Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
12/28 - 12/31
for maintenance.
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
12/28 - 12/31
for maintenance.
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
12/28 - 12/31
for maintenance.
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
12/28 - 12/31
for maintenance.
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
12/28 - 12/31
for maintenance.
twitter

MetaCyc Compound: K+

Synonyms: potassium, potassium ion

Superclasses: an ion a cation

Component of:
dipotassium phosphate
monopotassium phosphate
potassium cyanide
potassium chloride
potassium sulfate

Molecular Weight: 39.098 Daltons

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 39.9715319321 Daltons

SMILES: [K+]

InChI: InChI=1S/K/q+1

InChIKey: InChIKey=NPYPAHLBTDXSSS-UHFFFAOYSA-N

Unification Links: ChEBI:29103 , ChemSpider:791 , HMDB:HMDB00586 , IAF1260:34349 , KEGG:C00238 , MetaboLights:MTBLC29103 , PubChem:813

Standard Gibbs Free Energy of Change Formation (ΔfG in kcal/mol): -0.3120594 Inferred by computational analysis [Latendresse13]

In Transport reactions:
K+[extracellular space]K+[cytosol] ,
K+[periplasmic space]K+[cytosol] ,
K+[extracellular space]K+[unknown space] ,
K+[extracellular space] + Na+[cytosol]K+[cytosol] + Na+[extracellular space] ,
K+[in]K+[out] ,
ATP + K+[out] + H2O + H+[in] → ADP + K+[in] + phosphate + H+[in] + H+[in] ,
ATP + K+[out] + H2O ↔ ADP + K+[in] + phosphate + H+ ,
2 K+[extracellular space] + 3 Na+[cytosol] + ATP + H2O → 2 K+[cytosol] + 3 Na+[extracellular space] + ADP + phosphate + H+ ,
K+[periplasmic space]K+[cytosol] ,
K+[cytosol] + H+[periplasmic space]K+[periplasmic space] + H+[cytosol] ,
K+[periplasmic space] + H+[periplasmic space]K+[cytosol] + H+[cytosol] ,
K+[periplasmic space] + ATP + H2O → K+[cytosol] + ADP + phosphate + H+

Enzymes activated by K+, sorted by the type of activation, are:

Activator (Allosteric) of: acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase [Haapalainen07] , GTP cyclohydrolase [Graham02] , S-adenosylmethionine synthetase , unsaturated CDP-archaeol synthase [Morii00] , glycerol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase [Nishihara97] , aldehyde dehydrogenase , aldehyde dehydrogenase [Wang97c] , β-methyl-D-malate hydro-lyase (2-methylmaleate-forming) [Drevland07] , propionyl-CoA synthase [Alber02] , glutathione synthetase [Nakagawa93] , betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase [Boch97] , glycerate 2-kinase [Yoshida92a] , 5-oxo-L-prolinase , 5-oxo-L-prolinase [Seddon85] , N-methylhydantoin amidohydrolase [Ogawa95] , glucose dehydrogenase [Bonete96a] , tryptophanase [Hoch66] , F420-0-glutamyl ligase [Li03b] , F420-1:γ-glutamyl ligase [Li03b] , 2-methylacetoacetyl-CoA thiolase [Sovik93] , porphobilinogen synthase [Nandi68] , formate--tetrahydrofolate ligase [MacKenzie71] , NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [Crow79] , pyruvate kinase [Abbe83] , tartrate dehydrogenase [Kohn68]

Activator (Non-allosteric) of: citrate synthase , aspartate kinase [Moir77]

