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MetaCyc Pathway: ethylene biosynthesis I (plants)
Inferred from experiment

Enzyme View:

Pathway diagram: ethylene biosynthesis I (plants)

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Synonyms: ethene biosynthesis from methionine

Superclasses: BiosynthesisHormones BiosynthesisPlant Hormones BiosynthesisEthylene Biosynthesis

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Arabidopsis thaliana col, Cucumis melo, Dianthus caryophyllus, Glycine max, Malus domestica, Solanum lycopersicum, Vigna radiata

Expected Taxonomic Range: Embryophyta

General Background

Ethylene is known in plants, fungi and bacteria. In plants, ethylene is an important hormone that regulates plant growth and development. It is well-known as a fruit-ripening hormone and is biologically active in trace amounts. Ethylene also plays a general role as a growth inhibitor in promoting leaf and flower senescence and abscission.

All plants produce ethylene from L-methionine (as described here). In addition, two alternative ethylene biosynthetic pathways have been reported from microorganisms. Most microorganisms produce only trace amounts of ethylene via the 2-oxo-4-methylthiobutanoate (KMBA) pathway [Nagahama92] (see ethylene biosynthesis III (microbes)). In that route ethylene is produced non-enzymatically by hydroxyl radicals that are produced from molecular oxygen by an NADH:Fe(III)EDTA oxidoreductase [Ince86, Fukuda89]. In the second microbial pathway, which is found mostly in members of the Pseudomonas syringae group, ethylene is formed enzymatically from 2-oxoglutarate (see ethylene biosynthesis II (microbes)).

Being the simplest unsaturated organic molecule, ethylene is the building block for synthetic polymers including plastics such as polyethylene. Large amounts of ethylene are currently produced in a chemical process from fossil fuels. It is the organic compound that has the highest annual global production.

About This Pathway

In plants, methionine is the only known precursor of ethylene biosynthesis. Ethylene is synthesized from L-methionine through intermediates S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC). Ethylene synthesis can be induced by environmental stress and other plant growth hormones such as auxin. Its production and action can be inhibited by specific ethylene inhibitors such as silver and high concentration of CO2.

The cloning and analysis of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACC synthase, EC genes from a number of plants show that they form a multigene family that are differentially regulated. The transcripts accumulate as a response to a variety of triggers such as ethylene, hormones, wounding, ripening, senescence and pollination [Kosugi00].

Citations: [Lyzenga12]

Variants: ethylene biosynthesis II (microbes), ethylene biosynthesis III (microbes), ethylene biosynthesis V (engineered)

Unification Links: AraCyc:ETHYL-PWY

Created 02-Aug-1999 by Iourovitski I, SRI International
Revised 02-Sep-2009 by Pujar A, Boyce Thompson Institute


Fukuda89: Fukuda H, Takahashi M, Fujii T, Tazaki M, Ogawa T (1989). "An NADH:Fe(III)EDTA oxidoreductase from Cryptococcus albidus: an enzyme involved in ethylene production in vivo?." FEMS Microbiol Lett 51(1);107-11. PMID: 2792734

Ince86: Ince JE, Knowles CJ (1986). "Ethylene formation by cell-free extracts of Escherichia coli." Arch Microbiol 146(2);151-8. PMID: 3541827

Kosugi00: Kosugi Y, Shibuya K, Tsuruno N, Iwazaki Y, Mochizuki A, Yoshioka T, Hashiba T, Satoh S (2000). "Expression of genes responsible for ethylene production and wilting are differently regulated in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) petals." Plant Sci 158(1-2);139-145. PMID: 10996253

Lyzenga12: Lyzenga WJ, Booth JK, Stone SL (2012). "The Arabidopsis RING-type E3 ligase XBAT32 mediates the proteasomal degradation of the ethylene biosynthetic enzyme, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase 7." Plant J 71(1);23-34. PMID: 22339729

Nagahama92: Nagahama, K., Ogawa, T., Fujii, T., Fukuda, H. (1992). "Classification of ethylene-producing bacteria in terms of biosynthetic pathways to ethylene." Journal of Fermentation and Bioengineering 73(1):1-5.

