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MetaCyc Pathway: spermine biosynthesis
Inferred from experimentTraceable author statement to experimental support

Enzyme View:

Pathway diagram: spermine biosynthesis

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Superclasses: BiosynthesisAmines and Polyamines Biosynthesis

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Arabidopsis thaliana col, Archaea, Aves, Bacillus subtilis, Bos taurus, Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Homo sapiens, Mammalia, Physarum polycephalum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Salmonella enterica enterica serovar Typhimurium, Sulfolobus solfataricus, Teleostei

Expected Taxonomic Range: Archaea, Bacteria , Eukaryota

The polyamines (the most common of which are putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) are a group of positively charged organic polycations that are involved in many biological processes, including binding to nucleic acids, stabilizing membranes, and stimulating several enzymes [Tabor85, Abraham68, Frydman92, Huang90]. While it is clear that polyamines are essential for normal cell growth, we still do not fully understand their specific molecular functions in vivo [Tabor85]. putrescine and spermidine are found in all life forms, and spermine is found mostly in eukaryotes. A few bacterial species that were reported to contain spermine include Pseudomonas aeruginosa [Stevens68] and Geobacillus stearothermophilus [Weaver58].

Unlike spermidine, spermine is not essential for viability in eukaryotes. Exogenous spermine supported growth of spermidine-depleted cells only after its degradation into spermidine [Kramer96] and spermine-defficient transgenic mice, which were generated by eliminating the SpmS gene, located on the X chromosome, were viable [Lorenz98]. Although, the lack of spermine biosynthesis resulted in a phenotype in affected males that included symptoms of circling behavior, hyperactivity, head shaking, inner ear abnormalities, deafness, sterility, a profound postnatal growth retardation, and a propensity to sudden death. The symptoms were eliminated when the gene was overexpressed in the mice. These results showed that spermine synthesis is needed for normal growth, viability, and fertility in male mice [Wang04a].

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the lack of SPE4 had no obvious manifestation on the mutant phenotype and the homozygous Δspe4 diploid cells sporulated normally indicating that spermine in yeast was not essential for growth and development. Hence, the role of spermine in yeast remains unclear and needs further research. The high amino acid identity (50%) between the spermidine synthase and spermine synthase prompted the suggestion that spermine synthase may have been descended from spermidine synthase by gene duplication [HamasakiKatagir98].

spermine is formed by the addition of a propylamine moiety to spermidine, catalyzed by an aminopropyltransferase termed spermine synthase. The source of the propylamine group is decarboxylated S-adenosyl-L-methionine ( S-adenosyl 3-(methylthio)propylamine) which is produced by the action of the pyruvoyl-containing enzyme S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase. The other product of the aminopropyltransferase reaction is S-methyl-5'-thioadenosine (MTA), which is recycled back to L-methionine.

Unification Links: AraCyc:ARGSPECAT-PWY

Hartmut Foerster on Wed Mar 30, 2005:
renamed spermine biosynthesis to spermine biosynthesis I, because there were two pathways called spermine biosynthesis

Created 12-Aug-1998 by Ying HC, SRI International
Revised 31-Oct-2005 by Caspi R, SRI International
Revised 11-Mar-2013 by Foerster H, Boyce Thompson Institute


Abraham68: Abraham KA (1968). "Studies on DNA-dependent RNA polymerase from Escherichia coli. 1. The mechanism of polyamine induced stimulation of enzyme activity." Eur J Biochem 5(1);143-6. PMID: 4873311

Frydman92: Frydman L, Rossomando PC, Frydman V, Fernandez CO, Frydman B, Samejima K (1992). "Interactions between natural polyamines and tRNA: an 15N NMR analysis." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89(19);9186-90. PMID: 1409623

HamasakiKatagir98: Hamasaki-Katagiri N, Katagiri Y, Tabor CW, Tabor H (1998). "Spermine is not essential for growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: identification of the SPE4 gene (spermine synthase) and characterization of a spe4 deletion mutant." Gene 210(2);195-201. PMID: 9573363

Huang90: Huang SC, Panagiotidis CA, Canellakis ES (1990). "Transcriptional effects of polyamines on ribosomal proteins and on polyamine-synthesizing enzymes in Escherichia coli." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 87(9);3464-8. PMID: 2185470

Kramer96: Kramer, D. L. (1996). "Polyamine inhibitors and analogs." In: Nishioka K (ed) Polyamines in cancer: basic mechanisms and clinical approaches. Springer, New York: 151-189.