Activator (Mechanism unknown) of: carbamoyl phosphate synthetase [Thoden99] , nicotinate-mononucleotide adenylyltransferase [Dahmen67] , glyoxylate carboligase [Gupta66, Comment 1] , homoserine dehydrogenase [Ogilvie75, Wedler93] , GTP cyclohydrolase [Schoedon92] , IMP dehydrogenase [Kerr00, Comment 2] , thiamin monophosphate kinase [Nishino72, Comment 3] , UDP-N-acetylenolpyruvoylglucosamine reductase [Dhalla95, Shapiro12, Comment 4] , UDP-N-acetylmuramoylalanyl-D-glutamate 2,6-diaminopimelate ligase [Michaud90, Comment 5] , UDP-N-acetyl-D-mannosaminuronic acid dehydrogenase [Kawamura79] , malate dehydrogenase [Sanwal69, Spina70, Bologna07, Brown81a] , trehalose-6-phosphate synthase [Giaever88, Comment 6] , fructose bisphosphate aldolase , NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase [Euro09] , tryptophanase [Tokushige89, HogbergRaibaud75, Comment 7] , RNase D exonuclease [Ghosh78] , guanylate kinase [Oeschger66] , glycerol dehydrogenase [Tang79, Comment 8] , RNase BN exoribonuclease [Callahan00] , RNase R [Cheng02a] , exopolyphosphatase [Akiyama93, Comment 9] , thiamin kinase , acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase [Sorger02] , 4-coumarate:CoA ligase [Gaid12] , cinnamate:CoA ligase [Gaid12] , thiobenzoate-S-methyltransferase [Zhao12] , UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine 6-dehydrogenase [Miller04] , (E,E)-α-farnesene synthase [Green07] , NADHX epimerase [Marbaix11] , GA9 carboxyl methyltransferase [Varbanova07] , phenylacetyl-coenzyme A:glycine N-acyltransferase [Nandi79] , indole-3-acetate carboxyl methyltransferase [Zhao07a] , acetone carboxylase [Sluis97] , tetrahydropteroyl-γ-polyglutamate:L-glutamate γ-ligase (ADP-forming) [Shane80] , phosphotransacetylase [Hartmanis84] , diaminobutyrate aminotransferase [Comment 10] , D-tagatose-6-phosphate kinase [Bissett80] , N10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate:L-glutamate γ-ligase (ADP-forming) [Shane80] , formyltransferase/hydrolase complex [Pomper01] , carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase, arginine specific [Comment 11] , trehalose-6-phosphate synthase [Lippert93] , NADP+-benzaldehyde dehydrogenase [Stachow67] , 5-enolpyruvoylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase [Comment 12] , S-adenosylmethionine synthetase [Schroder97]

Enzymes inhibited by K+, sorted by the type of inhibition, are:

Inhibitor (Competitive) of: pyruvate decarboxylase [Lee85]

Inhibitor (Mechanism unknown) of: aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase [Hegeman70, Helmward89] , dTMP kinase [Helmward89] , guanosine-5'-triphosphate, 3'-diphosphate pyrophosphatase [Keasling93] , 6-phosphofructokinase [Baez13] , dihydrofolate reductase [Baccanari75] , nitrate reductase [Iobbi87] , ribonucleoside-triphosphate reductase [Eliasson92, Comment 13] , propionyl-CoA carboxylase [Hardewig94] , 3,7,4'-trimethylquercetagetin 6-O-methyltransferase [De85a] , 3,7-dimethylquercetagetin 6-O-methyltransferase [De85a] , 3,7,3'-methylquercetagetin 6-O-methyltransferase [De85a] , 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase [Orii06] , trehalase [Lee01a] , porphobilinogen deaminase [Jones94] , γ-F420-2:α-L-glutamate ligase [Li03c] , L-lysine monooxygenase [Flashner74]

This compound has been characterized as a cofactor or prosthetic group of the following enzymes: selenide, water dikinase , rhamnulose-1-phosphate aldolase , methionine adenosyltransferase , ribokinase , inosine kinase , guanosine kinase , pyridoxal kinase , phosphoribosylformylglycinamide cyclo-ligase , UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine:D-glutamate ligase , pyruvate kinase , pyruvate kinase , folylpoly-γ-glutamate synthetase , pantothenate synthetase , tRNA nucleotidyltransferase , CTP:2,3,4-saturated L-phosphatidate cytidylyltransferase , ribonuclease , 10-formyltetrahydrofolate:L-methionyl-tRNAfMet N-formyltransferase , homoserine kinase , ribonucleoside-triphosphate reductase , D-malate dehydrogenase (decarboxylating) , phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine cyclo-ligase , phosphoribosylglycinamidine synthetase , propanediol dehydratase , homoserine kinase , pyruvate kinase , pyruvate kinase , asparaginase , pyruvate kinase , methionine adenosyltransferase , pyruvate kinase , fructokinase , 3-methylaspartase , phosphotransacetylase , fructokinase , inosine kinase , guanosine kinase


References

Abbe83: Abbe K, Takahashi S, Yamada T (1983). "Purification and properties of pyruvate kinase from Streptococcus sanguis and activator specificity of pyruvate kinase from oral streptococci." Infect Immun 39(3);1007-14. PMID: 6840832

