This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Amino Acids Biosynthesis → Other Amino Acid Biosynthesis → beta Alanine Biosynthesis|
Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Expected Taxonomic Range: Fungi
The formation of β-alanine from spermine is catalyzed by a FAD-dependent non-specific polyamine oxidase, encoded by the FMS1 gene [White01, Landry03]. The 3-aminopropanal produced can be oxidized to β-alanine by one of the three cytoplasmic aldehyde dehydrogenases identified in the yeast genome [Wang98h, NavarroAvino99].
NavarroAvino99: Navarro-Avino JP, Prasad R, Miralles VJ, Benito RM, Serrano R (1999). "A proposal for nomenclature of aldehyde dehydrogenases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and characterization of the stress-inducible ALD2 and ALD3 genes." Yeast 15(10A);829-42. PMID: 10407263
Wang98h: Wang X, Mann CJ, Bai Y, Ni L, Weiner H (1998). "Molecular cloning, characterization, and potential roles of cytosolic and mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenases in ethanol metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." J Bacteriol 180(4);822-30. PMID: 9473035
White01: White WH, Gunyuzlu PL, Toyn JH (2001). "Saccharomyces cerevisiae is capable of de Novo pantothenic acid biosynthesis involving a novel pathway of beta-alanine production from spermine." J Biol Chem 276(14);10794-800. PMID: 11154694
Bianchi06: Bianchi M, Polticelli F, Ascenzi P, Botta M, Federico R, Mariottini P, Cona A (2006). "Inhibition of polyamine and spermine oxidases by polyamine analogues." FEBS J 273(6);1115-23. PMID: 16519678
KamadaNobusada08: Kamada-Nobusada T, Hayashi M, Fukazawa M, Sakakibara H, Nishimura M (2008). "A putative peroxisomal polyamine oxidase, AtPAO4, is involved in polyamine catabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana." Plant Cell Physiol 49(9);1272-82. PMID: 18703589
Moschou08: Moschou PN, Sanmartin M, Andriopoulou AH, Rojo E, Sanchez-Serrano JJ, Roubelakis-Angelakis KA (2008). "Bridging the gap between plant and mammalian polyamine catabolism: a novel peroxisomal polyamine oxidase responsible for a full back-conversion pathway in Arabidopsis." Plant Physiol 147(4);1845-57. PMID: 18583528
Tanaka01: Tanaka K, Matsuno E, Shimizu E, Shibai H, Yorifuji T (2001). "Purification and characterization of aminopropionaldehyde dehydrogenase from Arthrobacter sp. TMP-1." FEMS Microbiol Lett 195(2);191-6. PMID: 11179651
Tavladoraki06: Tavladoraki P, Rossi MN, Saccuti G, Perez-Amador MA, Polticelli F, Angelini R, Federico R (2006). "Heterologous expression and biochemical characterization of a polyamine oxidase from Arabidopsis involved in polyamine back conversion." Plant Physiol 141(4);1519-32. PMID: 16778015
Vujcic02: Vujcic S, Diegelman P, Bacchi CJ, Kramer DL, Porter CW (2002). "Identification and characterization of a novel flavin-containing spermine oxidase of mammalian cell origin." Biochem J 367(Pt 3);665-75. PMID: 12141946
Wang03d: Wang Y, Murray-Stewart T, Devereux W, Hacker A, Frydman B, Woster PM, Casero RA (2003). "Properties of purified recombinant human polyamine oxidase, PAOh1/SMO." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 304(4);605-11. PMID: 12727196
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