This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Synonyms: β-alanine biosynthesis from proprionate
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Amino Acids Biosynthesis → Other Amino Acid Biosynthesis → beta Alanine Biosynthesis|
The existence of a biosynthetic pathway from propionate leading to the formation of β-alanine has been shown to exist in bacteria and plants [Stadtman55, Hatch62, Rathinasabapath02]. In several plants, the synthesis of β-alanine from propionate has been shown by radiotracer ([14C]-propionate) experiments [Hatch62, Rathinasabapath02]. The exact intermediate steps of the biosynthesis are uncertain and almost no enzyme information is available for this pathway at the time of this review.
Superpathways: pantothenate and coenzyme A biosynthesis II (plants)
Alber02: Alber BE, Fuchs G (2002). "Propionyl-coenzyme A synthase from Chloroflexus aurantiacus, a key enzyme of the 3-hydroxypropionate cycle for autotrophic CO2 fixation." J Biol Chem 277(14);12137-43. PMID: 11821399
Armando12: Armando JW, Boghigian BA, Pfeifer BA (2012). "LC-MS/MS quantification of short-chain acyl-CoA's in Escherichia coli demonstrates versatile propionyl-CoA synthetase substrate specificity." Lett Appl Microbiol 54(2);140-8. PMID: 22118660
Barak04: Barak R, Prasad K, Shainskaya A, Wolfe AJ, Eisenbach M (2004). "Acetylation of the chemotaxis response regulator CheY by acetyl-CoA synthetase purified from Escherichia coli." J Mol Biol 342(2);383-401. PMID: 15327942
Chen94a: Chen D, Swenson RP (1994). "Cloning, sequence analysis, and expression of the genes encoding the two subunits of the methylotrophic bacterium W3A1 electron transfer flavoprotein." J Biol Chem 269(51);32120-30. PMID: 7798207
Horswill02: Horswill AR, Escalante-Semerena JC (2002). "Characterization of the propionyl-CoA synthetase (PrpE) enzyme of Salmonella enterica: residue Lys592 is required for propionyl-AMP synthesis." Biochemistry 41(7);2379-87. PMID: 11841231
Ishizaki06: Ishizaki K, Schauer N, Larson TR, Graham IA, Fernie AR, Leaver CJ (2006). "The mitochondrial electron transfer flavoprotein complex is essential for survival of Arabidopsis in extended darkness." Plant J 47(5);751-60. PMID: 16923016
Mayhew74: Mayhew SG, Whitfield CD, Ghisla S, Schuman-Jorns M (1974). "Identification and properties of new flavins in electron-transferring flavoprotein from Peptostreptococcus elsdenii and pig-liver glycolate oxidase." Eur J Biochem 44(2);579-91. PMID: 4365840
Otzen14: Otzen C, Bardl B, Jacobsen ID, Nett M, Brock M (2014). "Candida albicans utilizes a modified β-oxidation pathway for the degradation of toxic propionyl-CoA." J Biol Chem 289(12);8151-69. PMID: 24497638
Pfeifer01: Pfeifer BA, Admiraal SJ, Gramajo H, Cane DE, Khosla C (2001). "Biosynthesis of complex polyketides in a metabolically engineered strain of E. coli." Science 291(5509);1790-2. PMID: 11230695
Priefert92: Priefert H, Steinbuchel A (1992). "Identification and molecular characterization of the acetyl coenzyme A synthetase gene (acoE) of Alcaligenes eutrophus." J Bacteriol 174(20);6590-9. PMID: 1356967
Roberts99: Roberts DL, Salazar D, Fulmer JP, Frerman FE, Kim JJ (1999). "Crystal structure of Paracoccus denitrificans electron transfer flavoprotein: structural and electrostatic analysis of a conserved flavin binding domain." Biochemistry 38(7);1977-89. PMID: 10026281
Rubio06: Rubio S, Larson TR, Gonzalez-Guzman M, Alejandro S, Graham IA, Serrano R, Rodriguez PL (2006). "An Arabidopsis mutant impaired in coenzyme A biosynthesis is sugar dependent for seedling establishment." Plant Physiol 140(3);830-43. PMID: 16415216
Sato03: Sato K, Nishina Y, Shiga K (2003). "Purification of electron-transferring flavoprotein from Megasphaera elsdenii and binding of additional FAD with an unusual absorption spectrum." J Biochem 134(5);719-29. PMID: 14688238
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