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discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
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MetaCyc Compound: hydrogen carbonate

Synonyms: carbonate, CO3-2, CO32-, HCO3-, HCO3, bicarbonate

Superclasses: an ion an anion

Chemical Formula: CHO3

Molecular Weight: 61.017 Daltons

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 62.000393930499996 Daltons

SMILES: C([O-])(=O)O

InChI: InChI=1S/CH2O3/c2-1(3)4/h(H2,2,3,4)/p-1

InChIKey: InChIKey=BVKZGUZCCUSVTD-UHFFFAOYSA-M

Unification Links: CAS:71-52-3 , CAS:144-55-8 , ChEBI:17544 , ChemSpider:749 , HMDB:HMDB00595 , IAF1260:34509 , KEGG:C00288 , MetaboLights:MTBLC17544 , PubChem:769

Standard Gibbs Free Energy of Change Formation (ΔfG in kcal/mol): -130.28094 Inferred by computational analysis [Latendresse13]

Reactions known to consume the compound:

3-hydroxypropanoate cycle , 3-hydroxypropanoate/4-hydroxybutanate cycle , fatty acid biosynthesis initiation I , glyoxylate assimilation , jadomycin biosynthesis , octanoyl-ACP biosynthesis (mitochondria, yeast) :
ATP + acetyl-CoA + hydrogen carbonate → malonyl-CoA + ADP + phosphate + H+

arginine biosynthesis I (via L-ornithine) , arginine biosynthesis II (acetyl cycle) , arginine biosynthesis III (via N-acetyl-L-citrulline) , arginine biosynthesis IV (archaebacteria) , UMP biosynthesis :
2 ATP + L-glutamine + hydrogen carbonate + H2O → L-glutamate + carbamoyl-phosphate + 2 ADP + phosphate + 2 H+

biotin-carboxyl carrier protein assembly :
a biotinylated [BCCP dimer] + hydrogen carbonate + ATP → a carboxylated-biotinylated [BCCP dimer] + ADP + phosphate + H+

cis-genanyl-CoA degradation :
cis-geranyl-CoA + hydrogen carbonate + ATP → 3-(4-methylpent-3-en-1-yl)-pent-2-enedioyl-CoA + ADP + phosphate + H+

cyanate degradation :
cyanate + hydrogen carbonate + H+ → carbamate + CO2

ethylbenzene degradation (anaerobic) :
acetophenone + hydrogen carbonate + 2 ATP + H2O → 3-oxo-3-phenylpropanoate + 2 ADP + 2 phosphate + 2 H+

gluconeogenesis II (Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum) , gluconeogenesis III , incomplete reductive TCA cycle , itaconate biosynthesis , Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum biosynthetic metabolism :
pyruvate + hydrogen carbonate + ATP → oxaloacetate + ADP + phosphate + H+

inosine-5'-phosphate biosynthesis I , inosine-5'-phosphate biosynthesis III :
5-amino-1-(5-phospho-β-D-ribosyl)imidazole + ATP + hydrogen carbonateN5-carboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide + ADP + phosphate + 2 H+

leucine degradation I :
3-methylcrotonyl-CoA + hydrogen carbonate + ATP → 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA + ADP + phosphate + H+

mycolate biosynthesis :
ATP + cerotoyl-CoA + hydrogen carbonate → 2-carboxy-cerotoyl-CoA + ADP + phosphate + H+

sitosterol degradation to androstenedione :
3-oxo-24-ethyl-cholest-4,24-dien-26-oyl-CoA + hydrogen carbonate + ATP → 3-oxo-24-(isopropanoyl)-cholest-4,24-dien-26-oyl-CoA + ADP + phosphate + H+

Not in pathways:
pyrrole-2-carboxylate + H2O ← a pyrrole + hydrogen carbonate
2 ATP + hydrogen carbonate + ammonium → 2 ADP + carbamoyl-phosphate + phosphate + 2 H+

Reactions known to produce the compound:

1,4-dihydroxy-6-naphthoate biosynthesis I , 1,4-dihydroxy-6-naphthoate biosynthesis II :
3-[(1-carboxyvinyl)oxy]benzoate + S-adenosyl-L-methionine + H2O → 6-amino-6-deoxyfutalosine + L-methionine + hydrogen carbonate + H+

2,4-dinitrotoluene degradation :
methylmalonate semialdehyde + coenzyme A + NAD+ + H2O → propanoyl-CoA + hydrogen carbonate + NADH + H+

