This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Synonyms: hydroxycinnamic acid amides biosynthesis
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Secondary Metabolites Biosynthesis → Nitrogen-Containing Secondary Compounds Biosynthesis|
Expected Taxonomic Range: Embryophyta
Like hydroxycinnamic acid serotonin amides (hydroxycinnamic acid serotonin amides biosynthesis), hydroxycinnamic acid tyramine amides belong to the larger group of N-hydroxycinnamic acid amides (HCAAs). HCAAs are synthesized by the condensation of hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA thioesters and aromatic amines. The hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA thioesters include cinnamoyl-CoA, p-coumaroyl-CoA, caffeoyl-CoA, feruloyl-CoA and sinapoyl-CoA. The aromatic amines include tyramine, octopamine, tryptamine, serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline. The biosynthesis of HCAAs of tyramine is catalyzed by tyramine N-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (THT).
Hydroxycinnamic acid tyramine amides are wide-spread in higher plants. They are frequently found insoluble constituents of the cell wall. Incorporation of hydroxycinnamic acid tyramine amides into cell wall is believed to enhance the efficiency of cell all to act as a barrier against pathogens by increasing the rigidity and decreasing the digestibility of the cell wall. In agreement with their proposed roles, the potato THT activity was shown increase upon pathogen (P. infestans) infection, and also increase in wounded tuber [Schmidt99].
Hohlfeld95: Hohlfeld H, Schurmann W, Scheel D, Strack D (1995). "Partial Purification and Characterization of Hydroxycinnamoyl-Coenzyme A:Tyramine Hydroxycinnamoyltransferase from Cell Suspension Cultures of Solanum tuberosum." Plant Physiol 107(2);545-552. PMID: 12228382
Negrel97: Negrel J, Javelle F (1997). "Purification, characterization and partial amino acid sequencing of hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:tyramine N-(hydroxycinnamoyl)transferase from tobacco cell-suspension cultures." Eur J Biochem 247(3);1127-35. PMID: 9288939
Schmidt99: Schmidt A, Grimm R, Schmidt J, Scheel D, Strack D, Rosahl S (1999). "Cloning and expression of a potato cDNA encoding hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:tyramine N-(hydroxycinnamoyl)transferase." J Biol Chem 274(7);4273-80. PMID: 9933628
Yu99: Yu M, Facchini PJ (1999). "Purification, characterization, and immunolocalization of hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA: tyramine N-(hydroxycinnamoyl)transferase from opium poppy." Planta 209(1);33-44. PMID: 10467029
Cole05: Cole SH, Carney GE, McClung CA, Willard SS, Taylor BJ, Hirsh J (2005). "Two functional but noncomplementing Drosophila tyrosine decarboxylase genes: distinct roles for neural tyramine and octopamine in female fertility." J Biol Chem 280(15);14948-55. PMID: 15691831
Facchini94: Facchini, Peter, De Luca, Vincenzo "Differential and tissue-specific expression of a gene family for tyrosine/dopa decarboxylase in Opium poppy." The journal of biological chemistry (1994) 269(43):26684-26690.
Facchini95: Facchini PJ, De Luca V (1995). "Expression in Escherichia coli and partial characterization of two tyrosine/dopa decarboxylases from opium poppy." Phytochemistry 38(5);1119-26. PMID: 7766394
Facchini95a: Facchini PJ, De Luca V (1995). "Phloem-Specific Expression of Tyrosine/Dopa Decarboxylase Genes and the Biosynthesis of Isoquinoline Alkaloids in Opium Poppy." Plant Cell 7(11);1811-1821. PMID: 12242361
Gyorgy09: Gyorgy Z, Jaakola L, Neubauer P, Hohtola A (2009). "Isolation and genotype-dependent, organ-specific expression analysis of a Rhodiola rosea cDNA encoding tyrosine decarboxylase." J Plant Physiol 166(14);1581-6. PMID: 19487048
Kezmarsky05: Kezmarsky ND, Xu H, Graham DE, White RH (2005). "Identification and characterization of a L-tyrosine decarboxylase in Methanocaldococcus jannaschii." Biochim Biophys Acta 1722(2);175-82. PMID: 15715981
MaldonadoMendoz96: Maldonado-Mendoza, Ignacio, Lopez-Meyer, Melina, Galef, Jennifer, Burnett, Ronald, Nessler, Craig "Molecular analysis of a new member of the Opium poppy tyrosine/3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylase gene family." Plant Physiology (1996) 110: 43-49.
Rubio06: Rubio S, Larson TR, Gonzalez-Guzman M, Alejandro S, Graham IA, Serrano R, Rodriguez PL (2006). "An Arabidopsis mutant impaired in coenzyme A biosynthesis is sugar dependent for seedling establishment." Plant Physiol 140(3);830-43. PMID: 16415216
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