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MetaCyc Compound: Li+

Synonyms: lithium ion

Superclasses: an iona cationan inorganic cationa monovalent inorganic cation
an ionan inorganic ionan inorganic cationa monovalent inorganic cation

Chemical Formula: Li

Molecular Weight: 6.941 Daltons

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 7.016004 Daltons


InChI: InChI=1S/Li/q+1


Unification Links: ChEBI:49713, ChemSpider:26502, DrugBank:DB01356, HMDB:HMDB05949, PubChem:28486

Standard Gibbs Free Energy of Change Formation (ΔfG in kcal/mol): -0.3120594Inferred by computational analysis [Latendresse13]

In Transport reactions:
Li+[periplasm] + melibiose[periplasm]Li+[cytosol] + melibiose[cytosol]

Enzymes activated by Li+, sorted by the type of activation, are:

Activator (Allosteric) of: porphobilinogen synthase [Nandi68] Activator (Mechanism unknown) of: adenosylmethionine decarboxylase [Lu07], diacylglycerol kinase [GomezMerino05], phenylacetyl-coenzyme A:glycine N-acyltransferase [Nandi79], V-type Na+-translocating ATPase [Murata97], 5-enolpyruvoylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase [Comment 1]

Enzymes inhibited by Li+, sorted by the type of inhibition, are:

Inhibitor (Competitive) of: rhamnulose-1-phosphate aldolase [Chiu69, Comment 2] Inhibitor (Uncompetitive) of: myo-inositol-1-phosphate monophosphatase [McAllister92] Inhibitor (Allosteric) of: inositol monopohsphatase [Chen98a], inositol monophosphatase [Chen99b] Inhibitor (Mechanism unknown) of: guanosine-3',5'-bis(diphosphate) 3'-diphosphatase [Heinemeyer78], fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase [Brown09], fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase [Brown09], adenosine-3'(2'),5'-bisphosphate nucleotidase [Mechold06], 2-acylglycerophosphoethanolamine acyltransferase [Comment 3], inositol monophosphatase [Matsuhisa95, Chen00b, Comment 4], NADH kinase [Shi05a], NAD(+) kinase [Shi05a], phosphoglucomutase [Masuda01, Csutora05], GTP cyclohydrolase [Graham02a], D-tagatose-6-phosphate kinase [Bissett80a], L-carnitine dehydrogenase [Mori88], carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase, arginine specific [Paulus79]

This compound has been characterized as an alternative cofactor or prosthetic group of the following enzymes: methionine adenosyltransferase

This compound has been characterized as an alternative substrate of the following enzymes: proline:Na+ symporter


Bissett80a: Bissett DL, Anderson RL (1980). "Lactose and D-galactose metabolism in Staphylococcus aureus. III. Purification and properties of D-tagatose-6-phosphate kinase." J Biol Chem 255(18);8745-9. PMID: 6251066

Brown09: Brown G, Singer A, Lunin VV, Proudfoot M, Skarina T, Flick R, Kochinyan S, Sanishvili R, Joachimiak A, Edwards AM, Savchenko A, Yakunin AF (2009). "Structural and biochemical characterization of the type II fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase GlpX from Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 284(6);3784-92. PMID: 19073594

Chen00b: Chen L, Roberts MF (2000). "Overexpression, purification, and analysis of complementation behavior of E. coli SuhB protein: comparison with bacterial and archaeal inositol monophosphatases." Biochemistry 2000;39(14);4145-53. PMID: 10747806

Chen98a: Chen L, Roberts MF (1998). "Cloning and expression of the inositol monophosphatase gene from Methanococcus jannaschii and characterization of the enzyme." Appl Environ Microbiol 64(7);2609-15. PMID: 9647837

Chen99b: Chen L, Roberts MF (1999). "Characterization of a tetrameric inositol monophosphatase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima." Appl Environ Microbiol 65(10);4559-67. PMID: 10508089

Chiu69: Chiu TH, Feingold DS (1969). "L-rhamnulose 1-phosphate aldolase from Escherichia coli. Crystallization and properties." Biochemistry 1969;8(1);98-108. PMID: 4975916

Csutora05: Csutora P, Strassz A, Boldizsar F, Nemeth P, Sipos K, Aiello DP, Bedwell DM, Miseta A (2005). "Inhibition of phosphoglucomutase activity by lithium alters cellular calcium homeostasis and signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 289(1);C58-67. PMID: 15703203

