If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
|Superclasses:||Degradation/Utilization/Assimilation → Aromatic Compounds Degradation → Urate Degradation|
Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Arabidopsis thaliana col, Camellia sinensis, Catharanthus roseus, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Cicer arietinum, Glycine max, Lupinus luteus, Solanum tuberosum
Expected Taxonomic Range: Viridiplantae
The purine degradation pathway plays an important role in nitrogen metabolism in most organisms. The final product of de novo purine biosynthesis, IMP, is degraded through sequential enzymatic steps into urate, which contains a high level of nitrogen [Smith02a] (see purine nucleotides degradation I (plants)). In most organisms, including some bacteria, plants, and certain animals, urate is metabolized via a common pathway, producing the stereospecific form (S)-(+)-allantoin as the final product [Todd06]. Some organisms that are not able to degrade urate include humans, apes, birds and reptiles [Ramazzina06]. Finally, (S)-(+)-allantoin is degraded to glyoxylate in a route that regenerates the nitrogen in the form of ammonia. glyoxylate enters central metabolism.
Subpathways: allantoin degradation to ureidoglycolate I (urea producing), urate degradation to allantoin I, allantoin degradation to glyoxylate I, purine nucleotides degradation I (plants), guanosine nucleotides degradation I, guanosine nucleotides degradation II, superpathway of guanosine nucleotides degradation (plants), adenosine nucleotides degradation I
Variants: urate degradation to allantoin II
PerezVicente92: Perez-Vicente R, Alamillo JM, Cardenas J, Pineda M (1992). "Purification and substrate inactivation of xanthine dehydrogenase from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii." Biochim Biophys Acta 1117(2);159-66. PMID: 1525176
Piedras95: Piedras, P, Cardenas, J, Pineda, M (1995). "Solubilization and extraction of allantoinase and allantoicase from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii." Phytochemical Analysis.6(5):239-243.
Pineda94: Pineda M, Piedras P, Cardenas J (1994). "A continuous spectrophotometric assay for ureidoglycolase activity with lactate dehydrogenase or glyoxylate reductase as coupling enzyme." Anal Biochem 222(2);450-5. PMID: 7864371
Ramazzina06: Ramazzina I, Folli C, Secchi A, Berni R, Percudani R (2006). "Completing the uric acid degradation pathway through phylogenetic comparison of whole genomes." Nat Chem Biol 2(3);144-8. PMID: 16462750
Amaya02: Amaya Y, Kawamoto S, Kashima Y, Okamoto K, Nishino T (2002). "Purification and characterization of multiple forms of rat liver xanthine oxidoreductase expressed in baculovirus-insect cell system." J Biochem 132(4);597-606. PMID: 12359075
Asai07: Asai R, Matsumura T, Okamoto K, Igarashi K, Pai EF, Nishino T (2007). "Two mutations convert mammalian xanthine oxidoreductase to highly superoxide-productive xanthine oxidase." J Biochem 141(4);525-34. PMID: 17301076
BauschJurken95: Bausch-Jurken MT, Sabina RL (1995). "Divergent N-terminal regions in AMP deaminase and isoform-specific catalytic properties of the enzyme." Arch Biochem Biophys 321(2);372-80. PMID: 7646062
Bergmann83: Bergmann H, Preddie E, Verma DP (1983). "Nodulin-35: a subunit of specific uricase (uricase II) induced and localized in the uninfected cells of soybean nodules." EMBO J 2(12);2333-2339. PMID: 16453488
Cusa99: Cusa E, Obradors N, Baldoma L, Badia J, Aguilar J (1999). "Genetic analysis of a chromosomal region containing genes required for assimilation of allantoin nitrogen and linked glyoxylate metabolism in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1999;181(24);7479-84. PMID: 10601204
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