If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
|Superclasses:||Degradation/Utilization/Assimilation → C1 Compounds Utilization and Assimilation|
Some taxa known to possess parts of the pathway include : Methylobacillus flagellatus, Methylobacterium extorquens AM1, Methylobacterium organophilum, Methylococcus capsulatus, Methylomonas aminofaciens 77a, Methylophilus methylotrophus W3A1, Methylosinus trichosporium, Paracoccus denitrificans
Expected Taxonomic Range:
Note: This is a chimeric pathway, comprising reactions from multiple organisms, and typically will not occur in its entirety in a single organism. The taxa listed here are likely to catalyze only subsets of the reactions depicted in this pathway.
Methylotrophic bacteria are aerobic bacteria that utilize one-carbon compounds more reduced than formate as sources of carbon and energy, and assimilate formaldehyde as a major source of cellular carbon [Hanson96]. Methylotrophic bacteria utilize a variety of different one-carbon compounds including methane (see methane oxidation to methanol I), methanol, methylated amines, halomethanes and methylated compounds containing sulfur.
Please note: This superpathway integrates several base pathways that are found in different methylotrophic bacteria, for the purpose of displaying the different routes found in the biosphere in a single general diagram. There may be no single organism that possesses all of these pathways.
For more information about the pathways and enzymes shown in here, please see the individual pathways that make up this superpathway.
Subpathways: methane oxidation to methanol I, formate oxidation to CO2, formaldehyde oxidation V (H4MPT pathway), formaldehyde oxidation IV (thiol-independent), formaldehyde oxidation II (glutathione-dependent), methanol and methylamine oxidation to formaldehyde, methylamine degradation I, methanol oxidation to formaldehyde I
Acharya05: Acharya P, Goenrich M, Hagemeier CH, Demmer U, Vorholt JA, Thauer RK, Ermler U (2005). "How an enzyme binds the C1 carrier tetrahydromethanopterin. Structure of the tetrahydromethanopterin-dependent formaldehyde-activating enzyme (Fae) from Methylobacterium extorquens AM1." J Biol Chem 280(14);13712-9. PMID: 15632161
Anderson88a: Anderson DJ, Lidstrom ME (1988). "The moxFG region encodes four polypeptides in the methanol-oxidizing bacterium Methylobacterium sp. strain AM1." J Bacteriol 170(5);2254-62. PMID: 3129405
Anderson90: Anderson DJ, Morris CJ, Nunn DN, Anthony C, Lidstrom ME (1990). "Nucleotide sequence of the Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 moxF and moxJ genes involved in methanol oxidation." Gene 90(1);173-6. PMID: 2116368
Ando79: Ando M, Yoshimoto T, Ogushi S, Rikitake K, Shibata S, Tsuru D (1979). "Formaldehyde dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida. Purification and some properties." J Biochem (Tokyo) 85(5);1165-72. PMID: 571868
Bastien89: Bastien, C, Machlin, S, Zhang, Y, Donaldson, K, Hanson, RS "Organization of genes required for the oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde in three typeII methylotrophs." Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1989 55:3124-3130.
BeardmoreGray82: Beardmore-Gray M, O'Keeffe DT, Anthony C (1982). "The autoreducible cytochromes c of the methylotrophs Methylophilus methylotrophus and Pseudomonas AM1." Biochem J 207(1);161-5. PMID: 6295363
Bystrykh93: Bystrykh LV, Vonck J, van Bruggen EF, van Beeumen J, Samyn B, Govorukhina NI, Arfman N, Duine JA, Dijkhuizen L (1993). "Electron microscopic analysis and structural characterization of novel NADP(H)-containing methanol: N,N'-dimethyl-4-nitrosoaniline oxidoreductases from the gram-positive methylotrophic bacteria Amycolatopsis methanolica and Mycobacterium gastri MB19." J Bacteriol 175(6);1814-22. PMID: 8449887
Chistoserdov92: Chistoserdov AY, Boyd J, Mathews FS, Lidstrom ME (1992). "The genetic organization of the mau gene cluster of the facultative autotroph Paracoccus denitrificans." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 184(3);1181-9. PMID: 1590782
Chistoserdov94: Chistoserdov AY, McIntire WS, Mathews FS, Lidstrom ME (1994). "Organization of the methylamine utilization (mau) genes in Methylophilus methylotrophus W3A1-NS." J Bacteriol 176(13);4073-80. PMID: 8021188
Chistoserdov94a: Chistoserdov AY, Chistoserdova LV, McIntire WS, Lidstrom ME (1994). "Genetic organization of the mau gene cluster in Methylobacterium extorquens AM1: complete nucleotide sequence and generation and characteristics of mau mutants." J Bacteriol 176(13);4052-65. PMID: 8021187
Chistoserdova04: Chistoserdova L, Laukel M, Portais JC, Vorholt JA, Lidstrom ME (2004). "Multiple formate dehydrogenase enzymes in the facultative methylotroph Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 are dispensable for growth on methanol." J Bacteriol 186(1);22-8. PMID: 14679220
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