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MetaCyc Pathway: β-alanine biosynthesis IV
Inferred from experiment

Pathway diagram: beta-alanine biosynthesis IV

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Superclasses: BiosynthesisAmino Acids BiosynthesisOther Amino Acid Biosynthesisbeta Alanine Biosynthesis

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Expected Taxonomic Range: Fungi

The production of β-alanine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been shown to be dependent on the degradation of the polyamines spermidine and spermine via 3-aminopropanal [White01].

The formation of β-alanine from spermine is catalyzed by a FAD-dependent non-specific polyamine oxidase, encoded by the FMS1 gene [White01, Landry03]. The 3-aminopropanal produced can be oxidized to β-alanine by one of the three cytoplasmic aldehyde dehydrogenases identified in the yeast genome [Wang98c, NavarroAvino99].

Variants: β-alanine biosynthesis I, β-alanine biosynthesis II, β-alanine biosynthesis III, uracil degradation I (reductive)

Created 07-Jan-2008 by Caspi R, SRI International


Landry03: Landry J, Sternglanz R (2003). "Yeast Fms1 is a FAD-utilizing polyamine oxidase." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 303(3);771-6. PMID: 12670477

NavarroAvino99: Navarro-Avino JP, Prasad R, Miralles VJ, Benito RM, Serrano R (1999). "A proposal for nomenclature of aldehyde dehydrogenases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and characterization of the stress-inducible ALD2 and ALD3 genes." Yeast 15(10A);829-42. PMID: 10407263

Wang98c: Wang X, Mann CJ, Bai Y, Ni L, Weiner H (1998). "Molecular cloning, characterization, and potential roles of cytosolic and mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenases in ethanol metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." J Bacteriol 180(4);822-30. PMID: 9473035

White01: White WH, Gunyuzlu PL, Toyn JH (2001). "Saccharomyces cerevisiae is capable of de Novo pantothenic acid biosynthesis involving a novel pathway of beta-alanine production from spermine." J Biol Chem 276(14);10794-800. PMID: 11154694

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Awal95: Awal H.M.A., Yoshida I., Doe M., Hirasawa E. "3-Aminopropionaldehyde dehydrogenase of millet shoot." Phytochemistry (1995) 40(2) : 393-395.

Bianchi06: Bianchi M, Polticelli F, Ascenzi P, Botta M, Federico R, Mariottini P, Cona A (2006). "Inhibition of polyamine and spermine oxidases by polyamine analogues." FEBS J 273(6);1115-23. PMID: 16519678

Galston90: Galston AW, Sawhney RK (1990). "Polyamines in plant physiology." Plant Physiol 94(2);406-10. PMID: 11537482

Huang05: Huang Q, Liu Q, Hao Q (2005). "Crystal structures of Fms1 and its complex with spermine reveal substrate specificity." J Mol Biol 348(4);951-9. PMID: 15843025

KamadaNobusada08: Kamada-Nobusada T, Hayashi M, Fukazawa M, Sakakibara H, Nishimura M (2008). "A putative peroxisomal polyamine oxidase, AtPAO4, is involved in polyamine catabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana." Plant Cell Physiol 49(9);1272-82. PMID: 18703589

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Miralles95: Miralles VJ, Serrano R (1995). "A genomic locus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with four genes up-regulated by osmotic stress." Mol Microbiol 17(4);653-62. PMID: 8801420

Moschou08: Moschou PN, Sanmartin M, Andriopoulou AH, Rojo E, Sanchez-Serrano JJ, Roubelakis-Angelakis KA (2008). "Bridging the gap between plant and mammalian polyamine catabolism: a novel peroxisomal polyamine oxidase responsible for a full back-conversion pathway in Arabidopsis." Plant Physiol 147(4);1845-57. PMID: 18583528

Tanaka01a: Tanaka K, Matsuno E, Shimizu E, Shibai H, Yorifuji T (2001). "Purification and characterization of aminopropionaldehyde dehydrogenase from Arthrobacter sp. TMP-1." FEMS Microbiol Lett 195(2);191-6. PMID: 11179651

Tavladoraki06: Tavladoraki P, Rossi MN, Saccuti G, Perez-Amador MA, Polticelli F, Angelini R, Federico R (2006). "Heterologous expression and biochemical characterization of a polyamine oxidase from Arabidopsis involved in polyamine back conversion." Plant Physiol 141(4);1519-32. PMID: 16778015

Vujcic02: Vujcic S, Diegelman P, Bacchi CJ, Kramer DL, Porter CW (2002). "Identification and characterization of a novel flavin-containing spermine oxidase of mammalian cell origin." Biochem J 367(Pt 3);665-75. PMID: 12141946

Wang03a: Wang Y, Murray-Stewart T, Devereux W, Hacker A, Frydman B, Woster PM, Casero RA (2003). "Properties of purified recombinant human polyamine oxidase, PAOh1/SMO." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 304(4);605-11. PMID: 12727196

Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by Pathway Tools version 19.5 (software by SRI International) on Tue May 3, 2016, biocyc14.