Akiyama93: Akiyama M, Crooke E, Kornberg A (1993). "An exopolyphosphatase of Escherichia coli. The enzyme and its ppx gene in a polyphosphate operon." J Biol Chem 1993;268(1);633-9. PMID: 8380170

Alber02: Alber BE, Fuchs G (2002). "Propionyl-coenzyme A synthase from Chloroflexus aurantiacus, a key enzyme of the 3-hydroxypropionate cycle for autotrophic CO2 fixation." J Biol Chem 277(14);12137-43. PMID: 11821399

Anwar79: Anwar RA, Vlaovic M (1979). "Purification of UDP-N-acetylenolpyruvoylglucosamine reductase from Escherichia coli by affinity chromatography, its subunit structure and the absence of flavin as the prosthetic group." Can J Biochem 1979;57(2);188-96. PMID: 36973

Baccanari75: Baccanari D, Phillips A, Smith S, Sinski D, Burchall J (1975). "Purification and properties of Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase." Biochemistry 1975;14(24);5267-73. PMID: 46

Baez13: Baez M, Cabrera R, Pereira HM, Blanco A, Villalobos P, Ramirez-Sarmiento CA, Caniuguir A, Guixe V, Garratt RC, Babul J (2013). "A ribokinase family conserved monovalent cation binding site enhances the MgATP-induced inhibition in E. coli phosphofructokinase-2." Biophys J 105(1);185-93. PMID: 23823238

Bissett80: Bissett DL, Anderson RL (1980). "Lactose and D-galactose metabolism in Staphylococcus aureus. III. Purification and properties of D-tagatose-6-phosphate kinase." J Biol Chem 255(18);8745-9. PMID: 6251066

Boch97: Boch J, Nau-Wagner G, Kneip S, Bremer E (1997). "Glycine betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from Bacillus subtilis: characterization of an enzyme required for the synthesis of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine." Arch Microbiol 168(4);282-9. PMID: 9297465

Bologna07: Bologna FP, Andreo CS, Drincovich MF (2007). "Escherichia coli malic enzymes: two isoforms with substantial differences in kinetic properties, metabolic regulation, and structure." J Bacteriol 189(16);5937-46. PMID: 17557829

Bonete96a: Bonete MJ, Pire C, LLorca FI, Camacho ML (1996). "Glucose dehydrogenase from the halophilic Archaeon Haloferax mediterranei: enzyme purification, characterisation and N-terminal sequence." FEBS Lett 383(3);227-9. PMID: 8925901

Brown81a: Brown DA, Cook RA (1981). "Role of metal cofactors in enzyme regulation. Differences in the regulatory properties of the Escherichia coli nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate specific malic enzyme, depending on whether magnesium ion or manganese ion serves as divalent cation." Biochemistry 1981;20(9);2503-12. PMID: 7016178

Callahan00: Callahan C, Neri-Cortes D, Deutscher MP (2000). "Purification and characterization of the tRNA-processing enzyme RNase BN." J Biol Chem 275(2);1030-4. PMID: 10625642

Cheng02a: Cheng ZF, Deutscher MP (2002). "Purification and characterization of the Escherichia coli exoribonuclease RNase R. Comparison with RNase II." J Biol Chem 277(24);21624-9. PMID: 11948193

Crow79: Crow VL, Wittenberger CL (1979). "Separation and properties of NAD+- and NADP+-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases from Streptococcus mutans." J Biol Chem 254(4);1134-42. PMID: 33184

Dahmen67: Dahmen W, Webb B, Preiss J (1967). "The deamido-diphosphopyridine nucleotide and diphosphopyridine nucleotide pyrophosphorylases of Escherichia coli and yeast." Arch Biochem Biophys 1967;120(2);440-50. PMID: 4291828

De85a: De Luca V, Ibrahim RK (1985). "Enzymatic synthesis of polymethylated flavonols in Chrysosplenium americanum. I. Partial purification and some properties of S-adenosyl-L-methionine:flavonol 3-, 6-, 7-, and 4'-O-methyltransferases." Arch Biochem Biophys 238(2);596-605. PMID: 3994393

Dhalla95: Dhalla AM, Yanchunas J, Ho HT, Falk PJ, Villafranca JJ, Robertson JG (1995). "Steady-state kinetic mechanism of Escherichia coli UDP-N-acetylenolpyruvylglucosamine reductase." Biochemistry 34(16);5390-402. PMID: 7727397

