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Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
12/28 - 12/31
for maintenance.
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
12/28 - 12/31
for maintenance.
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
12/28 - 12/31
for maintenance.
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
12/28 - 12/31
for maintenance.
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MetaCyc Compound: L-glutamate

Abbrev Name: glt

Synonyms: 1-amino-propane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid, glutacid, glutaminic acid, L-glutamic acid, α-aminoglutaric acid, E, glt, glu, glut, L-glu, 2-aminopentanedioic acid

Superclasses: an amino acid or its derivative an amino acid a glutamate
an amino acid or its derivative an amino acid a polar amino acid a negatively-charged polar amino acid
an amino acid or its derivative an amino acid an alpha amino acid a standard alpha amino acid
an amino acid or its derivative an amino acid an L-amino acid

Chemical Formula: C5H8NO4

Molecular Weight: 146.12 Daltons

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 147.0531577825 Daltons

pKa 1: 2.19

pKa 2: 4.25

pKa 3: 9.67

SMILES: C(CCC(C(=O)[O-])[N+])([O-])=O

InChI: InChI=1S/C5H9NO4/c6-3(5(9)10)1-2-4(7)8/h3H,1-2,6H2,(H,7,8)(H,9,10)/p-1/t3-/m0/s1

InChIKey: InChIKey=WHUUTDBJXJRKMK-VKHMYHEASA-M

Unification Links: CAS:56-86-0 , ChEBI:29985 , ChemSpider:4573882 , HMDB:HMDB00148 , IAF1260:33561 , KEGG:C00025 , KNApSAcK:C00001358 , MetaboLights:MTBLC29985 , PubChem:5460299

Standard Gibbs Free Energy of Change Formation (ΔfG in kcal/mol): -82.27311 Inferred by computational analysis [Latendresse13]

Reactions known to consume the compound:

ammonia assimilation cycle I , ammonia assimilation cycle II , glutamine biosynthesis I , glutamine biosynthesis III , nitrate reduction II (assimilatory) , nitrate reduction V (assimilatory) , nitrate reduction VI (assimilatory) :
ammonium + L-glutamate + ATP → L-glutamine + ADP + phosphate + H+

aniline degradation :
ATP + L-glutamate + aniline → ADP + N5-phenyl-L-glutamine + phosphate

arginine biosynthesis II (acetyl cycle) :
L-glutamate + N-acetyl-L-ornithine → N-acetyl-L-glutamate + L-ornithine

arginine biosynthesis IV (archaebacteria) :
L-glutamate + a [LysW protein]-L-glutamate + ATP → an [L-2-aminoadipate carrier protein]-L-glutamate + ADP + phosphate + H+

bactoprenyl-diphospho-acetamido-4-amino-6-deoxygalactopyranose biosynthesis :
UDP-2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-α-D-xylo-hex4-ulose + L-glutamate → UDP-acetamido-4-amino-6-deoxygalactopyranose + 2-oxoglutarate

butirosin biosynthesis :
a 4-amino butanoyl-[BtrI acyl-carrier protein] + L-glutamate + ATP → a 4-(γ-L-glutamylamino)butanoyl-[BtrI acyl-carrier protein] + ADP + phosphate + H+
a BtrI acyl-carrier protein + L-glutamate + ATP → an L-glutamyl-[BtrI acyl-carrier protein] + ADP + phosphate

citrulline biosynthesis , ornithine de novo biosynthesis , proline biosynthesis I :
L-glutamate + ATP → γ-L-glutamyl 5-phosphate + ADP

ergothioneine biosynthesis I (bacteria) , glutathione biosynthesis , homoglutathione biosynthesis :
L-glutamate + L-cysteine + ATP → γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine + ADP + phosphate + H+

factor 420 polyglutamylation :
L-glutamate + GTP + factor F420-0 → GDP + factor γ-F420-1 + phosphate + H+
L-glutamate + GTP + factor γ-F420-1 → GDP + oxidized coenzyme γ-F420-2 + phosphate + H+

folate polyglutamylation :
tetrahydropteroyl-[γ-Glu](n) + L-glutamate + ATP → tetrahydropteroyl-[γ-Glu](n+1) + ADP + phosphate
10-formyl-tetrahydropteroyl-[γ-Glu](n) + L-glutamate + ATP → 10-formyl-tetrahydropteroyl-[γ-Glu](n+1) + ADP + phosphate
methylene-tetrahydropteroyl-[γ-Glu](n) + L-glutamate + ATP → methylene-tetrahydropteroyl-[γ-Glu](n+1) + ADP + phosphate

