MetaCyc Enzyme: meso-diaminopimelic acid-D-alanyl endopeptidase / D-alanyl-D-alanine carboxypeptidase

Gene: dacB Accession Numbers: EG10202 (MetaCyc), b3182, ECK3171

Synonyms: D-alanyl-D-alanine carboxypeptidase, fraction B; penicillin-binding protein 4, PBP4

Species: Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655

PBP4 is a penicillin-sensitive protein that catalyzes both D-alanyl-D-alanine carboxypeptidase and meso-diaminopimelic acid-D-alanyl endopeptidase activities, though the former has been shown to occur at low levels.

The structures of PBP4 alone and complexed with various antibiotics have been determined by X-ray crystallography to resolutions of 1.55 - 2.8 Å [Thunnissen95, Kishida06]. PBP4 has a twenty-residue amino-terminal signal sequence which is cleaved in mature protein [Mottl91], though it was predicted that this leader sequence is not required for membrane insertion [Davies88]. It also has the characteristic β-lactamase / penicillin-binding protein active site motifs of serine-x-x-lysine, serine-x-asparagine and lysine-threonine-glycine [Mottl91]. Site directed mutagenesis has been used to study the active site of PBP4 [Clarke09]. PBP4 is similar to class A β-lactamases, but contains an extra domain of unkown function between its SxxK and SxN fingerprints [Mottl91, Mottl92]. PBP4 has two disulfide bridges formed by the pairs cysteine-139-cysteine-153 and cysteine-197-cysteine-214 [Mottl92]. The formation of the disulfide bridges is catalyzed by DsbB [Missiakas93]. PBP4 forms an alpha helical structure in the presence of lipid, but unlike PBP5 appears to favor surface rather than deep interaction with membranes [Harris02]. This interaction involves electrostatic rather than hydrophobic forces [Harris98]. PBP4 can be purified with the dye cibacron navyblue 2G-E [Mottl91a]. PBP4 fractionated with either PBP6 and PBP7; PBP1a, PBP1b, PBP2, PBP3, and PBP5; or PBP1a, PBP1b, PBP1c, PBP2, and PBP3 in membrane vesicles depending on the method used [Leidenix89, Jacoby88].

Purified PBP4 hydrolyzes the D-alanyl-γ-meso-2,6-diaminopimelyl peptide bond of isolated dimeric muropeptides [Korat91].

A dacB mutant lacks D-alanine carboxypeptidase 1B activity [Matsuhashi77, Suzuki78]. A dacB mutant is defective for transpeptidation of newly inserted murein and for attachment to LppA, but not for transpeptidation during addition of new murein [dePedro81]. A dacA dacB mutant has very little D-alanine carboxypeptidase activity or transpeptidase activity defined as attachment of glycine to the murein tetrapeptide [Matsuhashi78, Matsuhashi79]. Quadruple dacA dacB dacC dacD mutants are viable, as are strains deleted for eight of the known penicillin-binding proteins, PBP4 among them [Baquero96, Denome99]. PBP4 is not required for viability [Vega06]. mepA mepB dacB triple mutants grew normally [Iida83]. Overexpression of dacB results in reduced numbers of murein crosslinks and murein pentapeptides in vitro and in vivo [Korat91]. Overexpression of dacB during early exponential growth leads to cell lysis [Nelson01]. A dacB dacA pbpG, dacB dacA dacD, dacB dacA ftsZ84, or dacB dacA dacC mutant has abnormal cellular morphology [Meberg04, Varma04, Nelson01]. PBP4 is involved in peptidoglycan catabolism during cell division in mutants lacking other peptidoglycan metabolizing enzymes such as AmiC, PBP5, PBP6, and PBP7 [Priyadarshini06]. ftsZ84 dacB pbpG mutants lyse at the nonpermissive temperature [Varma04]. Inhibition of FtsZ by Sula in a dacA dacB mutant results in growth of spiral-shaped cells [Varma04]. An amiA amiB amiC mepA pbpG mutant forms long chains of undivided cells due to a reduced ability to cleave murein septa [Heidrich02]. The amount of PBP4 is decreased in minicells [Obermann94].