Drevland07: Drevland RM, Waheed A, Graham DE (2007). "Enzymology and evolution of the pyruvate pathway to 2-oxobutyrate in Methanocaldococcus jannaschii." J Bacteriol 189(12);4391-400. PMID: 17449626

Eliasson92: Eliasson R, Pontis E, Fontecave M, Gerez C, Harder J, Jornvall H, Krook M, Reichard P (1992). "Characterization of components of the anaerobic ribonucleotide reductase system from Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 267(35);25541-7. PMID: 1460049

Euro09: Euro L, Belevich G, Wikstrom M, Verkhovskaya M (2009). "High affinity cation-binding sites in Complex I from Escherichia coli." Biochim Biophys Acta 1787(8);1024-8. PMID: 19261245

Fischer87: Fischer RS, Rubin JL, Gaines CG, Jensen RA (1987). "Glyphosate sensitivity of 5-enol-pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase from Bacillus subtilis depends upon state of activation induced by monovalent cations." Arch Biochem Biophys 1987;256(1);325-34. PMID: 3111378

Flashner74: Flashner MI, Massey V (1974). "Purification and properties of L-lysine monooxygenase from Pseudomonas fluorescens." J Biol Chem 249(8);2579-86. PMID: 4207122

Gaid12: Gaid MM, Sircar D, Muller A, Beuerle T, Liu B, Ernst L, Hansch R, Beerhues L (2012). "Cinnamate:CoA Ligase Initiates the Biosynthesis of a Benzoate-Derived Xanthone Phytoalexin in Hypericum calycinum Cell Cultures." Plant Physiol 160(3);1267-80. PMID: 22992510

Ghosh78: Ghosh RK, Deutscher MP (1978). "Identification of an Escherichia coli nuclease acting on structurally altered transfer RNA molecules." J Biol Chem 253(4);997-1000. PMID: 342522

Giaever88: Giaever HM, Styrvold OB, Kaasen I, Strom AR (1988). "Biochemical and genetic characterization of osmoregulatory trehalose synthesis in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1988;170(6);2841-9. PMID: 3131312

Graham02: Graham DE, Xu H, White RH (2002). "A member of a new class of GTP cyclohydrolases produces formylaminopyrimidine nucleotide monophosphates." Biochemistry 41(50);15074-84. PMID: 12475257

Green07: Green S, Friel EN, Matich A, Beuning LL, Cooney JM, Rowan DD, MacRae E (2007). "Unusual features of a recombinant apple alpha-farnesene synthase." Phytochemistry 68(2);176-88. PMID: 17140613

Gupta66: Gupta NK, Vennesland B (1966). "Glyoxylate carboligase of Escherichia coli: some properties of the enzyme." Arch Biochem Biophys 1966;113(2);255-64. PMID: 5328735

Haapalainen07: Haapalainen AM, Merilainen G, Pirila PL, Kondo N, Fukao T, Wierenga RK (2007). "Crystallographic and kinetic studies of human mitochondrial acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase: the importance of potassium and chloride ions for its structure and function." Biochemistry 46(14);4305-21. PMID: 17371050

Hardewig94: Hardewig I, Portner HO, Grieshaber MK (1994). "Interactions of anaerobic propionate formation and acid-base status in Arenicola marina: an analysis of propionyl-CoA carboxylase." Physiol. Zool. 67(4):892-909.

Hartmanis84: Hartmanis MGN, Gatenbeck S (1984). "Intermediary Metabolism in Clostridium acetobutylicum: Levels of Enzymes Involved in the Formation of Acetate and Butyrate." Applied and Environmental Microbiology 47:1277-1283. PMID: 16346566

Hegeman70: Hegeman G, Cohen G, Morgan R "Aspartic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (Escherichia coli K12)." Methods in Enzymology 1970; 17A:708-713.

Helmward89: Helmward Z "Handbook of Enzyme Inhibitors. 2nd, revised and enlarged edition." Weinheim, Federal Republic of Germany ; New York, NY, USA , 1989.