Fischer87: Fischer RS, Rubin JL, Gaines CG, Jensen RA (1987). "Glyphosate sensitivity of 5-enol-pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase from Bacillus subtilis depends upon state of activation induced by monovalent cations." Arch Biochem Biophys 1987;256(1);325-34. PMID: 3111378

GomezMerino05: Gomez-Merino FC, Arana-Ceballos FA, Trejo-Tellez LI, Skirycz A, Brearley CA, Dormann P, Mueller-Roeber B (2005). "Arabidopsis AtDGK7, the smallest member of plant diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs), displays unique biochemical features and saturates at low substrate concentration: the DGK inhibitor R59022 differentially affects AtDGK2 and AtDGK7 activity in vitro and alters plant growth and development." J Biol Chem 280(41);34888-99. PMID: 16081412

Graham02a: Graham DE, Xu H, White RH (2002). "A member of a new class of GTP cyclohydrolases produces formylaminopyrimidine nucleotide monophosphates." Biochemistry 41(50);15074-84. PMID: 12475257

Heinemeyer78: Heinemeyer EA, Richter D (1978). "Characterization of the guanosine 5'-triphosphate 3'-diphosphate and guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate degradation reaction catalyzed by a specific pyrophosphorylase from Escherichia coli." Biochemistry 1978;17(25);5368-72. PMID: 365225

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Lu07: Lu ZJ, Markham GD (2007). "Metal ion activation of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase reflects cation charge density." Biochemistry 46(27);8172-80. PMID: 17567041

Masuda01: Masuda CA, Xavier MA, Mattos KA, Galina A, Montero-Lomeli M (2001). "Phosphoglucomutase is an in vivo lithium target in yeast." J Biol Chem 276(41);37794-801. PMID: 11500487

Matsuhisa95: Matsuhisa A, Suzuki N, Noda T, Shiba K (1995). "Inositol monophosphatase activity from the Escherichia coli suhB gene product." J Bacteriol 1995;177(1);200-5. PMID: 8002619

McAllister92: McAllister G, Whiting P, Hammond EA, Knowles MR, Atack JR, Bailey FJ, Maigetter R, Ragan CI (1992). "cDNA cloning of human and rat brain myo-inositol monophosphatase. Expression and characterization of the human recombinant enzyme." Biochem J 284 ( Pt 3);749-54. PMID: 1377913

Mechold06: Mechold U, Ogryzko V, Ngo S, Danchin A (2006). "Oligoribonuclease is a common downstream target of lithium-induced pAp accumulation in Escherichia coli and human cells." Nucleic Acids Res 34(8);2364-73. PMID: 16682444

Mori88: Mori, N., Kasugai, T., Kitamato, Y., Ichikawa, Y. (1988). "Purification and some properties of carnitine dehydrogenase from Xanthomonas translucens." Agric. Biol. Chem. 52, 249-250.

Murata97: Murata T, Takase K, Yamato I, Igarashi K, Kakinuma Y (1997). "Purification and reconstitution of Na+-translocating vacuolar ATPase from Enterococcus hirae." J Biol Chem 272(40);24885-90. PMID: 9312089

Nandi68: Nandi DL, Baker-Cohen KF, Shemin D (1968). "Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase of Rhodopseudomonas spheroides." J Biol Chem 243(6);1224-30. PMID: 5646169

Nandi79: Nandi DL, Lucas SV, Webster LT (1979). "Benzoyl-coenzyme A:glycine N-acyltransferase and phenylacetyl-coenzyme A:glycine N-acyltransferase from bovine liver mitochondria. Purification and characterization." J Biol Chem 254(15);7230-7. PMID: 457678

Paulus79: Paulus TJ, Switzer RL (1979). "Characterization of pyrimidine-repressible and arginine-repressible carbamyl phosphate synthetases from Bacillus subtilis." J Bacteriol 1979;137(1);82-91. PMID: 216664

Rock84: Rock CO (1984). "Turnover of fatty acids in the 1-position of phosphatidylethanolamine in Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 1984;259(10);6188-94. PMID: 6373752

Shi05a: Shi F, Kawai S, Mori S, Kono E, Murata K (2005). "Identification of ATP-NADH kinase isozymes and their contribution to supply of NADP(H) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." FEBS J 272(13);3337-49. PMID: 15978040

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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