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discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
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discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
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discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
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MetaCyc Pathway: gluconeogenesis I

If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Superclasses: Biosynthesis Carbohydrates Biosynthesis Sugars Biosynthesis Gluconeogenesis

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include ? : Arabidopsis thaliana col , Brassica napus , Cucumis sativus , Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 , Glycine max , Hordeum vulgare , Nicotiana tabacum , Oryza sativa , Pisum sativum , Ricinus communis , Solanum lycopersicum , Solanum tuberosum , Vicia faba , Zea mays

Expected Taxonomic Range: Archaea , Bacteria , Fungi , Viridiplantae

Summary:
Gluconeogenesis is the generation of glucose from non-sugar carbon substrates such as pyruvate, (S)-lactate, glycerol, and glucogenic amino acids (primarily L-alanine and L-glutamine). The process is essentially the reversal of the glycolysis pathway. However, two glycolytic enzymes catalyze irreversible reactions. In order to enable the pathway to flow in the direction of glucose production, these reactions are catalyzed by other enzymes (EC 3.1.3.11, fructose-bisphosphatase and EC 2.7.9.2, pyruvate, water dikinase) in the opposite direction.

Enzymes of the gluconeogenic pathway are widely distributed in archaea, bacteria, fungi, plants and animals, and are often considered to be central to the origins of metabolism [Ronimus03]. Note that this pathway describes gluconeogenesis in plants and microorganisms, the mammalian pathway is described at gluconeogenesis III.

Bacteria use gluconeogenesis to synthesize glucose from non-sugar C2 or C3 compounds or the intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle when there sufficient amounts of hexose are not available to them [Osteras97, Oh02, Tang05a, Marrero10].

In photosynthetic organisms, the product of photosynthetic carbon fixation (D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate) is transported from the chloroplast into the cytoplasm, where it is transformed to hexose phosphate via gluconeogenesis. In plants, these hexose phosphates are used to synthesize sucrose, as documented in sucrose biosynthesis III [Sung88a].

Variants: gluconeogenesis II (Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum) , gluconeogenesis III

Unification Links: AraCyc:GLUCONEO-PWY , EcoCyc:GLUCONEO-PWY

Credits:
Created 13-May-1994 by Riley M , Marine Biological Laboratory


References

Eisenstein67: Eisenstein AB (1967). "Current concepts of gluconeogenesis." Am J Clin Nutr 20(3);282-9. PMID: 5335797

Marrero10: Marrero J, Rhee KY, Schnappinger D, Pethe K, Ehrt S (2010). "Gluconeogenic carbon flow of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates is critical for Mycobacterium tuberculosis to establish and maintain infection." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107(21);9819-24. PMID: 20439709

Oh02: Oh MK, Rohlin L, Kao KC, Liao JC (2002). "Global expression profiling of acetate-grown Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 277(15);13175-83. PMID: 11815613

Osteras97: Osteras M, Driscoll BT, Finan TM (1997). "Increased pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase activity results in an alternative gluconeogenic pathway in Rhizobium (Sinorhizobium) meliloti." Microbiology 143 ( Pt 5);1639-48. PMID: 9168612

Ronimus03: Ronimus RS, Morgan HW (2003). "Distribution and phylogenies of enzymes of the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway from archaea and hyperthermophilic bacteria support a gluconeogenic origin of metabolism." Archaea 1(3);199-221. PMID: 15803666

Sung88a: Sung, S-J. S., Xu, D. P., Galloway, C. M., Black, C. C. (1988). "A reassessment of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis in higher plants." Phsiologia Plantarum 72:650-654.

Tang05a: Tang DJ, He YQ, Feng JX, He BR, Jiang BL, Lu GT, Chen B, Tang JL (2005). "Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris possesses a single gluconeogenic pathway that is required for virulence." J Bacteriol 187(17);6231-7. PMID: 16109965

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Ahn11: Ahn J, Chung BK, Lee DY, Park M, Karimi IA, Jung JK, Lee H (2011). "NADPH-dependent pgi-gene knockout Escherichia coli metabolism producing shikimate on different carbon sources." FEMS Microbiol Lett 324(1);10-6. PMID: 22092758

AitBara10: Ait-Bara S, Carpousis AJ (2010). "Characterization of the RNA degradosome of Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis: conservation of the RNase E-RhlB interaction in the gammaproteobacteria." J Bacteriol 192(20);5413-23. PMID: 20729366