Hoch66: Hoch JA, Simpson FJ, DeMoss RD (1966). "Purification and some properties of tryptophanase from Bacillus alvei." Biochemistry 5(7);2229-37. PMID: 4959960

HogbergRaibaud75: Hogberg-Raibaud A, Raibaud O, Goldberg ME (1975). "Kinetic and equilibrium studies on the activation of Escherichia coli K12 tryptophanase by pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and monovalent cations." J Biol Chem 250(9);3352-8. PMID: 1091651

Iobbi87: Iobbi C, Santini CL, Bonnefoy V, Giordano G (1987). "Biochemical and immunological evidence for a second nitrate reductase in Escherichia coli K12." Eur J Biochem 1987;168(2);451-9. PMID: 3311749

Jones94: Jones RM, Jordan PM (1994). "Purification and properties of porphobilinogen deaminase from Arabidopsis thaliana." Biochem J 299 ( Pt 3);895-902. PMID: 8192681

Kawamura79: Kawamura T, Ishimoto N, Ito E (1979). "Enzymatic synthesis of uridine diphosphate N-acetyl-D-mannosaminuronic acid." J Biol Chem 254(17);8457-65. PMID: 381306

Keasling93: Keasling JD, Bertsch L, Kornberg A (1993). "Guanosine pentaphosphate phosphohydrolase of Escherichia coli is a long-chain exopolyphosphatase." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1993;90(15);7029-33. PMID: 8394006

Kerr00: Kerr KM, Cahoon M, Bosco DA, Hedstrom L (2000). "Monovalent cation activation in Escherichia coli inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase." Arch Biochem Biophys 2000;375(1);131-7. PMID: 10683258

Kohn68: Kohn LD, Packman PM, Allen RH, Jakoby WB (1968). "Tartaric acid metabolism. V. Crystalline tartrate dehydrogenase." J Biol Chem 243(10);2479-85. PMID: 4297261

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Lee01a: Lee JH, Tsuji M, Nakamura M, Nishimoto M, Okuyama M, Mori H, Kimura A, Matsui H, Chiba S (2001). "Purification and identification of the essential ionizable groups of honeybee, Apis mellifera L., trehalase." Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 65(12);2657-65. PMID: 11826961

Lee85: Lee T.C., Langston-Unkefer P.J. "Pyruvate decarboxylase from Zea mays L. I. Purification and partial characterization from mature kernels and anaerobically treated roots." Plant Physiol. (1985) 79:242-247.

Li03b: Li H, Graupner M, Xu H, White RH (2003). "CofE catalyzes the addition of two glutamates to F420-0 in F420 coenzyme biosynthesis in Methanococcus jannaschii." Biochemistry 42(32);9771-8. PMID: 12911320

Li03c: Li H, Xu H, Graham DE, White RH (2003). "Glutathione synthetase homologs encode alpha-L-glutamate ligases for methanogenic coenzyme F420 and tetrahydrosarcinapterin biosyntheses." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100(17);9785-90. PMID: 12909715

Lippert93: Lippert K, Galinski EA, Truper HG (1993). "Biosynthesis and function of trehalose in Ectothiorhodospira halochloris." Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 63(1);85-91. PMID: 8480996

MacKenzie71: MacKenzie RE, Rabinowitz JC (1971). "Cation-dependent reassociation of subunits of N10-formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase from Clostridium acidi-urici and Clostridium cylindrosporum." J Biol Chem 246(11);3731-6. PMID: 5578916

Marbaix11: Marbaix AY, Noel G, Detroux AM, Vertommen D, Van Schaftingen E, Linster CL (2011). "Extremely Conserved ATP- or ADP-dependent Enzymatic System for Nicotinamide Nucleotide Repair." J Biol Chem 286(48);41246-52. PMID: 21994945

Michaud90: Michaud C, Mengin-Lecreulx D, van Heijenoort J, Blanot D (1990). "Over-production, purification and properties of the uridine-diphosphate-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamate: meso-2,6-diaminopimelate ligase from Escherichia coli." Eur J Biochem 1990;194(3);853-61. PMID: 2269304

Miller04: Miller WL, Wenzel CQ, Daniels C, Larocque S, Brisson JR, Lam JS (2004). "Biochemical characterization of WbpA, a UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 6-dehydrogenase involved in O-antigen biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1." J Biol Chem 279(36);37551-8. PMID: 15226302

Moir77: Moir D, Paulus H (1977). "Properties and subunit structure of aspartokinase II from Bacillus subtilis VB217." J Biol Chem 252(13);4648-51. PMID: 194888

