This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
|Superclasses:||Degradation/Utilization/Assimilation → Amines and Polyamines Degradation → Allantoin Degradation|
Many organisms that degrade (S)-(+)-allantoin do so with the concomitant production of urea. There are two steps in which urea can form during allantoin degradation, and the first of them is the conversion of allantoate to S-ureidoglycolate (other organisms can perform this conversion with production of ammonia, see allantoin degradation to ureidoglycolate II (ammonia producing)). The enzyme responsible for this reaction is allantoicase, also known as allantoate amidinohydrolase.
Piedras00: Piedras P, Munoz A, Aguilar M, Pineda M (2000). "Allantoate amidinohydrolase (Allantoicase) from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: its purification and catalytic and molecular characterization." Arch Biochem Biophys 378(2);340-8. PMID: 10860551
Piedras95: Piedras, P, Cardenas, J, Pineda, M (1995). "Solubilization and extraction of allantoinase and allantoicase from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii." Phytochemical Analysis.6(5):239-243.
Cusa99: Cusa E, Obradors N, Baldoma L, Badia J, Aguilar J (1999). "Genetic analysis of a chromosomal region containing genes required for assimilation of allantoin nitrogen and linked glyoxylate metabolism in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1999;181(24);7479-84. PMID: 10601204
Kim00b: Kim GJ, Lee DE, Kim HS (2000). "Functional expression and characterization of the two cyclic amidohydrolase enzymes, allantoinase and a novel phenylhydantoinase, from Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 2000;182(24);7021-8. PMID: 11092864
Leulliot04: Leulliot N, Quevillon-Cheruel S, Sorel I, Graille M, Meyer P, Liger D, Blondeau K, Janin J, van Tilbeurgh H (2004). "Crystal structure of yeast allantoicase reveals a repeated jelly roll motif." J Biol Chem 279(22);23447-52. PMID: 15020593
vanVuuren91: van Vuuren HJ, Daugherty JR, Rai R, Cooper TG (1991). "Upstream induction sequence, the cis-acting element required for response to the allantoin pathway inducer and enhancement of operation of the nitrogen-regulated upstream activation sequence in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." J Bacteriol 173(22);7186-95. PMID: 1938916
Yoo91: Yoo HS, Cooper TG (1991). "Sequences of two adjacent genes, one (DAL2) encoding allantoicase and another (DCG1) sensitive to nitrogen-catabolite repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Gene 104(1);55-62. PMID: 1916277
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