GABA shunt , glutamate degradation IV , glutamate degradation IX (via 4-aminobutyrate) , glutamate dependent acid resistance :
L-glutamate + H+ → CO2 + 4-aminobutanoate

GDP-L-colitose biosynthesis :
GDP-4-dehydro-α-D-rhamnose + L-glutamate → GDP-(2S,3S,6R)-3-hydroxy-5-amino-6-methyl-3,6-dihydro-2H-pyran + 2-oxoglutarate + H2O + H+

gentamicin biosynthesis :
gentamicin A2 + S-adenosyl-L-methionine + L-glutamate + oxygen → gentamicin A + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + hydrogen peroxide + 2-oxoglutarate + H+
G-418 + L-glutamate + oxygen → JI-20B + hydrogen peroxide + 2-oxoglutarate
gentamicin X2 + L-glutamate + oxygen → JI-20A + hydrogen peroxide + 2-oxoglutarate

histidine biosynthesis :
imidazole acetol-phosphate + L-glutamate → L-histidinol-phosphate + 2-oxoglutarate

hopanoid biosynthesis (bacteria) :
formyl hopane + L-glutamate → aminobacteriohopanetriol + 2-oxoglutarate

indole-3-acetate conjugate biosynthesis II , indole-3-acetyl-amide conjugate biosynthesis :
indole-3-acetate + L-glutamate + ATP → indole-3-acetyl-glutamate + AMP + diphosphate + H+

isopropylamine degradation :
isopropylamine + L-glutamate + ATP → γ-glutamyl-isopropylamide + ADP + phosphate + H+

L-glutamine biosynthesis II (tRNA-dependent) :
tRNAgln + L-glutamate + ATP + H+ → L-glutamyl-tRNAGln + AMP + diphosphate

L-Nδ-acetylornithine biosynthesis , proline biosynthesis III :
L-glutamate + ATP + NADPH + H+ → ADP + L-glutamate-5-semialdehyde + NADP+ + phosphate

lysine biosynthesis II :
L-2-acetamido-6-oxoheptanedioate + L-glutamateN-acetyl-L,L-2,6-diaminopimelate + 2-oxoglutarate

lysine biosynthesis IV :
L-saccharopine + NADP+ + H2O ← L-glutamate + (S)-2-amino-6-oxohexanoate + NADPH + H+

mannojirimycin biosynthesis :
D-fructose 6-phosphate + L-glutamate → 2-amino-2-deoxy-mannitol-6-phosphate + 2-oxoglutarate

methanofuran biosynthesis :
4-[N-γ-L-glutamyl-)-p-(β-aminoethyl)phenoxy-methyl]-2-(aminomethyl)furan + L-glutamate → 4-[N-γ-L-glutamyl-γ-L-glutamyl-)-p-(β-aminoethyl)phenoxy-methyl]-2-(aminomethyl)furan + H2O
p-(β-aminoethyl)phenoxy-methyl-2-(aminomethyl)furan + L-glutamate → 4-[N-γ-L-glutamyl-)-p-(β-aminoethyl)phenoxy-methyl]-2-(aminomethyl)furan + H2O

methylamine degradation II :
methylamine + L-glutamate + ATP → N5-methyl-L-glutamine + ADP + phosphate + H+

putrescine degradation II :
putrescine + L-glutamate + ATP → γ-glutamyl-L-putrescine + ADP + phosphate + H+

pyoverdine I biosynthesis :
L-glutamate + L-tyrosine + L-2,4-diaminobutanoate + 2 L-serine + L-arginine + 2 N5-formyl-N5-hydroxy-L-ornithine + L-lysine + 2 L-threonine → ferribactin + 2 H+ + 12 H2O

tetrahydrofolate biosynthesis :
L-glutamate + 7,8-dihydropteroate + ATP → ADP + 7,8-dihydrofolate monoglutamate + phosphate + H+

tetrapyrrole biosynthesis I (from glutamate) , tRNA charging :
tRNAGlu + L-glutamate + ATP + H+ → L-glutamyl-tRNAGlu + AMP + diphosphate