Reviews: [Ghosh08, Han06, Scheffers05, Goffin02, Goffin98, Holtje98, Nanninga98, Massova98, Gittins94]

Citations: [Spratt75, Derouaux08, Meisel03, dePedro03, Nelson02, Meberg01, Vollmer00, Nelson00, Lazar98, Sanders97, Harris97a, Fusetti96, Engel92a, Begg90, Keck90, Tuomanen87, Kraus87, Kraus85, Curtis81, Spratt80, Tamura80, Amaral86, Tamaki77, Tamura76]

Locations: inner membrane, periplasmic space

Map Position: [3,326,985 -> 3,328,418]

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 51.798 kD (from nucleotide sequence), 49.0 kD (experimental) [Korat91 ]

Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0010458 , CGSC:885 , EchoBASE:EB0198 , EcoGene:EG10202 , EcoliWiki:b3182 , ModBase:P24228 , OU-Microarray:b3182 , PortEco:dacB , PR:PRO_000022393 , Pride:P24228 , Protein Model Portal:P24228 , RefSeq:NP_417649 , RegulonDB:EG10202 , SMR:P24228 , String:511145.b3182 , UniProt:P24228

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR000667 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR012338 , PDB:Structure:2EX2 , PDB:Structure:2EX6 , PDB:Structure:2EX8 , PDB:Structure:2EX9 , PDB:Structure:2EXA , PDB:Structure:2EXB , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF02113 , Prints:IN-FAMILY:PR00922

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?

Gene-Reaction Schematic

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0000270 - peptidoglycan metabolic process Inferred from experiment [Korat91]
GO:0008360 - regulation of cell shape Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, Nelson01, Varma04, Meberg04]
GO:0009253 - peptidoglycan catabolic process Inferred from experiment [Korat91]
GO:0009254 - peptidoglycan turnover Inferred from experiment [Korat91]
GO:0016998 - cell wall macromolecule catabolic process Inferred from experiment [Korat91]
GO:0043093 - FtsZ-dependent cytokinesis Inferred from experiment [Heidrich02]
GO:0071555 - cell wall organization Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, Korat91]
GO:0006508 - proteolysis Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]
GO:0007049 - cell cycle Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0009252 - peptidoglycan biosynthetic process Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA12, UniProtGOA11]
GO:0046677 - response to antibiotic Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0051301 - cell division Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
Molecular Function: GO:0004175 - endopeptidase activity Inferred from experiment [Korat91]
GO:0004180 - carboxypeptidase activity Inferred from experiment [Matsuhashi77, Suzuki78]
GO:0005515 - protein binding Inferred from experiment [Rajagopala14, Arifuzzaman06]
GO:0008658 - penicillin binding Inferred from experiment [Spratt77]
GO:0009002 - serine-type D-Ala-D-Ala carboxypeptidase activity Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a, Matsuhashi77]
GO:0004185 - serine-type carboxypeptidase activity Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]
GO:0016787 - hydrolase activity Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
Cellular Component: GO:0030288 - outer membrane-bounded periplasmic space Inferred from experiment [Matsuhashi77]
GO:0005886 - plasma membrane [Jacoby88]
GO:0042597 - periplasmic space Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, UniProtGOA11]

MultiFun Terms: cell processes protection drug resistance/sensitivity
cell structure murein
metabolism biosynthesis of macromolecules (cellular constituents) murein (peptidoglycan)

Imported from EcoCyc 02-Jun-2015 by Paley S , SRI International

Enzymatic reaction of: meso-diaminopimelic acid-D-alanyl endopeptidase

EC Number: 3.4.-.-

peptidoglycan D-alanyl-DAP crosslink[periplasmic space] + H2O[periplasmic space] <=> peptidoglycan tetrapeptide, glycan chain 1[periplasmic space] + peptidoglycan tetrapeptide, glycan chain 2[periplasmic space]

The reaction direction shown, that is, A + B ↔ C + D versus C + D ↔ A + B, is in accordance with the direction in which it was curated.

The reaction is physiologically favored in the direction shown.

Imported from EcoCyc 02-Jun-2015 by Paley S , SRI International

Inhibitors (Unknown Mechanism): cephalexin [Eberhardt03]

Sequence Features

Feature Class Location Common Name Citations Comment
Signal-Sequence 1 -> 20 PBP4 signal sequence
Chain 21 -> 477  
UniProt: D-alanyl-D-alanine carboxypeptidase dacB;
Active-Site 62  
UniProt: Acyl-ester intermediate.
Active-Site 65  
UniProt: Proton acceptor; Non-Experimental Qualifier: by similarity;
Protein-Segment 90 -> 263  
UniProt: Absent in class-A beta-lactamases; Sequence Annotation Type: region of interest;
Sequence-Conflict 261  
[Kishida06, UniProt10]
UniProt: (in Ref. 5);
Active-Site 306  
UniProt: Non-Experimental Qualifier: by similarity;
Amino-Acid-Sites-That-Bind 417  
UniProt: Substrate; Non-Experimental Qualifier: by similarity;
Sequence-Conflict 427  
[Mottl91, UniProt10]
UniProt: (in Ref. 1; CAA42643);

10/20/97 Gene b3182 from Blattner lab Genbank (v. M52) entry merged into EcoCyc gene EG10202; confirmed by SwissProt match.


