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MetaCyc Pathway: phytyl diphosphate biosynthesis
Inferred from experiment

Pathway diagram: phytyl diphosphate biosynthesis

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Synonyms: phytyl pyrophosphate biosynthesis, phytyl-PP biosynthesis

Superclasses: BiosynthesisSecondary Metabolites BiosynthesisTerpenoids BiosynthesisDiterpenoids BiosynthesisPhytyl Diphosphate Biosynthesis

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Arabidopsis thaliana col

Expected Taxonomic Range: Chlorophyta, Cyanobacteria, Rhodophyta, Viridiplantae

General Background

The phytyl chain is an essential component in the structure of diverse prenyllipids such as chlorophylls, tocopherols and phylloquinone [Keller98]. The phytyl chain allows for the insertion of those compounds into the hydrophobic core of membranes such as the plastid membrane of chloroplasts and etioplasts. To date, two pathways of prenylation have been described:

a) The first pathway concerns the prenylation of chlorophyllide a with geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) to form geranylgeranyl-chlorophyll a, which is subsequently converted through several successive steps of reduction to form chlorophyll a (see chlorophyll a biosynthesis II).

b) In the second pathway (this pathway) free geranylgeranyl diphosphate is converted to phytyl diphosphate, which is then prenylated to chlorophyllide a to form chlorophyll a.

The former route was detected in plant etioplasts [Rudiger80], whilst the second was reported in chloroplasts, where the biosynthesis of tocopherol [Soll80] and phylloquinone [Schultz81] also utilizes preformed phytyl diphosphate.

Enzyme Information:

In Arabidopsis thaliana a multifunctional enzyme was shown to be able to catalyze the multiple reduction steps in both routes: geranylgeranyl diphosphate to phytyl diphosphate as well as geranylgeranyl-chlorophyll a to chlorophyll a [Keller98].

Superpathways: superpathway of phylloquinol biosynthesis

Unification Links: AraCyc:PWY-5063

Revised 03-Jun-2009 by Caspi R, SRI International


Keller98: Keller Y, Bouvier F, d'Harlingue A, Camara B (1998). "Metabolic compartmentation of plastid prenyllipid biosynthesis--evidence for the involvement of a multifunctional geranylgeranyl reductase." Eur J Biochem 251(1-2);413-7. PMID: 9492312

Rudiger80: Rudiger W, Benz J, Guthoff C (1980). "Detection and partial characterization of activity of chlorophyll synthetase in etioplast membranes." Eur J Biochem 109(1);193-200. PMID: 7408876

Schultz81: Schultz G, Ellerbrock BH, Soll J (1981). "Site of prenylation reaction in synthesis of phylloquinone (vitamin K1) by spinach chloroplasts." Eur J Biochem 117(2);329-32. PMID: 7274213

Soll80: Soll J, Kemmerling M, Schultz G (1980). "Tocopherol and plastoquinone synthesis in spinach chloroplasts subfractions." Arch Biochem Biophys 204(2);544-50. PMID: 7447462

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by Pathway Tools version 19.5 (software by SRI International) on Sat Apr 30, 2016, biocyc14.