Not in pathways:
ATP + citrate + L-glutamate → ADP + β-citryl-L-glutamate + phosphate + H+
2 ATP + N-acetyl-L-aspartate + 2 L-glutamate → 2 ADP + N-acetyl-α-L-aspartyl-L-glutamyl-L-glutamate + 2 phosphate + 2 H+
N-acetyl-L-aspartate + L-glutamate + ATP → N-acetyl-α-L-aspartyl-L-glutamate + ADP + phosphate + H+
L-glutamate + oxygen + H2O → ammonium + hydrogen peroxide + 2-oxoglutarate
a [protein] C-terminal L-glutamate + L-glutamate + ATP → a [protein] with C-terminal α-L-glutamate-α-L-glutamate + ADP + phosphate + H+
L-glutamate + ATP + tetrahydromethanopterin → ADP + tetrahydrosarcinapterin + phosphate + H+
tRNAGlx + L-glutamate + ATP + H+ → L-glutamyl-tRNAGlx + AMP + diphosphate
queuosine at position 34 of a tRNAAsp + ATP + L-glutamate → glutamyl-queuosine at position 34 of a tRNAAsp + AMP + diphosphate + 2 H+
ethylamine + L-glutamate + ATP → γ-glutamyl-ethylamide + ADP + phosphate + H+
4-hydroxybenzoate + L-glutamate + ATP → N-(4-hydroxybenzoyl)-L-glutamate + AMP + diphosphate + H+
benzoate + L-glutamate + ATP → N-benzoyl-L-glutamate + AMP + diphosphate + H+
vanillate + L-glutamate + ATP → N-vanillate-L-glutamate + AMP + diphosphate + H+
4-aminobenzoate + L-glutamate + ATP → p-aminobenzoyl glutamate + AMP + diphosphate + H+
L-glutamate + ATP + oxidized coenzyme γ-F420-2 → coenzyme α-F420-3 + ADP + phosphate + H+
histamine + L-glutamate + ATP → N-α-γ-L-glutamylhistamine + ADP + phosphate + H+

γ-glutamyl cycle :
glutathione + a standard α amino acid → L-cysteinyl-glycine + an (γ-L-glutamyl)-L-amino acid

leukotriene biosynthesis :
leukotriene-C4 + a standard α amino acid → an (γ-L-glutamyl)-L-amino acid + leukotriene-D4

methanofuran biosynthesis :
2-furaldehyde phosphate + a standard α amino acid → 2-methylamine-furan phosphate + a 2-oxo carboxylate


a standard α amino acid + oxygen + H2O → ammonium + hydrogen peroxide + a 2-oxo carboxylate

prodigiosin biosynthesis :
(S)-3-acetyloctanal + an L-amino acid → 2-methyl-3-n-amyl-dihydropyrrole + a 2-oxo acid + H2O

rhizocticin A and B biosynthesis :
2-keto-5-phosphono-3-cis-pentenoate + an L-amino acidL-2-amino-5-phosphono-3-cis-pentenoate + a 2-oxo carboxylate
2-keto-4-hydroxy-5-phosphonopentanoate + an L-amino acid → 2-amino-4-hydroxy-5-phosphonopentanoate + a 2-oxo carboxylate


ATP + 2 an L-amino acid → ADP + a dipeptide + phosphate + H+

Reactions known to produce the compound:

4-hydroxy-2-nonenal detoxification :
4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-glutathione conjugate + H2O → 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-[Cys-Gly] conjugate + L-glutamate

5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide biosynthesis I , 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide biosynthesis II , superpathway of 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide biosynthesis :
ATP + N2-formyl-N1-(5-phospho-β-D-ribosyl)glycinamide + L-glutamine + H2O → L-glutamate + ADP + 2-(formamido)-N1-(5-phospho-β-D-ribosyl)acetamidine + phosphate + H+

adenosylcobalamin biosynthesis from cobyrinate a,c-diamide I , adenosylcobalamin biosynthesis from cobyrinate a,c-diamide II :
adenosyl-cobyrinate a,c-diamide + 4 L-glutamine + 4 ATP + 4 H2O → 4 L-glutamate + adenosylcobyrate + 4 ADP + 4 phosphate + 4 H+

ammonia assimilation cycle I , glutamate biosynthesis IV :
2 L-glutamate + NAD+ ← L-glutamine + 2-oxoglutarate + NADH + H+

ammonia assimilation cycle II , glutamate biosynthesis V , glutamine biosynthesis III :
2 L-glutamate + 2 an oxidized ferredoxin ← 2-oxoglutarate + L-glutamine + 2 a reduced ferredoxin + 2 H+