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Harris97a: Harris F, Phoenix DA (1997). "An investigation into the ability of C-terminal homologues of Escherichia coli low molecular mass penicillin-binding proteins 4, 5 and 6 to undergo membrane interaction." Biochimie 79(4);171-4. PMID: 9242980

Harris98: Harris F, Demel R, de Kruijff B, Phoenix DA (1998). "An investigation into the lipid interactions of peptides corresponding to the C-terminal anchoring domains of Escherichia coli penicillin-binding proteins 4, 5 and 6." Biochim Biophys Acta 1415(1);10-22. PMID: 9858668

Heidrich02: Heidrich C, Ursinus A, Berger J, Schwarz H, Holtje JV (2002). "Effects of multiple deletions of murein hydrolases on viability, septum cleavage, and sensitivity to large toxic molecules in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 184(22);6093-9. PMID: 12399477

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Keck90: Keck W, van Leeuwen AM, Huber M, Goodell EW (1990). "Cloning and characterization of mepA, the structural gene of the penicillin-insensitive murein endopeptidase from Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 4(2);209-19. PMID: 2187143

Kishida06: Kishida H, Unzai S, Roper DI, Lloyd A, Park SY, Tame JR (2006). "Crystal structure of penicillin binding protein 4 (dacB) from Escherichia coli, both in the native form and covalently linked to various antibiotics." Biochemistry 45(3);783-92. PMID: 16411754

Korat91: Korat B, Mottl H, Keck W (1991). "Penicillin-binding protein 4 of Escherichia coli: molecular cloning of the dacB gene, controlled overexpression, and alterations in murein composition." Mol Microbiol 5(3);675-84. PMID: 2046551

Kraus85: Kraus W, Glauner B, Holtje JV (1985). "UDP-N-acetylmuramylpentapeptide as acceptor in murein biosynthesis in Escherichia coli membranes and ether-permeabilized cells." J Bacteriol 162(3);1000-4. PMID: 3888951

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Lazar98: Lazar SW, Almiron M, Tormo A, Kolter R (1998). "Role of the Escherichia coli SurA protein in stationary-phase survival." J Bacteriol 180(21);5704-11. PMID: 9791122

Leidenix89: Leidenix MJ, Jacoby GH, Henderson TA, Young KD (1989). "Separation of Escherichia coli penicillin-binding proteins into different membrane vesicles by agarose electrophoresis and sizing chromatography." J Bacteriol 171(10);5680-6. PMID: 2676988

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Matsuhashi78: Matsuhashi M, Maruyama IN, Takagaki Y, Tamaki S, Nishimura Y, Hirota Y (1978). "Isolation of a mutant of Escherichia coli lacking penicillin-sensitive D-alanine carboxypeptidase IA." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 75(6);2631-5. PMID: 351612

Matsuhashi79: Matsuhashi M, Tamaki S, Curtis SJ, Strominger JL (1979). "Mutational evidence for identity of penicillin-binding protein 5 in Escherichia coli with the major D-alanine carboxypeptidase IA activity." J Bacteriol 137(1);644-7. PMID: 368033

Meberg01: Meberg BM, Sailer FC, Nelson DE, Young KD (2001). "Reconstruction of Escherichia coli mrcA (PBP 1a) mutants lacking multiple combinations of penicillin binding proteins." J Bacteriol 183(20);6148-9. PMID: 11567017

Meberg04: Meberg BM, Paulson AL, Priyadarshini R, Young KD (2004). "Endopeptidase penicillin-binding proteins 4 and 7 play auxiliary roles in determining uniform morphology of Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 186(24);8326-36. PMID: 15576782

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Mottl91a: Mottl H, Keck W (1991). "Purification of penicillin-binding protein 4 of Escherichia coli as a soluble protein by dye-affinity chromatography." Eur J Biochem 200(3);767-73. PMID: 1833192