Morii00: Morii H, Nishihara M, Koga Y (2000). "CTP:2,3-di-O-geranylgeranyl-sn-glycero-1-phosphate cytidyltransferase in the methanogenic archaeon Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus." J Biol Chem 275(47);36568-74. PMID: 10960477

Nakagawa93: Nakagawa CW, Mutoh N, Hayashi Y (1993). "Glutathione synthetase from the fission yeast. Purification and its unique heteromeric subunit structure." Biochem Cell Biol 71(9-10);447-53. PMID: 8192897

Nandi68: Nandi DL, Baker-Cohen KF, Shemin D (1968). "Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase of Rhodopseudomonas spheroides." J Biol Chem 243(6);1224-30. PMID: 5646169

Nandi79: Nandi DL, Lucas SV, Webster LT (1979). "Benzoyl-coenzyme A:glycine N-acyltransferase and phenylacetyl-coenzyme A:glycine N-acyltransferase from bovine liver mitochondria. Purification and characterization." J Biol Chem 254(15);7230-7. PMID: 457678

Nishihara97: Nishihara M, Koga Y (1997). "Purification and properties of sn-glycerol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum: characterization of the biosynthetic enzyme for the enantiomeric glycerophosphate backbone of ether polar lipids of Archaea." J Biochem 122(3);572-6. PMID: 9348086

Nishino72: Nishino H (1972). "Biogenesis of cocarboxylase in Escherichia coli. Partial purification and some properties of thiamine monophosphate kinase." J Biochem (Tokyo) 1972;72(5);1093-100. PMID: 4567662

Oeschger66: Oeschger MP, Bessman MJ (1966). "Purification and properties of guanylate kinase from Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 1966;241(22);5452-60. PMID: 5333666

Ogawa95: Ogawa J, Kim JM, Nirdnoy W, Amano Y, Yamada H, Shimizu S (1995). "Purification and characterization of an ATP-dependent amidohydrolase, N-methylhydantoin amidohydrolase, from Pseudomonas putida 77." Eur J Biochem 229(1);284-90. PMID: 7744042

Ogilvie75: Ogilvie JW, Vickers LP, Clark RB, Jones MM (1975). "Aspartokinase I-homoserine dehydrogenase I of Escherichia coli K12 (lambda). Activation by monovalent cations and an analysis of the effect of the adenosine triphosphate-magnesium ion complex on this activation process." J Biol Chem 250(4);1242-50. PMID: 163250

Orii06: Orii C, Takenaka S, Murakami S, Aoki K (2006). "Metabolism of 4-amino-3-hydroxybenzoic acid by Bordetella sp. strain 10d: A different modified meta-cleavage pathway for 2-aminophenols." Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 70(11);2653-61. PMID: 17090920

Paulus79: Paulus TJ, Switzer RL (1979). "Characterization of pyrimidine-repressible and arginine-repressible carbamyl phosphate synthetases from Bacillus subtilis." J Bacteriol 1979;137(1);82-91. PMID: 216664

Pomper01: Pomper BK, Vorholt JA (2001). "Characterization of the formyltransferase from Methylobacterium extorquens AM1." Eur J Biochem 268(17);4769-75. PMID: 11532013

Sanwal69: Sanwal BD, Smando R (1969). "Malic enzyme of Escherichia coli. Diversity of the effectors controlling enzyme activity." J Biol Chem 1969;244(7);1817-23. PMID: 4388614

Schoedon92: Schoedon G, Redweik U, Frank G, Cotton RG, Blau N (1992). "Allosteric characteristics of GTP cyclohydrolase I from Escherichia coli." Eur J Biochem 1992;210(2);561-8. PMID: 1459137

Schroder97: Schroder G, Eichel J, Breinig S, Schroder J (1997). "Three differentially expressed S-adenosylmethionine synthetases from Catharanthus roseus: molecular and functional characterization." Plant Mol Biol 33(2);211-22. PMID: 9037140

Seddon85: Seddon AP, Li L, Meister A (1985). "5-Oxo-L-prolinase from Pseudomonas putida." Methods Enzymol 113;451-8. PMID: 3911007

Shane80: Shane B (1980). "Pteroylpoly(gamma-glutamate) synthesis by Corynebacterium species. Purification and properties of folypoly(gamma-glutamate) synthetase." J Biol Chem 255(12);5655-62. PMID: 6892912

