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MetaCyc Pathway: phosphopantothenate biosynthesis II
Inferred from experiment

Pathway diagram: phosphopantothenate biosynthesis II

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Superclasses: BiosynthesisCofactors, Prosthetic Groups, Electron Carriers BiosynthesisVitamins BiosynthesisPantothenate Biosynthesis

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Spinacia oleracea

Expected Taxonomic Range: Magnoliophyta

General Background

(R)-4'-phosphopantothenate is the universal precursor for the synthesis of the 4'-phosphopantetheine moiety of coenzyme A and acyl carrier protein. Only plants and microorganisms can synthesize pantothenate de novo. In contrast to the bacterial biosynthesis of pantothenate, which have been extensively studied (see phosphopantothenate biosynthesis I), plant pathways for pantothenate formation are still not well understood.

Although in most plants and bacteria pantoate:β-alanine ligase catalyzes the formation of pantothenate from pantoate and β-alanine, another route of synthesis has been described in Spinacia oleracea where pantothenate can be formed using pantolactone in place of pantoate [Julliard94, Raman04].

Only one of the pathway's enzymes has been purified: 2-dehydropantolactone reductase. This enzyme was shown to be predominantly located in the chloroplast stroma, suggesting that the formation of pantothenate via pantoyl lactone might be plastidic whereas pantoate-dependent pantothenate biosynthesis might be restricted to the cytosol [Julliard94].

Superpathways: pantothenate and coenzyme A biosynthesis III

Variants: phosphopantothenate biosynthesis I, phosphopantothenate biosynthesis III


Julliard94: Julliard J.H. "Purification and characterization of oxopantoyl lactone reductase from higher plants: role in pantothenate synthesis." Bot. Acta (1994) 107 : 191-200.

Raman04: Raman S.B., Rathinasabapathi B. "Pantothenate synthesis in plants." Plant Science (2004) 167 : 961-968.

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

BRENDA14: BRENDA team (2014). Imported from BRENDA version existing on Aug 2014.

Chetnani09: Chetnani B, Das S, Kumar P, Surolia A, Vijayan M (2009). "Mycobacterium tuberculosis pantothenate kinase: possible changes in location of ligands during enzyme action." Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 65(Pt 4);312-25. PMID: 19307712

Hong07: Hong BS, Senisterra G, Rabeh WM, Vedadi M, Leonardi R, Zhang YM, Rock CO, Jackowski S, Park HW (2007). "Crystal structures of human pantothenate kinases. Insights into allosteric regulation and mutations linked to a neurodegeneration disorder." J Biol Chem 282(38);27984-93. PMID: 17631502

Ivey04: Ivey RA, Zhang YM, Virga KG, Hevener K, Lee RE, Rock CO, Jackowski S, Park HW (2004). "The structure of the pantothenate kinase.ADP.pantothenate ternary complex reveals the relationship between the binding sites for substrate, allosteric regulator, and antimetabolites." J Biol Chem 279(34);35622-9. PMID: 15136582

Kupke03: Kupke T, Hernandez-Acosta P, Culianez-Macia FA (2003). "4'-phosphopantetheine and coenzyme A biosynthesis in plants." J Biol Chem 278(40);38229-37. PMID: 12860978

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Olzhausen09: Olzhausen J, Schubbe S, Schuller HJ (2009). "Genetic analysis of coenzyme A biosynthesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: identification of a conditional mutation in the pantothenate kinase gene CAB1." Curr Genet 55(2);163-73. PMID: 19266201

Song92: Song WJ, Jackowski S (1992). "coaA and rts are allelic and located at kilobase 3532 on the Escherichia coli physical map." J Bacteriol 174(5);1705-6. PMID: 1311303

Song94: Song WJ, Jackowski S (1994). "Kinetics and regulation of pantothenate kinase from Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 1994;269(43);27051-8. PMID: 7929447

Spry08: Spry C, Kirk K, Saliba KJ (2008). "Coenzyme A biosynthesis: an antimicrobial drug target." FEMS Microbiol Rev 32(1);56-106. PMID: 18173393

Strauss02: Strauss E, Begley TP (2002). "The antibiotic activity of N-pentylpantothenamide results from its conversion to ethyldethia-coenzyme a, a coenzyme a antimetabolite." J Biol Chem 277(50);48205-9. PMID: 12372838

Tilton06: Tilton GB, Wedemeyer WJ, Browse J, Ohlrogge J (2006). "Plant coenzyme A biosynthesis: characterization of two pantothenate kinases from Arabidopsis." Plant Mol Biol 61(4-5);629-42. PMID: 16897480

Vallari87: Vallari DS, Jackowski S, Rock CO (1987). "Regulation of pantothenate kinase by coenzyme A and its thioesters." J Biol Chem 1987;262(6);2468-71. PMID: 3029083

Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by Pathway Tools version 19.5 (software by SRI International) on Fri Apr 29, 2016, biocyc14.