This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Synonyms: GGPP biosynthesis
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Cofactors, Prosthetic Groups, Electron Carriers Biosynthesis → Polyprenyl Biosynthesis → Geranylgeranyl Diphosphate Biosynthesis|
Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Bacillus subtilis , Capsicum annuum , Homo sapiens , Methanothermobacter marburgensis Marburg , Micrococcus luteus , Micrococcus luteus B-P 26 , Pantoea agglomerans [Math92], Rhodobacter capsulatus , Saccharomyces cerevisiae
All-trans-geranylgeranyl diphosphate (also known as geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, or GGPP) is a crucial compound involved in the biosynthesis of a variety of terpenes and terpenoids, including central compounds such as ubiquinones and menaquinones.
In plants, geranylgeranyl diphosphate is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of essentail compounds such as chlorophylls, carotenoids, tocopherols, plastoquinones, and gibberellins [RodriguezConcep02], as well as a variety of secondary metabolites.
In addition, GGPP is also used in posttranslational modifications of proteins (geranylgeranylation) which is important for membrane adhesion as well as the function of some proteins [Caldelari01, Johnson05].
GGPP is synthesized from (2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate either by dedicated enzymes, such as the farnesyltranstransferase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or by the action of polyprenyl transferases such as the solanesyl diphosphate synthase from Rhodobacter capsulatus or octaprenyl diphosphate synthase from Escherichia coli K-12. It should be noted that the building blocks for (2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate are synthesized in different organisms by different pathways. While most eukaryotes and some bacteria use the mevalonate pathway I, most bacteria, as well as green algae utilize the methylerythritol phosphate pathway I (as described in the two superpathways superpathway of geranylgeranyldiphosphate biosynthesis I (via mevalonate) and superpathway of geranylgeranyl diphosphate biosynthesis II (via MEP)).
Superpathways: Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum biosynthetic metabolism , taxadiene biosynthesis (engineered) , superpathway of geranylgeranyl diphosphate biosynthesis II (via MEP) , superpathway of geranylgeranyldiphosphate biosynthesis I (via mevalonate) , superpathway of phylloquinol biosynthesis
Unification Links: AraCyc:PWY-5120
Caldelari01: Caldelari D, Sternberg H, Rodriguez-Concepcion M, Gruissem W, Yalovsky S (2001). "Efficient prenylation by a plant geranylgeranyltransferase-I requires a functional CaaL box motif and a proximal polybasic domain." Plant Physiol 126(4);1416-29. PMID: 11500541
Johnson05: Johnson CD, Chary SN, Chernoff EA, Zeng Q, Running MP, Crowell DN (2005). "Protein geranylgeranyltransferase I is involved in specific aspects of abscisic acid and auxin signaling in Arabidopsis." Plant Physiol 139(2);722-33. PMID: 16183844
Okada00: Okada K, Saito T, Nakagawa T, Kawamukai M, Kamiya Y (2000). "Five geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases expressed in different organs are localized into three subcellular compartments in Arabidopsis." Plant Physiol 122(4);1045-56. PMID: 10759500
RodriguezConcep02: Rodriguez-Concepcion M, Boronat A (2002). "Elucidation of the methylerythritol phosphate pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis in bacteria and plastids. A metabolic milestone achieved through genomics." Plant Physiol 130(3);1079-89. PMID: 12427975
Armstrong89: Armstrong GA, Alberti M, Leach F, Hearst JE (1989). "Nucleotide sequence, organization, and nature of the protein products of the carotenoid biosynthesis gene cluster of Rhodobacter capsulatus." Mol Gen Genet 216(2-3);254-68. PMID: 2747617
Armstrong90: Armstrong GA, Schmidt A, Sandmann G, Hearst JE (1990). "Genetic and biochemical characterization of carotenoid biosynthesis mutants of Rhodobacter capsulatus." J Biol Chem 265(14);8329-38. PMID: 2159477