Lorenz98: Lorenz B, Francis F, Gempel K, Boddrich A, Josten M, Schmahl W, Schmidt J, Lehrach H, Meitinger T, Strom TM (1998). "Spermine deficiency in Gy mice caused by deletion of the spermine synthase gene." Hum Mol Genet 7(3);541-7. PMID: 9467015

Stevens68: Stevens L, Morrison MR (1968). "Studies on the role of polyamines associated with the ribosomes from Bacillus stearothermophilus." Biochem J 108(4);633-40. PMID: 4875413

Tabor85: Tabor CW, Tabor H (1985). "Polyamines in microorganisms." Microbiol Rev 1985;49(1);81-99. PMID: 3157043

Wang04a: Wang X, Ikeguchi Y, McCloskey DE, Nelson P, Pegg AE (2004). "Spermine synthesis is required for normal viability, growth, and fertility in the mouse." J Biol Chem 279(49);51370-5. PMID: 15459188

Weaver58: Weaver, R.H., Herbst, E.J. (1958). "Metabolism of diamines and polyamines in microorganisms." J Biol Chem 231(2);637-46. PMID: 13538999

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Balasundaram94: Balasundaram D, Xie QW, Tabor CW, Tabor H (1994). "The presence of an active S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase gene increases the growth defect observed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants unable to synthesize putrescine, spermidine, and spermine." J Bacteriol 176(20);6407-9. PMID: 7929015

Diaz91: Diaz E, Anton DL (1991). "Alkylation of an active-site cysteinyl residue during substrate-dependent inactivation of Escherichia coli S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase." Biochemistry 1991;30(16);4078-81. PMID: 2018773

ECOSAL: EcoSal "Escherichia coli and Salmonella: Cellular and Molecular Biology." Online edition.

Ekstrom99: Ekstrom JL, Mathews II, Stanley BA, Pegg AE, Ealick SE (1999). "The crystal structure of human S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase at 2.25 A resolution reveals a novel fold." Structure Fold Des 7(5);583-95. PMID: 10378277

Galston90: Galston AW, Sawhney RK (1990). "Polyamines in plant physiology." Plant Physiol 94(2);406-10. PMID: 11537482

Kajander89: Kajander EO, Kauppinen LI, Pajula RL, Karkola K, Eloranta TO (1989). "Purification and partial characterization of human polyamine synthases." Biochem J 259(3);879-86. PMID: 2730590

Kashiwagi88: Kashiwagi K, Igarashi K (1988). "Adjustment of polyamine contents in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 170(7);3131-5. PMID: 3290196

Kashiwagi90: Kashiwagi K, Taneja SK, Liu TY, Tabor CW, Tabor H (1990). "Spermidine biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biosynthesis and processing of a proenzyme form of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase." J Biol Chem 265(36);22321-8. PMID: 2266128

Kolar52: Kolar, V (1952). "[Experiences with the treatment of leukemia.]." Bratisl Lek Listy 7(2);38-42. PMID: 14918534

Korhonen95: Korhonen VP, Halmekyto M, Kauppinen L, Myohanen S, Wahlfors J, Keinanen T, Hyvonen T, Alhonen L, Eloranta T, Janne J (1995). "Molecular cloning of a cDNA encoding human spermine synthase." DNA Cell Biol 14(10);841-7. PMID: 7546290

Kropf98: Kropf RF, Wang Y, Cheng YS (1998). "Self-absorption of tritium betas in metal tritide particles." Health Phys 75(4);398-404. PMID: 9753363

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Li01: Li YF, Hess S, Pannell LK, White Tabor C, Tabor H (2001). "In vivo mechanism-based inactivation of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylases from Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98(19);10578-83. PMID: 11526206

Lu07: Lu ZJ, Markham GD (2007). "Metal ion activation of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase reflects cation charge density." Biochemistry 46(27);8172-80. PMID: 17567041

Markham82: Markham GD, Tabor CW, Tabor H (1982). "S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase of Escherichia coli. Studies on the covalently linked pyruvate required for activity." J Biol Chem 257(20);12063-8. PMID: 6749853

Markham83: Markham GD, Tabor CW, Tabor H (1983). "S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (Escherichia coli)." Methods Enzymol 1983;94;228-30. PMID: 6353153

Pajula83: Pajula RL (1983). "Kinetic properties of spermine synthase from bovine brain." Biochem J 215(3);669-76. PMID: 6419729

Pajunen88: Pajunen A, Crozat A, Janne OA, Ihalainen R, Laitinen PH, Stanley B, Madhubala R, Pegg AE (1988). "Structure and regulation of mammalian S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase." J Biol Chem 263(32);17040-9. PMID: 2460457

Pegg83: Pegg AE, Jacobs G (1983). "Comparison of inhibitors of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase from different species." Biochem J 213(2);495-502. PMID: 6351843

Pegg86: Pegg AE, Coward JK, Talekar RR, Secrist JA (1986). "Effects of certain 5'-substituted adenosines on polyamine synthesis: selective inhibitors of spermine synthase." Biochemistry 1986;25(14);4091-7. PMID: 3091070

Showing only 20 references. To show more, press the button "Show all references".

Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by Pathway Tools version 19.5 (software by SRI International) on Sun May 1, 2016, biocyc14.