MetaCyc Pathway: sucrose degradation II (sucrose synthase)
Inferred from experiment

Enzyme View:

Pathway diagram: sucrose degradation II (sucrose synthase)

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Superclasses: Degradation/Utilization/AssimilationCarbohydrates DegradationSugars DegradationSucrose Degradation

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Arabidopsis thaliana col, Glycine max, Oryza sativa, Pisum sativum

Expected Taxonomic Range: Cyanobacteria, Viridiplantae

In plants, sucrose is cleaved by either EC, β-fructofuranosidase (invertase) or EC, sucrose synthase.

Invertase activity is found in the cytoplasm, vacuole, and apoplast (see sucrose degradation III (sucrose invertase)), whereas sucrose cleavage by sucrose synthase is only found in the cytoplasm [Dey97a].

Sucrose synthase is a homotetrameric enzyme that catalyzes the reversible UDP-dependent cleavage of sucrose into UDP-glucose and fructose. Hexoses derived from sucrose degradation are used in a variety of important metabolic pathways including glycolysis, starch biosynthesis and the synthesis of cellulose and callose [Zhang99a].

Superpathways: superpathway of anaerobic sucrose degradation

Variants: sucrose degradation I (sucrose phosphotransferase), sucrose degradation III (sucrose invertase), sucrose degradation IV (sucrose phosphorylase), sucrose degradation V (sucrose α-glucosidase), sucrose degradation VII (sucrose 3-dehydrogenase)

Unification Links: AraCyc:PWY-3801

Revised 16-Aug-2013 by Caspi R, SRI International


Dey97: Dey, PM, Harborne, JB "Plant Biochemistry." Academic Press 1997.

Dey97a: Dey, P. M., Harborne, J. B. (1997). "Plant Biochemistry." Academic Press Inc., San Diego, USA.

Zhang99a: Zhang XQ, Lund AA, Sarath G, Cerny RL, Roberts DM, Chollet R (1999). "Soybean nodule sucrose synthase (nodulin-100): further analysis of its phosphorylation using recombinant and authentic root-nodule enzymes." Arch Biochem Biophys 371(1);70-82. PMID: 10525291

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Accorsi89: Accorsi A, Piatti E, Piacentini MP, Gini S, Fazi A (1989). "Isoenzymes of phosphoglucomutase from human red blood cells: isolation and kinetic properties." Prep Biochem 19(3);251-71. PMID: 2533352

AngelesNunez10: Angeles-Nunez JG, Tiessen A (2010). "Arabidopsis sucrose synthase 2 and 3 modulate metabolic homeostasis and direct carbon towards starch synthesis in developing seeds." Planta 232(3);701-18. PMID: 20559653

Avigad: Avigad G. "Sucrose and other disaccharides." Encyclopedia of plant physiology New Series, 13A (Loewus F.A. and Tanner W. Eds). Berlin: Springer Verlag, pp 217-347.

Baveja86: Baveja UK, Jyoti AS, Kaur M, Agarwal DS, Anand BS, Nanda R (1986). "Isoenzyme studies of Giardia lamblia isolated from symptomatic cases." Aust J Exp Biol Med Sci 64 ( Pt 2);119-26. PMID: 2943257

Baysdorfer89: Baysdorfer C., Kremer D.F., Sicher R.C. "Partial purification and characterization of fructokinase activity from Barley leaves." J. Plant Physiol. (1989) 134:156-161.

Bertrand76: Bertrand O, Kahn A, Cottreau D, Boivin P (1976). "Human leukocyte glucose-phosphate-isomerase purification by affinity elution and immunological study." Biochimie 58(3);261-7. PMID: 819039

Bieniawska07: Bieniawska Z, Paul Barratt DH, Garlick AP, Thole V, Kruger NJ, Martin C, Zrenner R, Smith AM (2007). "Analysis of the sucrose synthase gene family in Arabidopsis." Plant J 49(5);810-28. PMID: 17257168

Boles94: Boles E, Liebetrau W, Hofmann M, Zimmermann FK (1994). "A family of hexosephosphate mutases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Eur J Biochem 220(1);83-96. PMID: 8119301

BRENDA14: BRENDA team (2014). Imported from BRENDA version existing on Aug 2014.

Britton68: Britton HG, Clarke JB (1968). "The mechanism of the phosphoglucomutase reaction. Studies on rabbit muscle phosphoglucomutase with flux techniques." Biochem J 110(2);161-80. PMID: 5726186

But13: But SY, Khmelenina VN, Reshetnikov AS, Trotsenko YA (2013). "Bifunctional sucrose phosphate synthase/phosphatase is involved in the sucrose biosynthesis by Methylobacillus flagellatus KT." FEMS Microbiol Lett. PMID: 23865613

But13a: But SIu, Khmelina VN, Mustakhimova II, Trotsenko IuA (2013). "[Production and characterization of Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z knockout mutants, which has sucrose and ectoin synthesis defective genes]." Mikrobiologiia 82(2);251-3. PMID: 23808151

But15: But SY, Khmelenina VN, Reshetnikov AS, Mustakhimov II, Kalyuzhnaya MG, Trotsenko YA (2015). "Sucrose metabolism in halotolerant methanotroph Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z." Arch Microbiol. PMID: 25577257

Caescu04: Caescu CI, Vidal O, Krzewinski F, Artenie V, Bouquelet S (2004). "Bifidobacterium longum requires a fructokinase (Frk; ATP:D-fructose 6-phosphotransferase, EC for fructose catabolism." J Bacteriol 186(19);6515-25. PMID: 15375133

Cardini55: Cardini, C.E., Leloir, L.F., Chiriboga, J. (1955). "The biosynthesis of sucrose." J Biol Chem 214(1);149-55. PMID: 14367373

Ciereszko01: Ciereszko I, Johansson H, Hurry V, Kleczkowski LA (2001). "Phosphate status affects the gene expression, protein content and enzymatic activity of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase in wild-type and pho mutants of Arabidopsis." Planta 2001;212(4);598-605. PMID: 11525517

COMMUNICATION: communication,

Csutora05: Csutora P, Strassz A, Boldizsar F, Nemeth P, Sipos K, Aiello DP, Bedwell DM, Miseta A (2005). "Inhibition of phosphoglucomutase activity by lithium alters cellular calcium homeostasis and signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 289(1);C58-67. PMID: 15703203

Dai06: Dai N, Petreikov M, Portnoy V, Katzir N, Pharr DM, Schaffer AA (2006). "Cloning and expression analysis of a UDP-galactose/glucose pyrophosphorylase from melon fruit provides evidence for the major metabolic pathway of galactose metabolism in raffinose oligosaccharide metabolizing plants." Plant Physiol 142(1);294-304. PMID: 16829585

Dai99: Dai N, Schaffer A, Petreikov M, Shahak Y, Giller Y, Ratner K, Levine A, Granot D (1999). "Overexpression of Arabidopsis hexokinase in tomato plants inhibits growth, reduces photosynthesis, and induces rapid senescence." Plant Cell 11(7);1253-66. PMID: 10402427

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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