Shapiro12: Shapiro AB, Livchak S, Gao N, Whiteaker J, Thresher J, Jahic H, Huang J, Gu RF (2012). "A homogeneous, high-throughput-compatible, fluorescence intensity-based assay for UDP-N-acetylenolpyruvylglucosamine reductase (MurB) with nanomolar product detection." J Biomol Screen 17(3);327-38. PMID: 22068704

Sluis97: Sluis MK, Ensign SA (1997). "Purification and characterization of acetone carboxylase from Xanthobacter strain Py2." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1997;94(16);8456-61. PMID: 9237998

Snell75: Snell EE (1975). "Tryptophanase: structure, catalytic activities, and mechanism of action." Adv Enzymol Relat Areas Mol Biol 1975;42;287-333. PMID: 236639

Sorger02: Sorger D, Daum G (2002). "Synthesis of triacylglycerols by the acyl-coenzyme A:diacyl-glycerol acyltransferase Dga1p in lipid particles of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae." J Bacteriol 184(2);519-24. PMID: 11751830

Sovik93: Sovik O (1993). "Mitochondrial 2-methylacetoacetyl-CoA thiolase deficiency: an inborn error of isoleucine and ketone body metabolism." J Inherit Metab Dis 16(1);46-54. PMID: 8487503

Spina70: Spina J, Bright HJ, Rosenbloom J "Purification and Properties of L-Malic Enzyme from Escherichia coli." Biochemistry 1970;9(19):3794-3801.

Stachow67: Stachow CS, Stevenson IL, Day D (1967). "Purification and properties of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-specific benzaldehyde dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas." J Biol Chem 242(22);5294-300. PMID: 4383635

Tang79: Tang CT, Ruch FE, Lin CC (1979). "Purification and properties of a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-linked dehydrogenase that serves an Escherichia coli mutant for glycerol catabolism." J Bacteriol 1979;140(1);182-7. PMID: 40950

Thoden99: Thoden JB, Raushel FM, Benning MM, Rayment I, Holden HM (1999). "The structure of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase determined to 2.1 A resolution." Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 1999;55 ( Pt 1);8-24. PMID: 10089390

Tokushige89: Tokushige M, Tsujimoto N, Oda T, Honda T, Yumoto N, Ito S, Yamamoto M, Kim EH, Hiragi Y (1989). "Role of cysteine residues in tryptophanase for monovalent cation-induced activation." Biochimie 71(6);711-20. PMID: 2502187

Varbanova07: Varbanova M, Yamaguchi S, Yang Y, McKelvey K, Hanada A, Borochov R, Yu F, Jikumaru Y, Ross J, Cortes D, Ma CJ, Noel JP, Mander L, Shulaev V, Kamiya Y, Rodermel S, Weiss D, Pichersky E (2007). "Methylation of gibberellins by Arabidopsis GAMT1 and GAMT2." Plant Cell 19(1);32-45. PMID: 17220201

Ventosa98: Ventosa A, Nieto JJ, Oren A (1998). "Biology of moderately halophilic aerobic bacteria." Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 1998;62(2);504-44. PMID: 9618450

Wang97c: Wang X, Bai Y, Ni L, Weiner H (1997). "Saccharomyces cerevisiae aldehyde dehydrogenases. Identification and expression." Adv Exp Med Biol 414;277-80. PMID: 9059631

Wedler93: Wedler FC, Ley BW (1993). "Homoserine dehydrogenase-I (Escherichia coli): action of monovalent ions on catalysis and substrate association-dissociation." Arch Biochem Biophys 301(2);416-23. PMID: 8460951

Yoshida92a: Yoshida T, Fukuta K, Mitsunaga T, Yamada H, Izumi Y (1992). "Purification and characterization of glycerate kinase from a serine-producing methylotroph, Hyphomicrobium methylovorum GM2." Eur J Biochem 210(3);849-54. PMID: 1336459

Zhao07a: Zhao N, Guan J, Lin H, Chen F (2007). "Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of indole-3-acetic acid methyltransferase from poplar." Phytochemistry 68(11);1537-44. PMID: 17499822

Zhao12: Zhao N, Ferrer JL, Moon HS, Kapteyn J, Zhuang X, Hasebe M, Neal Stewart C, Gang DR, Chen F (2012). "A SABATH Methyltransferase from the moss Physcomitrella patens catalyzes S-methylation of thiols and has a role in detoxification." Phytochemistry 81;31-41. PMID: 22795762


Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 18.5 on Fri Dec 19, 2014, biocyc14.