This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the
If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Some taxa known to possess this pathway include
Expected Taxonomic Range:
In addition to serving as an intermediate for the medicinal alkaloid berberine synthesis,
S-tetrahydrocolumbamine can be converted to
palmatine via either
Created 01-Feb-2007 by
Amann88: Amann M, Nagakura N, Zenk MH "Purification and properties of (S)-tetrahydroprotoberberine oxidase from suspension-cultured cells of Berberis wilsoniae." Eur. J. Biochem., 1988, 175:17-25.
Rueffer86: Rueffer, M, Amann, M, Zenk, MH (1986). "S-adenosyl-methionine: columbamine-O-methyltransferase, a compartmentalized enzyme in protoberberine biosynthesis." Plant Cell Reports 3:182-185.
Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway
Dang12a: Dang TT, Facchini PJ (2012). "Characterization of three O-methyltransferases involved in noscapine biosynthesis in opium poppy." Plant Physiol 159(2);618-31. PMID: 22535422
Galneder88: Galneder E, Rueffer M, Wanner G, Tabata M, Zenk MH "Alternative final steps in berberine biosynthesis in Coptis japonica cell cultures." Plant Cell Report, 1988, 7:1-4.
Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."
Morishige02: Morishige T, Dubouzet E, Choi KB, Yazaki K, Sato F (2002). "Molecular cloning of columbamine O-methyltransferase from cultured Coptis japonica cells." Eur J Biochem 269(22);5659-67. PMID: 12423366
Reuffer94: Reuffer Martina, Zenk Meinhart H "Canadine synthase from Thalictrum tuberosum cell cultures catalyses the formation of the methylenedioxy bridge in berberine synthesis." Phytochemistry, 1994, 36(5):1219-1223.
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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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