aniline degradation :
N5-phenyl-L-glutamine + H2O → L-glutamate + aniline + H+
γ-glutamylanilide diol + H2O → 1-aminocyclohexa-3,5-diene-1,2-diol + L-glutamate

arginine biosynthesis I (via L-ornithine) , arginine biosynthesis II (acetyl cycle) , arginine biosynthesis III (via N-acetyl-L-citrulline) , arginine biosynthesis IV (archaebacteria) , UMP biosynthesis :
2 ATP + L-glutamine + hydrogen carbonate + H2O → L-glutamate + carbamoyl-phosphate + 2 ADP + phosphate + 2 H+

arginine degradation I (arginase pathway) , ethylene biosynthesis II (microbes) , proline degradation :
L-glutamate-5-semialdehyde + NAD+ + H2O → L-glutamate + NADH + 2 H+

arginine degradation II (AST pathway) :
N2-succinylglutamate + H2O → L-glutamate + succinate

asparagine biosynthesis I :
L-glutamine + L-aspartate + ATP + H2O → L-glutamate + L-asparagine + AMP + diphosphate + H+

asparagine biosynthesis III (tRNA-dependent) :
L-glutamine + L-aspartyl-tRNAasn + ATP + H2O → L-glutamate + L-asparaginyl-tRNAasn + ADP + phosphate + H+

camalexin biosynthesis :
indole-3-acetonitrile-γ-glutamylcysteine conjugate + H2O → indole-3-acetonitrile-cysteine conjugate + L-glutamate

citrulline biosynthesis , glutamine degradation I :
L-glutamine + H2O → L-glutamate + ammonium

cob(II)yrinate a,c-diamide biosynthesis I (early cobalt insertion) :
cobyrinate + 2 L-glutamine + 2 ATP + 2 H2O → cob(II)yrinate a,c-diamide + 2 L-glutamate + 2 ADP + 2 phosphate + 2 H+

cob(II)yrinate a,c-diamide biosynthesis II (late cobalt incorporation) :
hydrogenobyrinate + 2 L-glutamine + 2 ATP + 2 H2O → 2 L-glutamate + hydrogenobyrinate a,c-diamide + 2 ADP + 2 phosphate + 2 H+

ergothioneine biosynthesis I (bacteria) :
γ-glutamyl-hercynylcysteine S-oxide + H2O → hercynylcysteine S-oxide + L-glutamate

γ-glutamyl cycle :
5-oxoproline + ATP + 2 H2O → L-glutamate + ADP + phosphate + H+

glucosinolate biosynthesis from dihomomethionine :
5-methylthiopentylhydroximoyl-glutathione + H2O → 5-methylthiopentylhydroximoyl-cysteinylglycine + L-glutamate

glucosinolate biosynthesis from hexahomomethionine :
9-methylthiononylhydroximoyl-glutathione + H2O → 9-methylthiononylhydroximoyl-cysteinylglycine + L-glutamate

glucosinolate biosynthesis from homomethionine :
4-methylthiobutylhydroximoyl-glutathione + H2O → 4-methylthiobutylhydroximoyl-cysteinylglycine + L-glutamate

glucosinolate biosynthesis from pentahomomethionine :
8-methylthiooctylhydroximoyl-glutathione + H2O → 8-methylthiooctylhydroximoyl-cysteinylglycine + L-glutamate

glucosinolate biosynthesis from phenylalanine :
phenylacetohydroximoyl-glutathione + H2O → phenylacetohydroximoyl-cysteinylglycine + L-glutamate

glucosinolate biosynthesis from tetrahomomethionine :
7-methylthioheptylhydroximoyl-glutathione + H2O → 7-methylthioheptylhydroximoyl-cysteinylglycine + L-glutamate

glucosinolate biosynthesis from trihomomethionine :
6-methylthiohexylhydroximoyl-glutathione + H2O → 6-methylthiohexylhydroximoyl-cysteinylglycine + L-glutamate

glucosinolate biosynthesis from tryptophan :
indole-3-acetohydroximoyl-glutathione + H2O → indole-3-acetohydroximoyl-cysteinylglycine + L-glutamate

glutamate biosynthesis I , glutamine degradation II :
2 L-glutamate + NADP+ ← L-glutamine + 2-oxoglutarate + NADPH + H+

