMID: 18284213

Jiang10: Jiang M, Chen M, Guo ZF, Guo Z (2010). "A bicarbonate cofactor modulates 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoyl-coenzyme a synthase in menaquinone biosynthesis of Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 285(39);30159-69. PMID: 20643650

Johnson00: Johnson TW, Shen G, Zybailov B, Kolling D, Reategui R, Beauparlant S, Vassiliev IR, Bryant DA, Jones AD, Golbeck JH, Chitnis PR (2000). "Recruitment of a foreign quinone into the A(1) site of photosystem I. I. Genetic and physiological characterization of phylloquinone biosynthetic pathway mutants in Synechocystis sp. pcc 6803." J Biol Chem 275(12);8523-30. PMID: 10722690

Kerbarh05: Kerbarh O, Ciulli A, Howard NI, Abell C (2005). "Salicylate biosynthesis: overexpression, purification, and characterization of Irp9, a bifunctional salicylate synthase from Yersinia enterocolitica." J Bacteriol 187(15);5061-6. PMID: 16030197

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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