MetaCyc Compound: Na+

Synonyms: Sodium, sodium ion

Superclasses: an iona cationan inorganic cationa monovalent inorganic cation
an ionan inorganic ionan inorganic cationa monovalent inorganic cation

Component of:
sodium dithionite
sodium dodecyl sulfate
sodium tetraborate decahydrate
disodium phosphate
monosodium phosphate
sodium citrate trihydrate
sodium sulfate
tiron (summary available)
acidulated phosphate fluoride (summary available)
sodium tetrahydridoborate
sodium pyruvate
sodium acetate
sodium chloride
disodium phosphate heptahydrate
sodium nitrate

Chemical Formula: Na

Molecular Weight: 22.99 Daltons

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 22.98976967 Daltons


InChI: InChI=1S/Na/q+1


Unification Links: CAS:7440-23-5, ChEBI:29101, ChemSpider:899, HMDB:HMDB00588, IAF1260:37376, KEGG:C01330, MetaboLights:MTBLC29101, PubChem:923

Standard Gibbs Free Energy of Formation (ΔfG in kcal/mol): -0.3120594Inferred by computational analysis [Latendresse13]

Reactions known to consume the compound:

malonate degradation II (biotin-dependent) :
[a carboxylated biotinylated MadF protein] + n Na+[in] + H+ → CO2 + [a biotinylated MadF protein] + n Na+[extracellular space]

In Transport reactions:
choline[extracellular space] + Na+[extracellular space] → choline[cytosol] + Na+[cytosol],
K+[extracellular space] + Na+[cytosol] → K+[cytosol] + Na+[extracellular space],
Na+[periplasm] + 2,3-dioxo-L-gulonate[periplasm]Na+[cytosol] + 2,3-dioxo-L-gulonate[cytosol],
Na+[in] + NADH + a ubiquinone + H+Na+[out] + NAD+ + an ubiquinol,
2 K+[extracellular space] + 3 Na+[cytosol] + ATP + H2O → 2 K+[cytosol] + 3 Na+[extracellular space] + ADP + phosphate + H+,
Na+[periplasm] + L-isoleucine[periplasm]Na+[cytosol] + L-isoleucine[cytosol],
Na+[periplasm] + L-proline[periplasm]Na+[cytosol] + L-proline[cytosol],
Na+[cytosol] + 2 H+[periplasm]Na+[periplasm] + 2 H+[cytosol],
Na+[periplasm] + L-valine[periplasm]Na+[cytosol] + L-valine[cytosol],
Na+[cytosol] + H+[periplasm]Na+[periplasm] + H+[cytosol],
2 Na+[cytosol] + 3 H+[periplasm] → 2 Na+[periplasm] + 3 H+[cytosol],
Na+[periplasm] + L-serine[periplasm]Na+[cytosol] + L-serine[cytosol],
Na+[periplasm] + L-leucine[periplasm]Na+[cytosol] + L-leucine[cytosol],
Na+[periplasm] + L-alanine[periplasm]Na+[cytosol] + L-alanine[cytosol],
2 Na+[periplasm] + L-glutamate[periplasm] → 2 Na+[cytosol] + L-glutamate[cytosol],
Na+[periplasm] + (R)-pantothenate[periplasm]Na+[cytosol] + (R)-pantothenate[cytosol],
Na+[periplasm] + melibiose[periplasm]Na+[cytosol] + melibiose[cytosol],
Na+[in] + ATP + H2O ↔ Na+[out] + ADP + phosphate + H+,
Na+[cytosol] + ATP + H2O → Na+[extracellular space] + ADP + phosphate + H+,
methyl-β-D-galactoside[periplasm] + Na+[periplasm] → methyl-β-D-galactoside[cytosol] + Na+[cytosol],
2 a reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + Na+[cytosol] + NAD+ + H+ → 2 an oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + Na+[extracellular space] + NADH

Enzymes activated by Na+, sorted by the type of activation, are:

Activator (Allosteric) of: acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase [Haapalainen07], malonate decarboxylase [Hilbi94], glucose dehydrogenase [Bonete96], NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [Crow79] Activator (Non-allosteric) of: methenyltetrahydropterin cyclohydrolase [Pomper99] Activator (Mechanism unknown) of: glyoxylate carboligase [Gupta66, Comment 1], dihydrofolate reductase [Wilquet98], glycerophosphocholine cholinephosphodiesterase [Sugimori13], 8-hydroxy-5-deazaflavin:NADPH oxidoreductase [Eker89], neocarrabiose sulfate 4-sulfatase [GalperinLemaitr75], phenylacetyl-coenzyme A:glycine N-acyltransferase [Nandi79], V-type Na+-translocating ATPase [Murata97], asparaginase [Sodek80], formyltransferase/hydrolase complex [Pomper01], trehalose-6-phosphate synthase [Lippert93], 5-enolpyruvoylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase [Comment 2]

Enzymes inhibited by Na+, sorted by the type of inhibition, are:

Inhibitor (Noncompetitive) of: ribonuclease [Venkov71] Inhibitor (Mechanism unknown) of: guanosine-5'-triphosphate, 3'-diphosphate pyrophosphatase [Keasling93], dTMP kinase [Helmward89], aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase [Helmward89, Hegeman, 1970], dihydrofolate reductase [Baccanari75, Comment 3], tryptophanase [HogbergRaibaud75, Comment 4], propionyl-CoA carboxylase [Hardewig94], NADH kinase [Shi05], NAD(+) kinase [Shi05], trehalase [Lee01a], farnesoic acid carboxyl methyltransferase [Yang06], phosphotransacetylase [Hartmanis84], porphobilinogen deaminase [Jones94], D-tagatose-6-phosphate kinase [Bissett80], phosphotransacetylase [Lundie89], hydrogenase [Schneider76], L-lysine monooxygenase [Flashner74]