glutamate removal from folates :
tetrahydropteroyl-[γ-Glu](n) + H2O → tetrahydropteroyl-[γ-Glu](n-1) + L-glutamate

glutathione degradation (DUG pathway - yeast) :
glutathione + H2O → L-cysteinyl-glycine + L-glutamate

glutathione-mediated detoxification I :
a glutathione-toxin conjugate + H2O → a [Cys-Gly]-S-conjugate + L-glutamate

glutathione-mediated detoxification II :
a glutathione-toxin conjugate + H2O → a [Cys-Gly]-S-conjugate + L-glutamate
a [Glu-Cys]-S-conjugate + H2O → an L-cysteine-S-conjugate + L-glutamate

guanosine ribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis :
XMP + L-glutamine + ATP + H2O → L-glutamate + GMP + AMP + diphosphate + 2 H+

histidine biosynthesis :
phosphoribulosylformimino-AICAR-P + L-glutamine → L-glutamate + D-erythro-imidazole-glycerol-phosphate + 5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxamide + H+

histidine degradation I :
N-formimino-L-glutamate + H2O → L-glutamate + formamide

histidine degradation II :
N-formyl-L-glutamate + H2O → L-glutamate + formate

histidine degradation III :
a 5-formiminotetrahydrofolate + L-glutamateN-formimino-L-glutamate + a tetrahydrofolate

indole glucosinolate breakdown (active in intact plant cell) :
indol-3-ylmethylisothiocyanate-glutathione + 2 H2O → 3-aminomethylindole + raphanusamic acid + L-glutamate + glycine
4-methoxy-3-indolylmethylisothiocyanate-glutathione + 2 H2O → 4-methoxy-3-indolylmethylamine + raphanusamic acid + L-glutamate + glycine

indole-3-acetate conjugate biosynthesis II :
indole-3-acetyl-glutamate-N-beta-D-glucose + H2O → indole-3-acetyl-N-beta-D-glucose + L-glutamate

isoleucine biosynthesis III :
(2S, 3S)-3-methylaspartate + 2-oxoglutarate → L-glutamate + methyloxaloacetate

isopropylamine degradation :
γ-glutamyl-L-alaninol + H2O → L-alaninol + L-glutamate

L-glutamine biosynthesis II (tRNA-dependent) :
L-glutamine + L-glutamyl-tRNAGln + ATP + H2O → L-glutamate + L-glutaminyl-tRNAgln + ADP + phosphate + H+

leucine degradation II :
(3R)-β-leucine + 2-oxoglutarate → L-glutamate + β-ketoisocaproate

lysine degradation II (mammalian) :
L-saccharopine + NAD+ + H2O → L-glutamate + (S)-2-amino-6-oxohexanoate + NADH + H+

lysine degradation II (pipecolate pathway) :
L-lysine + 2-oxoglutarate → 2-keto-6-aminocaproate + L-glutamate

methylamine degradation II :
N-methyl-L-glutamate + an oxidized electron acceptor + H2O → L-glutamate + formaldehyde + a reduced electron acceptor

muropeptide degradation :
L-alanyl-L-glutamate + H2O → L-alanine + L-glutamate

N-acetylglutaminylglutamine amide biosynthesis :
N-acetylglutaminylglutamine + L-glutamine → N-acetylglutaminylglutamine amide + L-glutamate

NAD biosynthesis from 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde , NAD biosynthesis I (from aspartate) , NAD salvage pathway I , pyridine nucleotide cycling (plants) :
ATP + nicotinate adenine dinucleotide + L-glutamine + H2O → L-glutamate + AMP + NAD+ + diphosphate + H+

putrescine degradation I :
putrescine + 2-oxoglutarate → L-glutamate + 4-aminobutanal

putrescine degradation II :
4-(γ-L-glutamylamino)butanoate + H2O → L-glutamate + 4-aminobutanoate

pyridoxal 5'-phosphate biosynthesis II :
keto-D-ribose 5-phosphate + D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate + L-glutamine → pyridoxal 5'-phosphate + L-glutamate + phosphate + 3 H2O + H+

siroheme amide biosynthesis :
sirohydrochlorin + L-glutamine + ATP + H2O → L-glutamate + siroamide + ADP + phosphate + H+

UTP and CTP de novo biosynthesis , UTP and CTP dephosphorylation I , UTP and CTP dephosphorylation II :
ATP + UTP + L-glutamine + H2O → ADP + CTP + L-glutamate + phosphate + 2 H+