4-toluenecarboxylate degradation :
(3S,4R)-3,4-dihydroxycyclohexa-1,5-diene-1,4-dicarboxylate + NAD+ + H2O → protocatechuate + hydrogen carbonate + NADH + H+

valine degradation I :
(S)-methylmalonate-semialdehyde + coenzyme A + NAD+ + H2O → propanoyl-CoA + hydrogen carbonate + NADH + H+

Not in pathways:
2-hydroxyethylphosphonate + oxygen → methylphosphonate + hydrogen carbonate + H+

Reactions known to both consume and produce the compound:

3-hydroxypropanoate cycle , 3-hydroxypropanoate/4-hydroxybutanate cycle , anaerobic energy metabolism (invertebrates, mitochondrial) , methylaspartate cycle , propionyl CoA degradation :
propanoyl-CoA + ATP + hydrogen carbonate ↔ (S)-methylmalonyl-CoA + ADP + phosphate + H+

C4 photosynthetic carbon assimilation cycle, NAD-ME type :
oxaloacetate + phosphate ↔ phosphoenolpyruvate + hydrogen carbonate
hydrogen carbonate + H+ ↔ CO2 + H2O

C4 photosynthetic carbon assimilation cycle, NADP-ME type :
oxaloacetate + phosphate ↔ phosphoenolpyruvate + hydrogen carbonate
hydrogen carbonate + H+ ↔ CO2 + H2O

C4 photosynthetic carbon assimilation cycle, PEPCK type :
oxaloacetate + phosphate ↔ phosphoenolpyruvate + hydrogen carbonate
hydrogen carbonate + H+ ↔ CO2 + H2O

CO2 fixation into oxaloacetate (anapleurotic) :
oxaloacetate + phosphate ↔ phosphoenolpyruvate + hydrogen carbonate
hydrogen carbonate + H+ ↔ CO2 + H2O

cyanate degradation :
hydrogen carbonate + H+ ↔ CO2 + H2O

ethylene biosynthesis V (engineered) , formaldehyde assimilation I (serine pathway) , glutamine biosynthesis III , Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum biosynthetic metabolism , mixed acid fermentation , reductive TCA cycle I , TCA cycle VI (obligate autotrophs) :
oxaloacetate + phosphate ↔ phosphoenolpyruvate + hydrogen carbonate

gluconeogenesis II (Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum) :
oxaloacetate + phosphate ↔ phosphoenolpyruvate + hydrogen carbonate
hydrogen carbonate + H+ ↔ CO2 + H2O

In Reactions of unknown directionality:

Not in pathways:
naphthalene + hydrogen carbonate = 2-naphthoate + H2O
cyanate + hydrogen carbonate + 3 H+ = ammonium + 2 CO2
L-threonine + hydrogen carbonate + ATP = L-threonylcarbamoyladenylate + diphosphate + H2O

Enzymes activated by hydrogen carbonate, sorted by the type of activation, are:

Activator (Mechanism unknown) of: aminopeptidase [Strater99]

Enzymes inhibited by hydrogen carbonate, sorted by the type of inhibition, are:

Inhibitor (Competitive) of: cyanase [Anderson86] , succinate dehydrogenase [Burke82]

Inhibitor (Noncompetitive) of: phosphoenolpyruvate mutase [Seidel94]

This compound has been characterized as a cofactor or prosthetic group of the following enzymes: 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoyl-CoA synthase , cyclopropane fatty acyl phospholipid synthase


References

Anderson86: Anderson PM, Little RM (1986). "Kinetic properties of cyanase." Biochemistry 25(7);1621-6. PMID: 3518792

Burke82: Burke JJ, Siedow JN, Moreland DE (1982). "Succinate Dehydrogenase : A Partial Purification from Mung Bean Hypocotyls and Soybean Cotyledons." Plant Physiol 70(6);1577-1581. PMID: 16662722

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Seidel94: Seidel HM, Knowles JR (1994). "Interaction of inhibitors with phosphoenolpyruvate mutase: implications for the reaction mechanism and the nature of the active site." Biochemistry 33(18);5641-6. PMID: 8180189

Strater99: Strater N, Sun L, Kantrowitz ER, Lipscomb WN (1999). "A bicarbonate ion as a general base in the mechanism of peptide hydrolysis by dizinc leucine aminopeptidase." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96(20);11151-5. PMID: 10500145


Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 18.5 on Sat Nov 22, 2014, biocyc14.