This compound has been characterized as an alternative cofactor or prosthetic group of the following enzymes: methionine adenosyltransferase


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Crow79: Crow VL, Wittenberger CL (1979). "Separation and properties of NAD+- and NADP+-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases from Streptococcus mutans." J Biol Chem 254(4);1134-42. PMID: 33184

Eker89: Eker AP, Hessels JK, Meerwaldt R (1989). "Characterization of an 8-hydroxy-5-deazaflavin:NADPH oxidoreductase from Streptomyces griseus." Biochim Biophys Acta 990(1);80-6. PMID: 2492438

Fischer87: Fischer RS, Rubin JL, Gaines CG, Jensen RA (1987). "Glyphosate sensitivity of 5-enol-pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase from Bacillus subtilis depends upon state of activation induced by monovalent cations." Arch Biochem Biophys 1987;256(1);325-34. PMID: 3111378

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Gupta66: Gupta NK, Vennesland B (1966). "Glyoxylate carboligase of Escherichia coli: some properties of the enzyme." Arch Biochem Biophys 1966;113(2);255-64. PMID: 5328735

Haapalainen07: Haapalainen AM, Merilainen G, Pirila PL, Kondo N, Fukao T, Wierenga RK (2007). "Crystallographic and kinetic studies of human mitochondrial acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase: the importance of potassium and chloride ions for its structure and function." Biochemistry 46(14);4305-21. PMID: 17371050

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Hilbi94: Hilbi H, Dimroth P (1994). "Purification and characterization of a cytoplasmic enzyme component of the Na+-activated malonate decarboxylase system of Malonomonas rubra: acetyl-S-acyl carrier protein: malonate acyl carrier protein-SH transferase." Arch Microbiol 162(1-2);48-56. PMID: 18251085

HogbergRaibaud75: Hogberg-Raibaud A, Raibaud O, Goldberg ME (1975). "Kinetic and equilibrium studies on the activation of Escherichia coli K12 tryptophanase by pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and monovalent cations." J Biol Chem 250(9);3352-8. PMID: 1091651

Jones94: Jones RM, Jordan PM (1994). "Purification and properties of porphobilinogen deaminase from Arabidopsis thaliana." Biochem J 299 ( Pt 3);895-902. PMID: 8192681

Keasling93: Keasling JD, Bertsch L, Kornberg A (1993). "Guanosine pentaphosphate phosphohydrolase of Escherichia coli is a long-chain exopolyphosphatase." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1993;90(15);7029-33. PMID: 8394006

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Lippert93: Lippert K, Galinski EA, Truper HG (1993). "Biosynthesis and function of trehalose in Ectothiorhodospira halochloris." Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 63(1);85-91. PMID: 8480996

Lundie89: Lundie LL, Ferry JG (1989). "Activation of acetate by Methanosarcina thermophila. Purification and characterization of phosphotransacetylase." J Biol Chem 1989;264(31);18392-6. PMID: 2808380

Murata97: Murata T, Takase K, Yamato I, Igarashi K, Kakinuma Y (1997). "Purification and reconstitution of Na+-translocating vacuolar ATPase from Enterococcus hirae." J Biol Chem 272(40);24885-90. PMID: 9312089

Nandi79: Nandi DL, Lucas SV, Webster LT (1979). "Benzoyl-coenzyme A:glycine N-acyltransferase and phenylacetyl-coenzyme A:glycine N-acyltransferase from bovine liver mitochondria. Purification and characterization." J Biol Chem 254(15);7230-7. PMID: 457678

Pomper01: Pomper BK, Vorholt JA (2001). "Characterization of the formyltransferase from Methylobacterium extorquens AM1." Eur J Biochem 268(17);4769-75. PMID: 11532013

Pomper99: Pomper BK, Vorholt JA, Chistoserdova L, Lidstrom ME, Thauer RK (1999). "A methenyl tetrahydromethanopterin cyclohydrolase and a methenyl tetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase in Methylobacterium extorquens AM1." Eur J Biochem 261(2);475-80. PMID: 10215859

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Sugimori13: Sugimori D, Ogasawara J, Okuda K, Murayama K (2013). "Purification, characterization, molecular cloning, and extracellular production of a novel bacterial glycerophosphocholine cholinephosphodiesterase from Streptomyces sanglieri." J Biosci Bioeng. PMID: 24211038

Venkov71: Venkov P, Schlessinger D, Longo D (1971). "Inhibition of ribonuclease II of Escherichia coli by sodium ions, adenosine-5'-triphosphate, and transfer ribonucleic acid." J Bacteriol 108(1);601-3. PMID: 4941574

Wilquet98: Wilquet V, Gaspar JA, van de Lande M, Van de Casteele M, Legrain C, Meiering EM, Glansdorff N (1998). "Purification and characterization of recombinant Thermotoga maritima dihydrofolate reductase." Eur J Biochem 1998;255(3);628-37. PMID: 9738902

Yang06: Yang Y, Yuan JS, Ross J, Noel JP, Pichersky E, Chen F (2006). "An Arabidopsis thaliana methyltransferase capable of methylating farnesoic acid." Arch Biochem Biophys 448(1-2);123-32. PMID: 16165084

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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