MetaCyc Pathway: allantoin degradation to ureidoglycolate I (urea producing)
Inferred from experiment

Enzyme View:

Pathway diagram: allantoin degradation to ureidoglycolate I (urea producing)

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Superclasses: Degradation/Utilization/AssimilationAmines and Polyamines DegradationAllantoin Degradation

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Expected Taxonomic Range: Bacteria , Eukaryota

Many organisms that degrade (S)-(+)-allantoin do so with the concomitant production of urea. There are two steps in which urea can form during allantoin degradation, and the first of them is the conversion of allantoate to S-ureidoglycolate (other organisms can perform this conversion with production of ammonia, see allantoin degradation to ureidoglycolate II (ammonia producing)). The enzyme responsible for this reaction is allantoicase, also known as allantoate amidinohydrolase.

The urea that is formed is usually broken down to ammonia, either directly, by the enzyme urease, or in two steps, via the intermediate urea-1-carboxylate (see Urea Degradation).

Superpathways: allantoin degradation to glyoxylate I, superpathway of allantoin degradation in yeast, superpathway of allantoin degradation in plants, superpathway of purines degradation in plants

Variants: allantoin degradation IV (anaerobic), allantoin degradation to glyoxylate II, allantoin degradation to glyoxylate III, allantoin degradation to ureidoglycolate II (ammonia producing)

Created 06-Nov-2007 by Caspi R, SRI International


Cooper79: Cooper TG, Gorski M, Turoscy V (1979). "A cluster of three genes responsible for allantoin degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Genetics 92(2);383-96. PMID: 385448

Piedras00: Piedras P, Munoz A, Aguilar M, Pineda M (2000). "Allantoate amidinohydrolase (Allantoicase) from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: its purification and catalytic and molecular characterization." Arch Biochem Biophys 378(2);340-8. PMID: 10860551

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Bossinger74: Bossinger J, Lawther RP, Cooper TG (1974). "Nitrogen repression of the allantoin degradative enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." J Bacteriol 118(3);821-9. PMID: 4598006

BRENDA14: BRENDA team (2014). Imported from BRENDA version existing on Aug 2014.

Buckholz91: Buckholz RG, Cooper TG (1991). "The allantoinase (DAL1) gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Yeast 7(9);913-23. PMID: 1803816

Cusa99: Cusa E, Obradors N, Baldoma L, Badia J, Aguilar J (1999). "Genetic analysis of a chromosomal region containing genes required for assimilation of allantoin nitrogen and linked glyoxylate metabolism in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1999;181(24);7479-84. PMID: 10601204

Hayashi00: Hayashi S, Fujiwara S, Noguchi T (2000). "Evolution of urate-degrading enzymes in animal peroxisomes." Cell Biochem Biophys 32 Spring;123-9. PMID: 11330038

Ho11: Ho YY, Hsieh HC, Huang CY (2011). "Biochemical characterization of allantoinase from Escherichia coli BL21." Protein J 30(6);384-94. PMID: 21739308

Kim00b: Kim GJ, Lee DE, Kim HS (2000). "Functional expression and characterization of the two cyclic amidohydrolase enzymes, allantoinase and a novel phenylhydantoinase, from Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 2000;182(24);7021-8. PMID: 11092864

Kim09b: Kim K, Kim MI, Chung J, Ahn JH, Rhee S (2009). "Crystal structure of metal-dependent allantoinase from Escherichia coli." J Mol Biol 387(5);1067-74. PMID: 19248789

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Leulliot04: Leulliot N, Quevillon-Cheruel S, Sorel I, Graille M, Meyer P, Liger D, Blondeau K, Janin J, van Tilbeurgh H (2004). "Crystal structure of yeast allantoicase reveals a repeated jelly roll motif." J Biol Chem 279(22);23447-52. PMID: 15020593

Mulrooney03: Mulrooney SB, Hausinger RP (2003). "Metal ion dependence of recombinant Escherichia coli allantoinase." J Bacteriol 185(1);126-34. PMID: 12486048

Trijbels66: Trijbels F, Vogels GD (1966). "Allantoicase and ureidoglycolase in Pseudomonas and Penicillium species." Biochim Biophys Acta 118(2);387-95. PMID: 4960174

vanVuuren91: van Vuuren HJ, Daugherty JR, Rai R, Cooper TG (1991). "Upstream induction sequence, the cis-acting element required for response to the allantoin pathway inducer and enhancement of operation of the nitrogen-regulated upstream activation sequence in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." J Bacteriol 173(22);7186-95. PMID: 1938916

Yang04: Yang J, Han KH (2004). "Functional characterization of allantoinase genes from Arabidopsis and a nonureide-type legume black locust." Plant Physiol 134(3);1039-49. PMID: 14976234

Yoo85: Yoo HS, Genbauffe FS, Cooper TG (1985). "Identification of the ureidoglycolate hydrolase gene in the DAL gene cluster of Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Mol Cell Biol 5(9);2279-88. PMID: 3915539

Yoo91: Yoo HS, Cooper TG (1991). "Sequences of two adjacent genes, one (DAL2) encoding allantoicase and another (DCG1) sensitive to nitrogen-catabolite repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Gene 104(1);55-62. PMID: 1916277

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by Pathway Tools version 20.0 (software by SRI International) on Fri May 6, 2016, BIOCYC13B.