MetaCyc Pathway: glycine biosynthesis III
Inferred from experiment

Pathway diagram: glycine biosynthesis III

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Superclasses: BiosynthesisAmino Acids BiosynthesisProteinogenic Amino Acids BiosynthesisGlycine Biosynthesis

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Expected Taxonomic Range: Archaea, Bacteria , Eukaryota

General Background

Saccharomyces cerevisiae can biosynthesize glycine via three different pathways.

When the cells are grown with glucose as the carbon source, two alternative pathways operate. In one pathway L-threonine aldolase, encoded by GLY1, produces glycine from L-threonine (which is produced from the glycolytic intermediate oxaloacetate) (see glycine biosynthesis IV). In the other pathway glycine is formed from L-serine (a product of 3-phospho-D-glycerate, another glycolytic intermediate) via two serine hydroxymethyltransferases - a cytosolic enzyme (SHMT2) and a mitochondrial enzyme (SHMT1) (see glycine biosynthesis I). The two isoforms are reported to work in opposite directions, depending on the culture conditions [Kastanos97].

When the cells are grown with a non-fermentable carbon source, such as ethanol and acetate, glycine is produced from glyoxylate, a product of the glyoxylate cycle, by the enzyme alanine--glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 (see glycine biosynthesis III).

About This Pathway

alanine--glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 is one of three different enzymes used for glycine synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This enzyme is active only during growth on non-fermentable carbon sources, and enables Saccharomyces cerevisiae to grow on ethanol as sole carbon source, by alleviating the need for glycolytic intermediates as the precursors for glycine [Schlosser04].

Alanine--glyoxylate transaminase is widely distributed, and has been documented in archaea, bacteria and eukaryota.

Variants: glycine biosynthesis I, glycine biosynthesis II, glycine biosynthesis IV

Created 27-Feb-2004 by Hong E, Saccharomyces Genome Database
Revised 23-Aug-2007 by Krieger CJ, Saccharomyces Genome Database


Kastanos97: Kastanos EK, Woldman YY, Appling DR (1997). "Role of mitochondrial and cytoplasmic serine hydroxymethyltransferase isozymes in de novo purine synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Biochemistry 36(48);14956-64. PMID: 9398220

Schlosser04: Schlosser T, Gatgens C, Weber U, Stahmann KP (2004). "Alanine : glyoxylate aminotransferase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae-encoding gene AGX1 and metabolic significance." Yeast 21(1);63-73. PMID: 14745783

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Liepman03: Liepman AH, Olsen LJ (2003). "Alanine aminotransferase homologs catalyze the glutamate:glyoxylate aminotransferase reaction in peroxisomes of Arabidopsis." Plant Physiol 131(1);215-27. PMID: 12529529

Okuno80: Okuno E, Minatogawa Y, Nakamura M, Kamoda N, Nakanishi J, Makino M, Kido R (1980). "Crystallization and characterization of human liver kynurenine--glyoxylate aminotransferase. Identity with alanine--glyoxylate aminotransferase and serine--pyruvate aminotransferase." Biochem J 189(3);581-90. PMID: 6783036

Rodionov10: Rodionov RN, Murry DJ, Vaulman SF, Stevens JW, Lentz SR (2010). "Human alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase 2 lowers asymmetric dimethylarginine and protects from inhibition of nitric oxide production." J Biol Chem 285(8);5385-91. PMID: 20018850

Takada85: Takada Y, Noguchi T (1985). "Characteristics of alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a regulatory enzyme in the glyoxylate pathway of glycine and serine biosynthesis from tricarboxylic acid-cycle intermediates." Biochem J 231(1);157-63. PMID: 3933486

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by Pathway Tools version 19.5 (software by SRI International) on Thu May 5, 2016, biocyc14.