This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Secondary Metabolites Biosynthesis → Nitrogen-Containing Secondary Compounds Biosynthesis → Alkaloids Biosynthesis → Quinolizidine Alkaloids Biosynthesis|
Expected Taxonomic Range: Fabaceae
Lupanine is a tetracyclic quinolizidine alkaloid. Quinolizidine alkaloids are mainly distributed in the family Leguminosae. In some leguminous species, the final products of their biosynthesis as well as the storage forms are the ester alkaloids, usually as the esters of acetic acid, tiglic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid. The tigloyl esters of quinolizidine alkaloids are found as the major forms among ester alkaloids in some Lupinus plants including L. termis, L. albus, and L. polyphyllus. Quinolizidine alkaloids were shown to have inhibitory activities against insects.
Hartmann80: Hartmann T, Schoofs G, Wink M (1980). "A chloroplast-localized lysine decarboxylase of Lupinus polyphyllus: the first enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of quinolizidine alkaloids." FEBS Lett 115(1);35-8. PMID: 7389917
Suzuki94: Suzuki H, Murakoshi I, Saito K (1994). "A novel O-tigloyltransferase for alkaloid biosynthesis in plants. Purification, characterization, and distribution in Lupinus plants." J Biol Chem 269(22);15853-60. PMID: 8195240
BaronaGomez04: Barona-Gomez F, Wong U, Giannakopulos AE, Derrick PJ, Challis GL (2004). "Identification of a cluster of genes that directs desferrioxamine biosynthesis in Streptomyces coelicolor M145." J Am Chem Soc 126(50);16282-3. PMID: 15600304
Kanjee11: Kanjee U, Gutsche I, Alexopoulos E, Zhao B, El Bakkouri M, Thibault G, Liu K, Ramachandran S, Snider J, Pai EF, Houry WA (2011). "Linkage between the bacterial acid stress and stringent responses: the structure of the inducible lysine decarboxylase." EMBO J 30(5);931-44. PMID: 21278708
Kanjee11a: Kanjee U, Gutsche I, Ramachandran S, Houry WA (2011). "The enzymatic activities of the Escherichia coli basic aliphatic amino acid decarboxylases exhibit a pH zone of inhibition." Biochemistry 50(43);9388-98. PMID: 21957966
Kikuchi97a: Kikuchi Y, Kojima H, Tanaka T, Takatsuka Y, Kamio Y (1997). "Characterization of a second lysine decarboxylase isolated from Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1997;179(14);4486-92. PMID: 9226257
Okada05: Okada T, Hirai MY, Suzuki H, Yamazaki M, Saito K (2005). "Molecular characterization of a novel quinolizidine alkaloid O-tigloyltransferase: cDNA cloning, catalytic activity of recombinant protein and expression analysis in Lupinus plants." Plant Cell Physiol 46(1);233-44. PMID: 15659437
Rubio06: Rubio S, Larson TR, Gonzalez-Guzman M, Alejandro S, Graham IA, Serrano R, Rodriguez PL (2006). "An Arabidopsis mutant impaired in coenzyme A biosynthesis is sugar dependent for seedling establishment." Plant Physiol 140(3);830-43. PMID: 16415216
Sabo74: Sabo DL, Boeker EA, Byers B, Waron H, Fischer EH (1974). "Purification and physical properties of inducible Escherichia coli lysine decarboxylase." Biochemistry 1974;13(4);662-70. PMID: 4590109
Sabo74a: Sabo DL, Fischer EH (1974). "Chemical properties of Escherichia coli lysine decarboxylase including a segment of its pyridoxal 5'-phosphate binding site." Biochemistry 13(4);670-6. PMID: 4204273
Schupp87: Schupp, T., Waldmeier, U., Divers, M. (1987). "Biosynthesis of desferrioxamine B in Streptomyces pilosus: evidence for the involvement of lysine decarboxylase." FEMS Microbiol. Let. 42: 135-139.
Takatsuka99: Takatsuka Y, Onoda M, Sugiyama T, Muramoto K, Tomita T, Kamio Y (1999). "Novel characteristics of Selenomonas ruminantium lysine decarboxylase capable of decarboxylating both L-lysine and L-ornithine." Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 63(6);1063-9. PMID: 10427692
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