|Gene:||Gls2||Accession Number: G-9955 (MetaCyc)|
Species: Rattus norvegicus
Subunit composition of
glutaminase, liver isoform = [Gls2]3
glutaminase subunit = Gls2
In mammals, two mitochondrial isoforms of glutaminase, liver isoform and kidney isoform, have been characterized. These two isoforms have different kinetic and molecular properties and are encoded by different genes. In Rattus norvegicus the kidney isoform is encoded by gene Gls and the liver isoform by gene Gls2. The liver isoform is expressed in post-natal liver, pancreas and brain. The kidney isoform is abundant in cells of the kidney, brain, intestinal epithelium, fetal liver, and in lymphocytes (in [Kenny03]). A third, nuclear isoform resembling the liver isoform has been characterized in mammalian brain, with properties distinct from the liver and kidney isoforms [Olalla02].
Glutaminases are present in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes and play important roles in nitrogen metabolism by effecting glutamine breakdown. Eukaryotic glutaminases differ in properties from those of prokaryotes. Phosphate activation is characteristic of eukaryotic enzymes, although a phosphate-activated glutaminase has been characterized from Sporosarcina pasteurii (previously known as Bacillus pasteurii) [Klein02] (see glutaminase).
The relative molecular mass of the glutaminase subunit from Rattus norvegicus was estimated by sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation [Heini87].
Gene Citations: [ChungBok97]
|Map Position: [1,484,397 -> 1,495,289]|
Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 66.248 kD (from nucleotide sequence), 57 kD (experimental) [Heini87 ]
Molecular Weight of Multimer: 172.5 kD (experimental) [Heini87]
Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR002110 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR012338 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR015868 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR020683 , Panther:IN-FAMILY:PTHR12544 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF04960 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF12796 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS50088 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS50297 , Smart:IN-FAMILY:SM00248
|Cellular Component:||GO:0005739 - mitochondrion [Heini87]|
Enzymatic reaction of: glutaminase
Synonyms: glutamine aminohydrolase
The reaction direction shown, that is, A + B ↔ C + D versus C + D ↔ A + B, is in accordance with the direction in which it was curated.
The reaction is physiologically favored in the direction shown.
The activity of Rattus norvegicus glutaminase, liver isoform, was dependent on added phosphate. It required ammonia as an activator and showed a sigmoidal concentration dependence on glutamine [Patel84].
pH(opt): 7.7-8.5 [Patel84]
ChungBok97: Chung-Bok MI, Vincent N, Jhala U, Watford M (1997). "Rat hepatic glutaminase: identification of the full coding sequence and characterization of a functional promoter." Biochem J 324 ( Pt 1);193-200. PMID: 9164856
Kenny03: Kenny J, Bao Y, Hamm B, Taylor L, Toth A, Wagers B, Curthoys NP (2003). "Bacterial expression, purification, and characterization of rat kidney-type mitochondrial glutaminase." Protein Expr Purif 31(1);140-8. PMID: 12963351
Olalla02: Olalla L, Gutierrez A, Campos JA, Khan ZU, Alonso FJ, Segura JA, Marquez J, Aledo JC (2002). "Nuclear localization of L-type glutaminase in mammalian brain." J Biol Chem 277(41);38939-44. PMID: 12163477
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