Mottl92: Mottl H, Nieland P, de Kort G, Wierenga JJ, Keck W (1992). "Deletion of an additional domain located between SXXK and SXN active-site fingerprints in penicillin-binding protein 4 from Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 174(10);3261-9. PMID: 1577694

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Nelson01: Nelson DE, Young KD (2001). "Contributions of PBP 5 and DD-carboxypeptidase penicillin binding proteins to maintenance of cell shape in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 183(10);3055-64. PMID: 11325933

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Rajagopala14: Rajagopala SV, Sikorski P, Kumar A, Mosca R, Vlasblom J, Arnold R, Franca-Koh J, Pakala SB, Phanse S, Ceol A, Hauser R, Siszler G, Wuchty S, Emili A, Babu M, Aloy P, Pieper R, Uetz P (2014). "The binary protein-protein interaction landscape of Escherichia coli." Nat Biotechnol 32(3);285-90. PMID: 24561554

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Spratt77: Spratt BG (1977). "Properties of the penicillin-binding proteins of Escherichia coli K12,." Eur J Biochem 72(2);341-52. PMID: 319999

Spratt80: Spratt BG, Boyd A, Stoker N (1980). "Defective and plaque-forming lambda transducing bacteriophage carrying penicillin-binding protein-cell shape genes: genetic and physical mapping and identification of gene products from the lip-dacA-rodA-pbpA-leuS region of the Escherichia coli chromosome." J Bacteriol 143(2);569-81. PMID: 6451612

Suzuki78: Suzuki H, Nishimura Y, Hirota Y (1978). "On the process of cellular division in Escherichia coli: a series of mutants of E. coli altered in the penicillin-binding proteins." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 75(2);664-8. PMID: 345275

Tamaki77: Tamaki S, Nakajima S, Matsuhashi M (1977). "Thermosensitive mutation in Escherichia coli simultaneously causing defects in penicillin-binding protein-1Bs and in enzyme activity for peptidoglycan synthesis in vitro." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 74(12);5472-6. PMID: 341159

Tamura76: Tamura T, Imae Y, Strominger JL (1976). "Purification to homogeneity and properties of two D-alanine carboxypeptidases I From Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 251(2);414-23. PMID: 1391

Tamura80: Tamura T, Suzuki H, Nishimura Y, Mizoguchi J, Hirota Y (1980). "On the process of cellular division in Escherichia coli: isolation and characterization of penicillin-binding proteins 1a, 1b, and 3." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 77(8);4499-503. PMID: 7001458

Thunnissen95: Thunnissen MM, Fusetti F, de Boer B, Dijkstra BW (1995). "Purification, crystallisation and preliminary X-ray analysis of penicillin binding protein 4 from Escherichia coli, a protein related to class A beta-lactamases." J Mol Biol 247(2);149-53. PMID: 7707365

Tuomanen87: Tuomanen E, Schwartz J (1987). "Penicillin-binding protein 7 and its relationship to lysis of nongrowing Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 169(11);4912-5. PMID: 3312163

UniProt09: UniProt Consortium (2009). "UniProt version 15.8 released on 2009-10-01 00:00:00." Database.

UniProt10: UniProt Consortium (2010). "UniProt version 2010-11 released on 2010-11-02 00:00:00." Database.

UniProt10a: UniProt Consortium (2010). "UniProt version 2010-07 released on 2010-06-15 00:00:00." Database.

UniProt15: UniProt Consortium (2015). "UniProt version 2015-01 released on 2015-01-16 00:00:00." Database.

UniProtGOA11: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

UniProtGOA11a: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on the manual assignment of UniProtKB Subcellular Location terms in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

UniProtGOA12: UniProt-GOA (2012). "Gene Ontology annotation based on UniPathway vocabulary mapping."

Varma04: Varma A, Young KD (2004). "FtsZ collaborates with penicillin binding proteins to generate bacterial cell shape in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 186(20);6768-74. PMID: 15466028

Vega06: Vega D, Ayala JA (2006). "The DD-carboxypeptidase activity encoded by pbp4B is not essential for the cell growth of Escherichia coli." Arch Microbiol 185(1):23-7. PMID: 16402224

Vollmer00: Vollmer W, Holtje JV (2000). "A simple screen for murein transglycosylase inhibitors." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 44(5);1181-5. PMID: 10770749

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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