If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Carbohydrates Biosynthesis → Sugars Biosynthesis → Gluconeogenesis|
Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Arabidopsis thaliana col, Brassica napus, Cucumis sativus, Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655, Glycine max, Hordeum vulgare, Nicotiana tabacum, Oryza sativa, Pisum sativum, Ricinus communis, Solanum lycopersicum, Solanum tuberosum, Vicia faba, Zea mays
Gluconeogenesis is the generation of glucose from non-sugar carbon substrates such as pyruvate, (S)-lactate, glycerol, and glucogenic amino acids (primarily L-alanine and L-glutamine). The process is essentially the reversal of the glycolysis pathway. However, two glycolytic enzymes catalyze irreversible reactions. In order to enable the pathway to flow in the direction of glucose production, these reactions are catalyzed by other enzymes ( EC 184.108.40.206, fructose-bisphosphatase and EC 220.127.116.11, pyruvate, water dikinase) in the opposite direction.
Enzymes of the gluconeogenic pathway are widely distributed in archaea, bacteria, fungi, plants and animals, and are often considered to be central to the origins of metabolism [Ronimus03]. Note that this pathway describes gluconeogenesis in plants and microorganisms, the mammalian pathway is described at gluconeogenesis III.
Bacteria use gluconeogenesis to synthesize glucose from non-sugar C2 or C3 compounds or the intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle when there sufficient amounts of hexose are not available to them [Osteras97, Oh02, Tang05, Marrero10].
In photosynthetic organisms, the product of photosynthetic carbon fixation ( D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate) is transported from the chloroplast into the cytoplasm, where it is transformed to hexose phosphate via gluconeogenesis. In plants, these hexose phosphates are used to synthesize sucrose, as documented in sucrose biosynthesis III [Sung88].
Marrero10: Marrero J, Rhee KY, Schnappinger D, Pethe K, Ehrt S (2010). "Gluconeogenic carbon flow of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates is critical for Mycobacterium tuberculosis to establish and maintain infection." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107(21);9819-24. PMID: 20439709
Osteras97: Osteras M, Driscoll BT, Finan TM (1997). "Increased pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase activity results in an alternative gluconeogenic pathway in Rhizobium (Sinorhizobium) meliloti." Microbiology 143 ( Pt 5);1639-48. PMID: 9168612
Ronimus03: Ronimus RS, Morgan HW (2003). "Distribution and phylogenies of enzymes of the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway from archaea and hyperthermophilic bacteria support a gluconeogenic origin of metabolism." Archaea 1(3);199-221. PMID: 15803666
Tang05: Tang DJ, He YQ, Feng JX, He BR, Jiang BL, Lu GT, Chen B, Tang JL (2005). "Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris possesses a single gluconeogenic pathway that is required for virulence." J Bacteriol 187(17);6231-7. PMID: 16109965
Aguilera09: Aguilera L, Gimenez R, Badia J, Aguilar J, Baldoma L (2009). "NAD+-dependent post-translational modification of Escherichia coli glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase." Int Microbiol 12(3);187-92. PMID: 19784925
Ahn11: Ahn J, Chung BK, Lee DY, Park M, Karimi IA, Jung JK, Lee H (2011). "NADPH-dependent pgi-gene knockout Escherichia coli metabolism producing shikimate on different carbon sources." FEMS Microbiol Lett 324(1);10-6. PMID: 22092758
AitBara10: Ait-Bara S, Carpousis AJ (2010). "Characterization of the RNA degradosome of Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis: conservation of the RNase E-RhlB interaction in the gammaproteobacteria." J Bacteriol 192(20);5413-23. PMID: 20729366
Al12: Al Mamun AA, Lombardo MJ, Shee C, Lisewski AM, Gonzalez C, Lin D, Nehring RB, Saint-Ruf C, Gibson JL, Frisch RL, Lichtarge O, Hastings PJ, Rosenberg SM (2012). "Identity and function of a large gene network underlying mutagenic repair of DNA breaks." Science 338(6112);1344-8. PMID: 23224554
Alefounder89: Alefounder PR, Perham RN (1989). "Identification, molecular cloning and sequence analysis of a gene cluster encoding the class II fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, 3-phosphoglycerate kinase and a putative second glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 3(6);723-32. PMID: 2546007
Alefounder89a: Alefounder PR, Baldwin SA, Perham RN, Short NJ (1989). "Cloning, sequence analysis and over-expression of the gene for the class II fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase of Escherichia coli." Biochem J 1989;257(2);529-34. PMID: 2649077
Allen64: Allen, S.H., Kellermeyer, R.W., Ssjernholm, R.L., Wood, H.G. (1964). "Purification and properties of enzymes involved in the propionic acid fermentation." J Bacteriol 87;171-87. PMID: 14102852
Alvarez98: Alvarez M, Zeelen JP, Mainfroid V, Rentier-Delrue F, Martial JA, Wyns L, Wierenga RK, Maes D (1998). "Triose-phosphate isomerase (TIM) of the psychrophilic bacterium Vibrio marinus. Kinetic and structural properties." J Biol Chem 273(4);2199-206. PMID: 9442062
Arifuzzaman06: Arifuzzaman M, Maeda M, Itoh A, Nishikata K, Takita C, Saito R, Ara T, Nakahigashi K, Huang HC, Hirai A, Tsuzuki K, Nakamura S, Altaf-Ul-Amin M, Oshima T, Baba T, Yamamoto N, Kawamura T, Ioka-Nakamichi T, Kitagawa M, Tomita M, Kanaya S, Wada C, Mori H (2006). "Large-scale identification of protein-protein interaction of Escherichia coli K-12." Genome Res 16(5);686-91. PMID: 16606699
Baldwin78: Baldwin SA, Perham RN (1978). "Novel kinetic and structural properties of the class-I D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase from Escherichia coli (Crookes' strain)." Biochem J 1978;169(3);643-52. PMID: 348198
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