This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Cofactors, Prosthetic Groups, Electron Carriers Biosynthesis → Vitamins Biosynthesis → Pantothenate Biosynthesis|
Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Spinacia oleracea
Expected Taxonomic Range: Magnoliophyta
(R)-4'-phosphopantothenate is the universal precursor for the synthesis of the 4'-phosphopantetheine moiety of coenzyme A and acyl carrier protein. Only plants and microorganisms can synthesize pantothenate de novo. In contrast to the bacterial biosynthesis of pantothenate, which have been extensively studied (see phosphopantothenate biosynthesis I), plant pathways for pantothenate formation are still not well understood.
Although in most plants and bacteria pantoate:β-alanine ligase catalyzes the formation of pantothenate from pantoate and β-alanine, another route of synthesis has been described in Spinacia oleracea where pantothenate can be formed using pantolactone in place of pantoate [Julliard94, Raman04].
Only one of the pathway's enzymes has been purified: 2-dehydropantolactone reductase. This enzyme was shown to be predominantly located in the chloroplast stroma, suggesting that the formation of pantothenate via pantoyl lactone might be plastidic whereas pantoate-dependent pantothenate biosynthesis might be restricted to the cytosol [Julliard94].
Superpathways: pantothenate and coenzyme A biosynthesis III
Chetnani09: Chetnani B, Das S, Kumar P, Surolia A, Vijayan M (2009). "Mycobacterium tuberculosis pantothenate kinase: possible changes in location of ligands during enzyme action." Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 65(Pt 4);312-25. PMID: 19307712
Hong07: Hong BS, Senisterra G, Rabeh WM, Vedadi M, Leonardi R, Zhang YM, Rock CO, Jackowski S, Park HW (2007). "Crystal structures of human pantothenate kinases. Insights into allosteric regulation and mutations linked to a neurodegeneration disorder." J Biol Chem 282(38);27984-93. PMID: 17631502
Ivey04: Ivey RA, Zhang YM, Virga KG, Hevener K, Lee RE, Rock CO, Jackowski S, Park HW (2004). "The structure of the pantothenate kinase.ADP.pantothenate ternary complex reveals the relationship between the binding sites for substrate, allosteric regulator, and antimetabolites." J Biol Chem 279(34);35622-9. PMID: 15136582
Olzhausen09: Olzhausen J, Schubbe S, Schuller HJ (2009). "Genetic analysis of coenzyme A biosynthesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: identification of a conditional mutation in the pantothenate kinase gene CAB1." Curr Genet 55(2);163-73. PMID: 19266201
Strauss02: Strauss E, Begley TP (2002). "The antibiotic activity of N-pentylpantothenamide results from its conversion to ethyldethia-coenzyme a, a coenzyme a antimetabolite." J Biol Chem 277(50);48205-9. PMID: 12372838
Tilton06: Tilton GB, Wedemeyer WJ, Browse J, Ohlrogge J (2006). "Plant coenzyme A biosynthesis: characterization of two pantothenate kinases from Arabidopsis." Plant Mol Biol 61(4-5);629-42. PMID: 16897480
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