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Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
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Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
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discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
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MetaCyc Enzyme: carotenoid isomerase

Gene: CRTISO Accession Number: G-9408 (MetaCyc)

Synonyms: tangerine, carotene cis-trans isomerase

Species: Solanum lycopersicum

Summary:
The fruits of the tomato mutant tangerine are orange and accumulate prolycopene instead of all-trans-lycopene, which is normally synthesized in wild type fruits. This mutation therefore indicated the involvement of the gene (CRTISO) in carotenoid isomerization from their cis to their trans form [Isaacson02]. The ripe fruits of the tangerine mutant contains a mixture of cis-carotenes: 30-50% of prolycopene, approximately 2% of |CPD-7519|, 6% to 11% of 7,9,9'-cis-neurosporene, 20% to 30% of |CPD-7526|, some 9,15,9'-tri-cis-ζ-carotene, and approximately 8% to 10% 9-cis-phytofluene [Isaacson04]. Escherichia coli strain expressing the recombinant tomato CRTISO gene showed substantial cis-to-trans carotene isomerization with a decrease in prolycopene content, concomittent with di-cis- and trans-lycopene content [Isaacson04]. In addition, direct incubation of 7,9,9'-cis-neurosporene with the enzymatic extract from Escherichia coli indicated that this compound can serve as a direct substrate for CRTISO, and leading, most probably, to the production of 9'-cis-neurosporene, though the exact chemical structure of this compound was not conserved [Isaacson04].

The activity of the recombinant protein was increased by addition of NADH, NADPH or succinate. This result and the study of various inhibitors led to the suggestion that the presence of a reduced component of the electron transfer chain is required for the isomerization activity of CRTISO [Isaacson04].

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 60 kD (experimental) [Isaacson04 ]

Unification Links: Entrez:AAL91366 , Protein Model Portal:Q8S4R4 , UniProt:Q8S4R4

Relationship Links: Entrez-Nucleotide:PART-OF:AF416727 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR014101 , Panther:IN-FAMILY:PTHR10668:SF30 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF01266

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?


Enzymatic reaction of: prolycopene isomerase (carotenoid isomerase)

EC Number: 5.2.1.13

prolycopene <=> all-trans-lycopene

The reaction direction shown, that is, A + B ↔ C + D versus C + D ↔ A + B, is in accordance with the Enzyme Commission system.

The reaction is favored in the direction shown.

In Pathways: superpathway of carotenoid biosynthesis , trans-lycopene biosynthesis II (plants)

Activators (Unknown Mechanism): NADH [Isaacson04] , NADPH [Isaacson04] , succinate [Isaacson04]

Primary Physiological Regulators of Enzyme Activity: NADH , NADPH , succinate


Enzymatic reaction of: proneurosporene isomerase (carotenoid isomerase)

Synonyms: 7,9,9'-tri-cis-neurosporene isomerase

EC Number: 5.2.1.-

7,9,9'-cis-neurosporene <=> 9'-cis-neurosporene

The reaction direction shown, that is, A + B ↔ C + D versus C + D ↔ A + B, is in accordance with the direction in which it was curated.

Reversibility of this reaction is unspecified.

Citations: [Isaacson04]


Enzymatic reaction of: 7',9'-cis-lycopene isomerase (carotenoid isomerase)

EC Number: 5.2.1.-

7',9'-cis-lycopene <=> all-trans-lycopene

The reaction direction shown, that is, A + B ↔ C + D versus C + D ↔ A + B, is in accordance with the direction in which it was curated.

Reversibility of this reaction is unspecified.


References

Isaacson02: Isaacson T, Ronen G, Zamir D, Hirschberg J (2002). "Cloning of tangerine from tomato reveals a carotenoid isomerase essential for the production of beta-carotene and xanthophylls in plants." Plant Cell 14(2);333-42. PMID: 11884678

Isaacson04: Isaacson T, Ohad I, Beyer P, Hirschberg J (2004). "Analysis in vitro of the enzyme CRTISO establishes a poly-cis-carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in plants." Plant Physiol 136(4);4246-55. PMID: 15557094


Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 18.5 on Sun Dec 21, 2014, biocyc13.