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MetaCyc Pathway: superpathway of purines degradation in plants
Inferred from experiment

Pathway diagram: superpathway of purines degradation in plants

If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Superclasses: Degradation/Utilization/AssimilationAromatic Compounds DegradationUrate Degradation

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Arabidopsis thaliana col, Camellia sinensis, Catharanthus roseus, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Cicer arietinum, Glycine max, Lupinus luteus, Solanum tuberosum

Expected Taxonomic Range: Viridiplantae

The purine degradation pathway plays an important role in nitrogen metabolism in most organisms. The final product of de novo purine biosynthesis, IMP, is degraded through sequential enzymatic steps into urate, which contains a high level of nitrogen [Smith02a] (see purine nucleotides degradation I (plants)). In most organisms, including some bacteria, plants, and certain animals, urate is metabolized via a common pathway, producing the stereospecific form (S)-(+)-allantoin as the final product [Todd06]. Some organisms that are not able to degrade urate include humans, apes, birds and reptiles [Ramazzina06]. Finally, (S)-(+)-allantoin is degraded to glyoxylate in a route that regenerates the nitrogen in the form of ammonia. glyoxylate enters central metabolism.

Citations: [PerezVicente92, Piedras95, Pineda94]

Subpathways: allantoin degradation to ureidoglycolate I (urea producing), urate degradation to allantoin I, allantoin degradation to glyoxylate I, purine nucleotides degradation I (plants), guanosine nucleotides degradation I, guanosine nucleotides degradation II, superpathway of guanosine nucleotides degradation (plants), adenosine nucleotides degradation I

Variants: urate degradation to allantoin II

Created 27-Nov-2000 by Pellegrini-Toole A, Marine Biological Laboratory
Revised 09-Nov-2007 by Caspi R, SRI International


PerezVicente92: Perez-Vicente R, Alamillo JM, Cardenas J, Pineda M (1992). "Purification and substrate inactivation of xanthine dehydrogenase from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii." Biochim Biophys Acta 1117(2);159-66. PMID: 1525176

Piedras95: Piedras, P, Cardenas, J, Pineda, M (1995). "Solubilization and extraction of allantoinase and allantoicase from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii." Phytochemical Analysis.6(5):239-243.

Pineda94: Pineda M, Piedras P, Cardenas J (1994). "A continuous spectrophotometric assay for ureidoglycolase activity with lactate dehydrogenase or glyoxylate reductase as coupling enzyme." Anal Biochem 222(2);450-5. PMID: 7864371

Ramazzina06: Ramazzina I, Folli C, Secchi A, Berni R, Percudani R (2006). "Completing the uric acid degradation pathway through phylogenetic comparison of whole genomes." Nat Chem Biol 2(3);144-8. PMID: 16462750

Smith02a: Smith PM, Atkins CA (2002). "Purine biosynthesis. Big in cell division, even bigger in nitrogen assimilation." Plant Physiol 128(3);793-802. PMID: 11891236

Todd06: Todd CD, Tipton PA, Blevins DG, Piedras P, Pineda M, Polacco JC (2006). "Update on ureide degradation in legumes." J Exp Bot 57(1);5-12. PMID: 16317038

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Amaya02: Amaya Y, Kawamoto S, Kashima Y, Okamoto K, Nishino T (2002). "Purification and characterization of multiple forms of rat liver xanthine oxidoreductase expressed in baculovirus-insect cell system." J Biochem 132(4);597-606. PMID: 12359075

Asai07: Asai R, Matsumura T, Okamoto K, Igarashi K, Pai EF, Nishino T (2007). "Two mutations convert mammalian xanthine oxidoreductase to highly superoxide-productive xanthine oxidase." J Biochem 141(4);525-34. PMID: 17301076

Ashihara97: Ashihara, Hiroshi, Takasawa, Yoko, Suzuki, Takeo (1997). "Metabolism fate of guanosine in higher plants." Physiologia Plantarum 100:909-916.

Bachrach57: Bachrach, U (1957). "The aerobic breakdown of uric acid by certain pseudomonads." J Gen Microbiol 17(1);1-11. PMID: 13475666

BauschJurken95: Bausch-Jurken MT, Sabina RL (1995). "Divergent N-terminal regions in AMP deaminase and isoform-specific catalytic properties of the enzyme." Arch Biochem Biophys 321(2);372-80. PMID: 7646062

Bergmann83: Bergmann H, Preddie E, Verma DP (1983). "Nodulin-35: a subunit of specific uricase (uricase II) induced and localized in the uninfected cells of soybean nodules." EMBO J 2(12);2333-2339. PMID: 16453488

Bideon75: Bideon GM (1975). "Purification and characterization of a cyclic nucleotide-regulated 5'-nucleotidase from potatoe." Biochim Biophys Acta 384(2);443-57. PMID: 235999

Bongaerts77: Bongaerts GP, Sin IL, Peters AL, Vogels GD (1977). "Purine degradation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas testosteroni." Biochim Biophys Acta 499(1);111-8. PMID: 407941

Bradshaw60: Bradshaw, W.H., Barker, H.A. (1960). "Purification and properties of xanthine dehydrogenase from Clostridium cylindrosporum." J. Biol. Chem. 235(12): 3620-3629.

BRENDA14: BRENDA team (2014). Imported from BRENDA version existing on Aug 2014.

Buckholz91: Buckholz RG, Cooper TG (1991). "The allantoinase (DAL1) gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Yeast 7(9);913-23. PMID: 1803816

Campbell54: Campbell, L.L. (1954). "The mechanism of allantoin degradation by a Pseudomonas." J Bacteriol 68(5);598-603. PMID: 13211565

Campbell55: Campbell, L.L. (1955). "Oxidative degradation of uric acid by cell extracts of a Pseudomonas." Biochim Biophys Acta 18(1);160-1. PMID: 13260270

Cao01a: Cao Y, Schubert KR (2001). "Molecular cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding soybean nodule IMP dehydrogenase." Biochim Biophys Acta 2001;1520(3);242-6. PMID: 11566360

CapoteMainez97: Capote-Mainez N, Sanchez F (1997). "Characterization of the common bean uricase II and its expression in organs other than nodules." Plant Physiol 115(4);1307-17. PMID: 9414545

Carpani90: Carpani G, Racchi M, Ghezzi P, Terao M, Garattini E (1990). "Purification and characterization of mouse liver xanthine oxidase." Arch Biochem Biophys 279(2);237-41. PMID: 2350174

Choi66: Choi KS, Lee KW, Roush AH (1966). "The assay of yeast ureidoglycolatase." Anal Biochem 17(3);413-22. PMID: 5965980

Collart88: Collart FR, Huberman E (1988). "Cloning and sequence analysis of the human and Chinese hamster inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase cDNAs." J Biol Chem 263(30);15769-72. PMID: 2902093

Cooper79: Cooper TG, Gorski M, Turoscy V (1979). "A cluster of three genes responsible for allantoin degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Genetics 92(2);383-96. PMID: 385448

Cusa99: Cusa E, Obradors N, Baldoma L, Badia J, Aguilar J (1999). "Genetic analysis of a chromosomal region containing genes required for assimilation of allantoin nitrogen and linked glyoxylate metabolism in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1999;181(24);7479-84. PMID: 10601204

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 19.5 on Fri Apr 29, 2016, BIOCYC11A.