Armstrong90a: Armstrong GA, Alberti M, Hearst JE (1990). "Conserved enzymes mediate the early reactions of carotenoid biosynthesis in nonphotosynthetic and photosynthetic prokaryotes." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 87(24);9975-9. PMID: 2263648
Badillo95: Badillo A, Steppuhn J, Deruere J, Camara B, Kuntz M (1995). "Structure of a functional geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase gene from Capsicum annuum." Plant Mol Biol 27(2);425-8. PMID: 7888631
Bartley92: Bartley GE, Viitanen PV, Bacot KO, Scolnik PA (1992). "A tomato gene expressed during fruit ripening encodes an enzyme of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway." J Biol Chem 267(8);5036-9. PMID: 1544888
Chen08: Chen CKM, Hudock MP, Zhang Y, Guo RT, Cao R, No JH, Liang PH, Ko TP, Chang TH, Chang SC, Song Y, Axelson J, Kumar A, Wang AH, Oldfield E (2008). "Inhibition of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase by bisphosphonates: a crystallographic and computational investigation." J Med Chem 51(18);5594-607. PMID: 18800762
Chen93a: Chen A, Poulter CD (1993). "Purification and characterization of farnesyl diphosphate/geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase. A thermostable bifunctional enzyme from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum." J Biol Chem 268(15);11002-7. PMID: 8388380
Chen94: Chen A, Poulter CD (1994). "Isolation and characterization of idsA: the gene for the short chain isoprenyl diphosphate synthase from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum." Arch Biochem Biophys 314(2);399-404. PMID: 7979381
Dogbo87: Dogbo, O., Camara, B. (1987). "Purification of isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase from Capsicum chromoplasts by affinity chromatography." Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Lipids and Lipid Metabolism 920(2):140-148.
Ericsson98: Ericsson J, Greene JM, Carter KC, Shell BK, Duan DR, Florence C, Edwards PA (1998). "Human geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase: isolation of the cDNA, chromosomal mapping and tissue expression." J Lipid Res 39(9);1731-9. PMID: 9741684
IwataReuyl03: Iwata-Reuyl D, Math SK, Desai SB, Poulter CD (2003). "Bacterial phytoene synthase: molecular cloning, expression, and characterization of Erwinia herbicola phytoene synthase." Biochemistry 42(11);3359-65. PMID: 12641468
Kainou99: Kainou T, Kawamura K, Tanaka K, Matsuda H, Kawamukai M (1999). "Identification of the GGPS1 genes encoding geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases from mouse and human." Biochim Biophys Acta 1437(3);333-40. PMID: 10101267
Kavanagh06: Kavanagh KL, Dunford JE, Bunkoczi G, Russell RG, Oppermann U (2006). "The crystal structure of human geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase reveals a novel hexameric arrangement and inhibitory product binding." J Biol Chem 281(31);22004-12. PMID: 16698791
Kuntz92: Kuntz M, Romer S, Suire C, Hugueney P, Weil JH, Schantz R, Camara B (1992). "Identification of a cDNA for the plastid-located geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase from Capsicum annuum: correlative increase in enzyme activity and transcript level during fruit ripening." Plant J 2(1);25-34. PMID: 1303794
Minami09: Minami A, Tajima N, Higuchi Y, Toyomasu T, Sassa T, Kato N, Dairi T (2009). "Identification and functional analysis of brassicicene C biosynthetic gene cluster in Alternaria brassicicola." Bioorg Med Chem Lett 19(3);870-4. PMID: 19097780
Saikia09: Saikia S, Scott B (2009). "Functional analysis and subcellular localization of two geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases from Penicillium paxilli." Mol Genet Genomics 282(3);257-71. PMID: 19529962
Sitthithaworn10: Sitthithaworn W, Wungsintaweekul J, Sirisuntipong T, Charoonratana T, Ebizuka Y, De-Eknamkul W (2010). "Cloning and expression of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase cDNA from Croton stellatopilosus and expression of 2C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate synthase and geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase, key enzymes of plaunotol biosynthesis." J Plant Physiol 167(4);292-300. PMID: 19782428
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