Spanu91: Spanu P, Reinhardt D, Boller T (1991). "Analysis and cloning of the ethylene-forming enzyme from tomato by functional expression of its mRNA in Xenopus laevis oocytes." EMBO J 10(8);2007-13. PMID: 2065651

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Abel95: Abel S, Nguyen MD, Chow W, Theologis A (1995). "ACS4, a primary indoleacetic acid-responsive gene encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase in Arabidopsis thaliana. Structural characterization, expression in Escherichia coli, and expression characteristics in response to auxin [corrected]." J Biol Chem 1995;270(32);19093-9. PMID: 7642574

Balague93: Balague C, Watson CF, Turner AJ, Rouge P, Picton S, Pech JC, Grierson D (1993). "Isolation of a ripening and wound-induced cDNA from Cucumis melo L. encoding a protein with homology to the ethylene-forming enzyme." Eur J Biochem 212(1);27-34. PMID: 8444161

Barry96: Barry CS, Blume B, Bouzayen M, Cooper W, Hamilton AJ, Grierson D (1996). "Differential expression of the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase gene family of tomato." Plant J 9(4);525-35. PMID: 8624515

BRENDA14: BRENDA team (2014). Imported from BRENDA version existing on Aug 2014.

Cabrero87: Cabrero C, Puerta J, Alemany S (1987). "Purification and comparison of two forms of S-adenosyl-L-methionine synthetase from rat liver." Eur J Biochem 170(1-2);299-304. PMID: 3121322

Chattopadhyay91: Chattopadhyay MK, Ghosh AK, Sengupta S (1991). "Control of methionine biosynthesis in Escherichia coli K12: a closer study with analogue-resistant mutants." J Gen Microbiol 137(3);685-91. PMID: 2033383

Chiang77: Chiang PK, Cantoni GL (1977). "Activation of methionine for transmethylation. Purification of the S-adenosylmethionine synthetase of bakers' yeast and its separation into two forms." J Biol Chem 1977;252(13);4506-13. PMID: 194884

Chou72: Chou TC, Talalay P (1972). "The mechanism of S-adenosyl-L-methionine synthesis by purified preparations of bakers' yeast." Biochemistry 1972;11(6);1065-73. PMID: 4552214

Dong92: Dong JG, Fernandez-Maculet JC, Yang SF (1992). "Purification and characterization of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase from apple fruit." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89(20);9789-93. PMID: 1409700

Dong92a: Dong JG, Olson D, Silverstone A, Yang SF (1992). "Sequence of a cDNA coding for a 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase homolog from apple fruit." Plant Physiol 98(4);1530-1. PMID: 16668829

Green05: Green MA, Fry SC (2005). "Vitamin C degradation in plant cells via enzymatic hydrolysis of 4-O-oxalyl-L-threonate." Nature 433(7021);83-7. PMID: 15608627

Greene73: Greene RC, Hunter JS, Coch EH (1973). "Properties of metK mutants of Escherichia coli K-12." J Bacteriol 115(1);57-67. PMID: 4577753

Han07b: Han SE, Seo YS, Kim D, Sung SK, Kim WT (2007). "Expression of MdCAS1 and MdCAS2, encoding apple beta-cyanoalanine synthase homologs, is concomitantly induced during ripening and implicates MdCASs in the possible role of the cyanide detoxification in Fuji apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) fruits." Plant Cell Rep 26(8);1321-31. PMID: 17333023

Jones99: Jones ML, Woodson WR (1999). "Differential expression of three members of the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase gene family in carnation." Plant Physiol 119(2);755-64. PMID: 9952472

Kamarthapu08: Kamarthapu V, Rao KV, Srinivas PN, Reddy GB, Reddy VD (2008). "Structural and kinetic properties of Bacillus subtilis S-adenosylmethionine synthetase expressed in Escherichia coli." Biochim Biophys Acta 1784(12);1949-58. PMID: 18634909

Kerber08: Kerber, R. C. (2008). ""As simple as possible, but not simpler" - the case of dehydroascorbic acid." J. Chem. Ed. 85(9):1237-1242.

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Lee97c: Lee JH, Chae HS, Lee JH, Hwang B, Hahn KW, Kang BG, Kim WT (1997). "Structure and expression of two cDNAs encoding S-adenosyl-L-methionine synthetase of rice (Oryza sativa L.)." Biochim Biophys Acta 1354(1);13-8. PMID: 9375784

Liang92: Liang X, Abel S, Keller JA, Shen NF, Theologis A (1992). "The 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase gene family of Arabidopsis thaliana." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1992;89(22);11046-50. PMID: 1438312

Markham80: Markham GD, Hafner EW, Tabor CW, Tabor H (1980). "S-Adenosylmethionine synthetase from Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 1980;255(19);9082-92. PMID: 6251075

Showing only 20 references. To show more, press the button "Show all references".

Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 19.5 on Thu Apr 28, 2016, BIOCYC11A.