This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Synonyms: ureide degradation
|Superclasses:||Degradation/Utilization/Assimilation → Amines and Polyamines Degradation → Allantoin Degradation|
Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Expected Taxonomic Range: Fungi
This allantoin degradation pathway, which converts (S)-(+)-allantoin to ammonia and CO2, allows Saccharomyces cerevisiae to use allantoin as a sole nitrogen source. (S)-(+)-allantoin is converted to glyoxylate by the DAL1, DAL2, and DAL3 gene products, which work sequentially to liberate the nitrogen from (S)-(+)-allantoin is the form of two urea molecules [Yoo85]. Urea is then degraded to ammonia in a two-step process by urea amidolyase, a multifunctional single enzyme encoded by the DUR1,2 gene. This enzyme was originally thought to be encoded by two tightly-linked genes (hence the name DUR1,2) [Cooper80].
The allantoin catabolic pathway genes are regulated by a general signal that responds to the availability of readily utilizable nitrogen sources, and also by pathway-specific induction by (S)-(+)-allantoin or by the intermediate urea-1-carboxylate. These regulatory effects are mediated by cis-acting DNA elements and the trans-acting factors Gln3p, Gat1p, Dal80p, Dal81p, and Dal82p [Rai99, Magasanik02, Scott00, Talibi95].
Variants: allantoin degradation IV (anaerobic), allantoin degradation to glyoxylate II, allantoin degradation to glyoxylate III, allantoin degradation to ureidoglycolate II (ammonia producing), superpathway of allantoin degradation in plants
Rai99: Rai R, Daugherty JR, Cunningham TS, Cooper TG (1999). "Overlapping positive and negative GATA factor binding sites mediate inducible DAL7 gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." J Biol Chem 274(39);28026-34. PMID: 10488154
Scott00: Scott S, Dorrington R, Svetlov V, Beeser AE, Distler M, Cooper TG (2000). "Functional domain mapping and subcellular distribution of Dal82p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." J Biol Chem 275(10);7198-204. PMID: 10702289
Talibi95: Talibi D, Grenson M, Andre B (1995). "Cis- and trans-acting elements determining induction of the genes of the gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) utilization pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Nucleic Acids Res 23(4);550-7. PMID: 7899074
Cusa99: Cusa E, Obradors N, Baldoma L, Badia J, Aguilar J (1999). "Genetic analysis of a chromosomal region containing genes required for assimilation of allantoin nitrogen and linked glyoxylate metabolism in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1999;181(24);7479-84. PMID: 10601204
Kim00a: Kim GJ, Lee DE, Kim HS (2000). "Functional expression and characterization of the two cyclic amidohydrolase enzymes, allantoinase and a novel phenylhydantoinase, from Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 2000;182(24);7021-8. PMID: 11092864
Leulliot04: Leulliot N, Quevillon-Cheruel S, Sorel I, Graille M, Meyer P, Liger D, Blondeau K, Janin J, van Tilbeurgh H (2004). "Crystal structure of yeast allantoicase reveals a repeated jelly roll motif." J Biol Chem 279(22);23447-52. PMID: 15020593
Matsumoto78b: Matsumoto H, Ohta S, Kobayashi R, Terawaki Y (1978). "Chromosomal location of genes participating in the degradation of purines in Pseudomonas aeruginosa." Mol Gen Genet 167(2);165-76. PMID: 104142
Munoz01: Munoz A, Piedras P, Aguilar M, Pineda M (2001). "Urea Is a Product of Ureidoglycolate Degradation in Chickpea. Purification and Characterization of the Ureidoglycolate Urea-Lyase." Plant Physiol 2001;125(2);828-834. PMID: 11161040
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