If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Synonyms: Embden-Meyerhof pathway, Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway, EMP pathway, glycolysis (plastidic)
|Superclasses:||Generation of Precursor Metabolites and Energy → Glycolysis|
Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Arabidopsis thaliana col, Brassica napus, Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655, Mycoplasma pneumoniae M129, Ricinus communis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Spinacia oleracea, Zea mays
Glycolysis, which was first studied as a pathway for the utilization of glucose, is one of the major pathways of central metabolism, the other two being the pentose phosphate pathway and the TCA cycle. Glycolysis is essential under all conditions of growth, because it produces six of the 13 precursor metabolites that are the starting materials for the biosynthesis of building blocks for macromolecules and other needed small molecules (the six compounds are β-D-glucose 6-phosphate, β-D-fructofuranose 6-phosphate, glycerone phosphate, 3-phospho-D-glycerate, phosphoenolpyruvate, and pyruvate). Glycolysis can be found, if at least in part, in almost all organisms.
Even though glycolysis is often described starting with glucose, other hexoses (e.g. fructose) can also serve as input (as its name implies - glycose is a general term for simple sugars).
Glycolysis has evolved to fulfill two essential functions:
ii) being an amphibolic pathway (pathway that involves both catabolism and anabolism), it can reversibly produce hexoses from various low-molecular weight molecules.
Because various degradation pathways feed into glycolysis at many different points, glycolysis or portions of it run in the forward or reverse direction, depending on the carbon source being utilized, in order to satisfy the cell's need for precursor metabolites and energy. This switching of direction is possible because all but two of the enzymatic reactions comprising glycolysis are reversible, and the conversions catalyzed by the two exceptions are rendered functionally reversible by other enzymes ( fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate synthetase) that catalyze different irreversible reactions flowing in the opposite direction.
About This Pathway
This pathway diagram describes the well characterized glycolysis pathway of the bacterium Escherichia coli growing with β-D-glucopyranose as a source of carbon and energy. Glucose is not shown here as a component of glycolysis because when used by Escherichia coli , glucose enters the cell via a phosphotransferase system (transport of glucose, glucose PTS permease), and the first intracellular species, therefore, is β-D-glucose 6-phosphate.
Escherichia coli does constitutively produce glucokinase (the intracellular enzyme that converts glucose to glucose-6-phosphate) but it is not needed for the utilization of either exogenous or endogenous glucose [Meyer97]. It may be required to supplement levels of glucose 6-phosphate under anabolic stress conditions [Arora95].
Other substrates may enter glycolysis at different stages. For example, the sugars and sugar alcohols D-allose, sorbose, D-mannitol, D-sorbitol, D-mannose and sucrose, which are processed into β-D-fructofuranose 6-phosphate, enter the pathway at that stage (see glycolysis II (from fructose 6-phosphate)).
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