MetaCyc Pathway: chlorophyll a biosynthesis II
Inferred from experiment

Pathway diagram: chlorophyll a biosynthesis II

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Superclasses: BiosynthesisCofactors, Prosthetic Groups, Electron Carriers BiosynthesisPorphyrin Compounds BiosynthesisChlorophyll BiosynthesisChlorophyll a Biosynthesis

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Arabidopsis thaliana col

Expected Taxonomic Range: Viridiplantae

General Background

Chlorophyll is a green photosynthetic pigment found in photosynthetic plants, algae, and bacteria. Its name is derived from ancient Greek: chloros = green and phyllon = leaf. Chlorophyll functions as the main light harvesting pigment in photosynthesis, capturing photons and transfering them to the reaction centers. Chlorophyll absorbs mostly in the blue and, to a lesser extent, red portions of the electromagnetic spectrum, hence its intense green color. There are several variants of chlorophyll ( chlorophyll a, chlorophyll a', chlorophyll b, chlorophyll b', chlorophyll c1, chlorophyll c2, chlorophyll d, chlorophyll d', chlorophyll f and chlorophyll f').

About This Pathway

Chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b (Chlb) are esterified by a phytol side chain. The esterification of the side chain is the last step in the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway.

It has been shown that the enzyme that is responsible for the esterification, EC, chlorophyll synthase, can attach either a phytol chain (see chlorophyll a biosynthesis I) or a geranylgeriol side chain (in both cases a diphosphate form is used by the enzyme). In the latter case, the geranylgeraniol side chain is reduced after the esterification by EC, geranylgeranyl diphosphate reductase, producing a phytyl side chain in three steps [Keller98].

Variants: chlorophyll a biosynthesis I, chlorophyll a biosynthesis III, chlorophyll cycle, superpathway of bacteriochlorophyll a biosynthesis

Unification Links: AraCyc:PWY-5064


Keller98: Keller Y, Bouvier F, d'Harlingue A, Camara B (1998). "Metabolic compartmentation of plastid prenyllipid biosynthesis--evidence for the involvement of a multifunctional geranylgeranyl reductase." Eur J Biochem 251(1-2);413-7. PMID: 9492312

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Chew07: Chew AG, Bryant DA (2007). "Characterization of a plant-like protochlorophyllide a divinyl reductase in green sulfur bacteria." J Biol Chem 282(5);2967-75. PMID: 17148453

Gaubier95: Gaubier P, Wu HJ, Laudie M, Delseny M, Grellet F (1995). "A chlorophyll synthetase gene from Arabidopsis thaliana." Mol Gen Genet 249(1);58-64. PMID: 8552034

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Nagata05: Nagata N, Tanaka R, Satoh S, Tanaka A (2005). "Identification of a vinyl reductase gene for chlorophyll synthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana and implications for the evolution of Prochlorococcus species." Plant Cell 17(1);233-40. PMID: 15632054

Nakanishi05: Nakanishi H, Nozue H, Suzuki K, Kaneko Y, Taguchi G, Hayashida N (2005). "Characterization of the Arabidopsis thaliana mutant pcb2 which accumulates divinyl chlorophylls." Plant Cell Physiol 46(3);467-73. PMID: 15695432

Oster97: Oster U., Rudiger W. (1997). "The G4 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana encodes a chlorophyll synthase of etiolated plants." Bot. Acta 110 : 420-423.

Tsukatani13: Tsukatani Y, Yamamoto H, Harada J, Yoshitomi T, Nomata J, Kasahara M, Mizoguchi T, Fujita Y, Tamiaki H (2013). "An unexpectedly branched biosynthetic pathway for bacteriochlorophyll b capable of absorbing near-infrared light." Sci Rep 3;1217. PMID: 23386973

Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by Pathway Tools version 20.0 (software by SRI International) on Fri May 6, 2016, BIOCYC13A.