Al12: Al Mamun AA, Lombardo MJ, Shee C, Lisewski AM, Gonzalez C, Lin D, Nehring RB, Saint-Ruf C, Gibson JL, Frisch RL, Lichtarge O, Hastings PJ, Rosenberg SM (2012). "Identity and function of a large gene network underlying mutagenic repair of DNA breaks." Science 338(6112);1344-8. PMID: 23224554

Albery76: Albery WJ, Knowles JR (1976). "Free-energy profile of the reaction catalyzed by triosephosphate isomerase." Biochemistry 15(25);5627-31. PMID: 999838

Alefounder89: Alefounder PR, Baldwin SA, Perham RN, Short NJ (1989). "Cloning, sequence analysis and over-expression of the gene for the class II fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase of Escherichia coli." Biochem J 1989;257(2);529-34. PMID: 2649077

Alefounder89a: Alefounder PR, Perham RN (1989). "Identification, molecular cloning and sequence analysis of a gene cluster encoding the class II fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, 3-phosphoglycerate kinase and a putative second glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 3(6);723-32. PMID: 2546007

Allen64: Allen, S.H., Kellermeyer, R.W., Ssjernholm, R.L., Wood, H.G. (1964). "Purification and properties of enzymes involved in the propionic acid fermentation." J Bacteriol 87;171-87. PMID: 14102852

Alvarez98: Alvarez M, Zeelen JP, Mainfroid V, Rentier-Delrue F, Martial JA, Wyns L, Wierenga RK, Maes D (1998). "Triose-phosphate isomerase (TIM) of the psychrophilic bacterium Vibrio marinus. Kinetic and structural properties." J Biol Chem 273(4);2199-206. PMID: 9442062

Amarneh05: Amarneh B, Vik SB (2005). "Direct transfer of NADH from malate dehydrogenase to complex I in Escherichia coli." Cell Biochem Biophys 42(3);251-61. PMID: 15976458

Anderson69a: Anderson A, Cooper RA (1969). "Gluconeogenesis in Escherichia coli The role of triose phosphate isomerase." FEBS Lett 4(1);19-20. PMID: 11947134

Anderson75a: Anderson L.E., Heinrikson R.L., Noyes C. "Chloroplast and cytoplasmic enzymes." Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1975) 169:262-268.

Arifuzzaman06: Arifuzzaman M, Maeda M, Itoh A, Nishikata K, Takita C, Saito R, Ara T, Nakahigashi K, Huang HC, Hirai A, Tsuzuki K, Nakamura S, Altaf-Ul-Amin M, Oshima T, Baba T, Yamamoto N, Kawamura T, Ioka-Nakamichi T, Kitagawa M, Tomita M, Kanaya S, Wada C, Mori H (2006). "Large-scale identification of protein-protein interaction of Escherichia coli K-12." Genome Res 16(5);686-91. PMID: 16606699

Babul83: Babul J, Guixe V (1983). "Fructose bisphosphatase from Escherichia coli. Purification and characterization." Arch Biochem Biophys 1983;225(2);944-9. PMID: 6312898

Babul88: Babul J, Fraenkel DG (1988). "Phosphate modification of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase in Escherichia coli." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 151(3);1033-8. PMID: 3281666

Babul93: Babul J, Clifton D, Kretschmer M, Fraenkel DG (1993). "Glucose metabolism in Escherichia coli and the effect of increased amount of aldolase." Biochemistry 32(17);4685-92. PMID: 8485146

Bairoch92: Bairoch A (1992). "PROSITE: a dictionary of sites and patterns in proteins." Nucleic Acids Res 20 Suppl;2013-8. PMID: 1598232

Bairoch93: Bairoch A, Boeckmann B (1993). "The SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank, recent developments." Nucleic Acids Res. 21:3093-3096. PMID: 8332529

Baldwin78: Baldwin SA, Perham RN (1978). "Novel kinetic and structural properties of the class-I D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase from Escherichia coli (Crookes' strain)." Biochem J 1978;169(3);643-52. PMID: 348198

Baldwin78a: Baldwin SA, Perham RN, Stribling D (1978). "Purification and characterization of the class-II D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase from Escherichia coli (Crookes' strain)." Biochem J 1978;169(3);633-41. PMID: 417719

Baveja86: Baveja UK, Jyoti AS, Kaur M, Agarwal DS, Anand BS, Nanda R (1986). "Isoenzyme studies of Giardia lamblia isolated from symptomatic cases." Aust J Exp Biol Med Sci 64 ( Pt 2);119-26. PMID: 2943257

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Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 18.5 on Sun Nov 23, 2014, biocyc14.