MetaCyc Enzyme: acryloyl-CoA reductase

Species: [Clostridium] propionicum

Subunit composition of acryloyl-CoA reductase = [(AcrC)2(AcrA)(AcrB)]4
         acryloyl-CoA reductase monomer = (AcrC)2(AcrA)(AcrB)
                 propionyl-CoA dehydrogenase = AcrC (summary available)
                 electron-transferring flavoprotein α subunit = AcrA (summary available)
                 electron-transferring flavoprotein β subunit = AcrB (summary available)

This heterohexadecameric enzyme catalyzes the irreversible, NADH-dependent conversion of acrylyl-CoA (acryloyl-CoA) to propionyl-CoA. It is a complex of acryloyl-CoA reductase (encoded by acrC) and an electron-transfer flavoprotein (encoded by acrA and acrB). The latter component is responsible for the observed diaphorase activity and NADH oxidase activity. The in vitro assay, ferricenium hexafluorophosphate was used as an electron acceptor [Hetzel03].

The three genes were cloned and expressed in an Escherichia coli strain engineered to carry out the conversion of lactate to propanoate [Kandasamy12].

Locations: cytosol

Molecular Weight: 600 kD (experimental) [Hetzel03]

Gene-Reaction Schematic

Gene-Reaction Schematic

GO Terms:
Cellular Component:
GO:0005829 - cytosol [Hetzel03]

Created 06-Dec-2006 by Fulcher CA, SRI International
Revised 08-Aug-2012 by Caspi R, SRI International

Enzymatic reaction of: acryloyl-CoA reductase

Inferred from experiment

Synonyms: propionyl-CoA dehydrogenase

EC Number:

propanoyl-CoA + NAD+ ← acryloyl-CoA + NADH + H+

The direction shown, i.e. which substrates are on the left and right sides, is in accordance with the Enzyme Commission system.

The reaction is favored in the opposite direction.

Alternative Substrates for acryloyl-CoA: butanoyl-CoA [Hetzel03 ], propanoyl-CoA [Hetzel03 ], but-1-en-3-one [Hetzel03 ]

In Pathways: L-alanine fermentation to propanoate and acetate, pyruvate fermentation to propanoate II (acrylate pathway)

Cofactors or Prosthetic Groups: FMN [Hetzel03], FAD [Hetzel03]

Kinetic Parameters:
Substrate Km (μM) Citations
acryloyl-CoA 2.0 [Hetzel03]

Subunit of acryloyl-CoA reductase: acryloyl-CoA reductase monomer

Subunit of acryloyl-CoA reductase monomer: propionyl-CoA dehydrogenase

Synonyms: AcrC

Gene: acrC Accession Number: G-15281 (MetaCyc)

Molecular Weight: 42.781 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Molecular Weight: 40 kD (experimental) [Hetzel03]

Unification Links: Protein Model Portal:G3KIM8, UniProt:G3KIM8

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR006089, InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR006091, InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR009075, InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR009100, InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR013786, Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00441, Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF02770, Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF02771, Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS00072, Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS00073

The subunit molecular mass was determined by SDS-PAGE [Hetzel03].

Subunit of acryloyl-CoA reductase monomer: electron-transferring flavoprotein α subunit

Synonyms: AcrA

Gene: acrA Accession Number: G-15282 (MetaCyc)

Molecular Weight: 39.863 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Molecular Weight: 38 kD (experimental) [Hetzel03]

Unification Links: UniProt:G3KIM6

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR001308, InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR014729, InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR014730, InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR014731, InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR029035, Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00766, Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF01012, Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS00696, Smart:IN-FAMILY:SM00893

The subunit molecular mass was determined by SDS-PAGE [Hetzel03].

Subunit of acryloyl-CoA reductase monomer: electron-transferring flavoprotein β subunit

Synonyms: AcrB

Gene: acrB Accession Number: G-15283 (MetaCyc)

Molecular Weight: 28.852 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Molecular Weight: 29 kD (experimental) [Hetzel03]

Unification Links: UniProt:G3KIM7

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR012255, InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR014729, InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR014730, Panther:IN-FAMILY:PTHR21294, Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF01012, Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS01065, Smart:IN-FAMILY:SM00893

The subunit molecular mass was determined by SDS-PAGE [Hetzel03].


Hetzel03: Hetzel M, Brock M, Selmer T, Pierik AJ, Golding BT, Buckel W (2003). "Acryloyl-CoA reductase from Clostridium propionicum. An enzyme complex of propionyl-CoA dehydrogenase and electron-transferring flavoprotein." Eur J Biochem 270(5);902-10. PMID: 12603323

Kandasamy12: Kandasamy V, Vaidyanathan H, Djurdjevic I, Jayamani E, Ramachandran KB, Buckel W, Jayaraman G, Ramalingam S (2012). "Engineering Escherichia coli with acrylate pathway genes for propionic acid synthesis and its impact on mixed-acid fermentation." Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. PMID: 22810300

Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by Pathway Tools version 20.0 (software by SRI International) on Thu May 5, 2016, BIOCYC13A.