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MetaCyc Pathway: β-alanine biosynthesis II
Inferred from experiment

Enzyme View:

Pathway diagram: beta-alanine biosynthesis II

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Synonyms: β-alanine biosynthesis from proprionate

Superclasses: BiosynthesisAmino Acids BiosynthesisOther Amino Acid Biosynthesisbeta Alanine Biosynthesis

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Carthamus tinctorius, Phaseolus vulgaris, Pisum sativum, Triticum aestivum

Expected Taxonomic Range: Bacteria , Viridiplantae

General Background

The existence of a biosynthetic pathway from propionate leading to the formation of β-alanine has been shown to exist in bacteria and plants [Stadtman55, Hatch62, Rathinasabapath02]. In several plants, the synthesis of β-alanine from propionate has been shown by radiotracer ([14C]-propionate) experiments [Hatch62, Rathinasabapath02]. The exact intermediate steps of the biosynthesis are uncertain and almost no enzyme information is available for this pathway at the time of this review.

Superpathways: pantothenate and coenzyme A biosynthesis II (plants)

Variants: β-alanine biosynthesis I, β-alanine biosynthesis III, β-alanine biosynthesis IV, uracil degradation I (reductive)


Hatch62: Hatch, M.D., Stumpf, P.K. (1962). "Fat metabolism in higher plants. XVIII. Propionate metabolism by plant tissues." Arch Biochem Biophys 96;193-8. PMID: 13905315

Rathinasabapath02: Rathinasabapathi B. "Propionate, a source of β-alanine, is an inhibitor of β-alanine methylation in Limonium latifolium, Plumbaginaceae." J. Plant Physiol. (2002) 159 : 671-674.

Stadtman55: Stadtman E.R. "The enzymatic synthesis of β-alanyl coenzyme A." J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1955) 77 : 5765-5766.

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Alber02: Alber BE, Fuchs G (2002). "Propionyl-coenzyme A synthase from Chloroflexus aurantiacus, a key enzyme of the 3-hydroxypropionate cycle for autotrophic CO2 fixation." J Biol Chem 277(14);12137-43. PMID: 11821399

Armando12: Armando JW, Boghigian BA, Pfeifer BA (2012). "LC-MS/MS quantification of short-chain acyl-CoA's in Escherichia coli demonstrates versatile propionyl-CoA synthetase substrate specificity." Lett Appl Microbiol 54(2);140-8. PMID: 22118660

Barak04: Barak R, Prasad K, Shainskaya A, Wolfe AJ, Eisenbach M (2004). "Acetylation of the chemotaxis response regulator CheY by acetyl-CoA synthetase purified from Escherichia coli." J Mol Biol 342(2);383-401. PMID: 15327942

Berg07: Berg IA, Kockelkorn D, Buckel W, Fuchs G (2007). "A 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate autotrophic carbon dioxide assimilation pathway in Archaea." Science 318(5857);1782-6. PMID: 18079405

Chen94a: Chen D, Swenson RP (1994). "Cloning, sequence analysis, and expression of the genes encoding the two subunits of the methylotrophic bacterium W3A1 electron transfer flavoprotein." J Biol Chem 269(51);32120-30. PMID: 7798207

Guo12: Guo Y, Oliver DJ "E. coli propionyl-CoA synthetase is regulated in vitro by an intramolecular disulfide bond." Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol 48(3);289-93. PMID: 22834299

Hayaishi61: Hayaishi O, NISHIZUKA Y, TATIBANA M, TAKESHITA M, KUNO S (1961). "Enzymatic studies on the metabolism of beta-alanine." J Biol Chem 236;781-90. PMID: 13712439

Hechtman70: Hechtman P, Scriver CR, Middleton RB (1970). "Isolation and properties of a beta-alanine transaminaseless mutant of Pseudomonas fluorescens." J Bacteriol 104(2);851-6. PMID: 5489438

Horswill02: Horswill AR, Escalante-Semerena JC (2002). "Characterization of the propionyl-CoA synthetase (PrpE) enzyme of Salmonella enterica: residue Lys592 is required for propionyl-AMP synthesis." Biochemistry 41(7);2379-87. PMID: 11841231

Horswill99a: Horswill AR, Escalante-Semerena JC (1999). "The prpE gene of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 encodes propionyl-CoA synthetase." Microbiology 145 ( Pt 6);1381-8. PMID: 10411265

Ishizaki06: Ishizaki K, Schauer N, Larson TR, Graham IA, Fernie AR, Leaver CJ (2006). "The mitochondrial electron transfer flavoprotein complex is essential for survival of Arabidopsis in extended darkness." Plant J 47(5);751-60. PMID: 16923016

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Liu14: Liu F, Gu J, Wang X, Zhang XE, Deng J (2014). "Acs is essential for propionate utilization in Escherichia coli." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 449(3);272-7. PMID: 24835953

Mayhew74: Mayhew SG, Whitfield CD, Ghisla S, Schuman-Jorns M (1974). "Identification and properties of new flavins in electron-transferring flavoprotein from Peptostreptococcus elsdenii and pig-liver glycolate oxidase." Eur J Biochem 44(2);579-91. PMID: 4365840

Otzen14: Otzen C, Bardl B, Jacobsen ID, Nett M, Brock M (2014). "Candida albicans utilizes a modified β-oxidation pathway for the degradation of toxic propionyl-CoA." J Biol Chem 289(12);8151-69. PMID: 24497638

Pfeifer01: Pfeifer BA, Admiraal SJ, Gramajo H, Cane DE, Khosla C (2001). "Biosynthesis of complex polyketides in a metabolically engineered strain of E. coli." Science 291(5509);1790-2. PMID: 11230695

Priefert92: Priefert H, Steinbuchel A (1992). "Identification and molecular characterization of the acetyl coenzyme A synthetase gene (acoE) of Alcaligenes eutrophus." J Bacteriol 174(20);6590-9. PMID: 1356967

Roberts96: Roberts DL, Frerman FE, Kim JJ (1996). "Three-dimensional structure of human electron transfer flavoprotein to 2.1-A resolution." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93(25);14355-60. PMID: 8962055

Roberts99: Roberts DL, Salazar D, Fulmer JP, Frerman FE, Kim JJ (1999). "Crystal structure of Paracoccus denitrificans electron transfer flavoprotein: structural and electrostatic analysis of a conserved flavin binding domain." Biochemistry 38(7);1977-89. PMID: 10026281

Rubio06: Rubio S, Larson TR, Gonzalez-Guzman M, Alejandro S, Graham IA, Serrano R, Rodriguez PL (2006). "An Arabidopsis mutant impaired in coenzyme A biosynthesis is sugar dependent for seedling establishment." Plant Physiol 140(3);830-43. PMID: 16415216

Showing only 20 references. To show more, press the button "Show all references".

Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by Pathway Tools version 19.5 (software by SRI International) on Thu Apr 28, 2016, biocyc13.