Not in pathways:
p-aminobenzoyl glutamate + H2O → 4-aminobenzoate + L-glutamate
L-saccharopine + oxygen + H2O → (S)-2-amino-6-oxohexanoate + L-glutamate + hydrogen peroxide
glutathione[periplasmic space] + H2O[periplasmic space] → L-cysteinyl-glycine[periplasmic space] + L-glutamate[periplasmic space]
a peptide + H2O → a peptide + L-glutamate
glycyl-L-glutamate + H2O → glycine + L-glutamate
L-glutamyl-L-glutamate + H2O → 2 L-glutamate
(S)-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate + NAD+ + 2 H2O → L-glutamate + NADH + H+
leukotriene-C4 + H2O → leukotriene-D4 + L-glutamate
a [protein] N-terminal L-glutamate + H2O → L-glutamate + a protein + H+

dimethylsulfoniopropionate biosynthesis I (Wollastonia) :
S-methyl-L-methionine + a 2-oxo carboxylate + H+ → 3-dimethylsulfoniopropionaldehyde + CO2 + a standard α amino acid

seed germination protein turnover , wound-induced proteolysis I :
amino acids(n) + H2O → a standard α amino acid + amino acids(n-1)


a dipeptide + H2O → 2 amino acids
amino acids(n) + H2O → amino acids(n-1) + a standard α amino acid
β-aspartyl dipeptide + H2O → L-aspartate + a standard α amino acid
amino acids(n) + H2O → amino acids(n-1) + a standard α amino acid
a protein + H2O → a peptide + a standard α amino acid
a dipeptide + H2O → 2 a standard α amino acid
a peptide + H2O → a standard α amino acid + a peptide
a peptide + H2O → a peptide + a standard α amino acid
a peptide + H2O → a peptide + a standard α amino acid
an oligopeptide + H2O → a peptide + a standard α amino acid
a dipeptide + H2O → a standard α amino acid + a standard α amino acid
a protein + H2O → a peptide + a standard α amino acid
a protein + H2O → a peptide + a standard α amino acid
a protein + H2O → a standard α amino acid + a peptide
a peptide + H2O → a standard α amino acid + a peptide
a protein + H2O → a standard α amino acid + a peptide
a tripeptide + H2O → a dipeptide + a standard α amino acid
a dipetide with L-aspartate at the N-terminal + H2O → L-aspartate + a standard α amino acid
a dipetide with L-histidine at the C-terminal + H2O → a standard α amino acid + L-histidine
a dipeptide with L-methionine at the N-terminal + H2O → a standard α amino acid + L-methionine
a dipeptide with proline at the C-terminal + H2O → L-proline + a standard α amino acid
a dipeptide + H2O → a standard α amino acid + a standard α amino acid
a dipeptide + H2O → a standard α amino acid + a standard α amino acid
amino acids(n) + H2O → a standard α amino acid + amino acids(n-1)


folate + H2O → pteroate + a glutamate

γ-glutamyl cycle :
an (γ-L-glutamyl)-L-amino acid → an L-amino acid + 5-oxoproline


a peptide + H2O → an L-amino acid + a peptide
a peptide + H2O → a peptide + an L-amino acid
a N-methyl L-amino acid + oxygen + H2O → an L-amino acid + formaldehyde + hydrogen peroxide
a polypeptide + H2O → a polypeptide + an L-amino acid


amino acids(n) + H2O → amino acids(n-1) + an α amino acid
an α amino acid ester + H2O → an alcohol + an α amino acid + H+
a protein + H2O → a protein + an α amino acid

Reactions known to both consume and produce the compound:

(R)-cysteate degradation , coenzyme M biosynthesis II , sulfolactate degradation III :
L-cysteate + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ 3-sulfopyruvate + L-glutamate

(S)-reticuline biosynthesis I , 4-hydroxybenzoate biosynthesis I (eukaryotes) , 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate biosynthesis , atromentin biosynthesis , rosmarinic acid biosynthesis I , tyrosine biosynthesis I , tyrosine degradation I , tyrosine degradation II , tyrosine degradation III , tyrosine degradation IV (to 4-methylphenol) :
L-tyrosine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate + L-glutamate

(S)-reticuline biosynthesis II , rosmarinic acid biosynthesis II :
L-dopa + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpyruvate + L-glutamate

2'-deoxymugineic acid phytosiderophore biosynthesis :
nicotianamine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + 3''-deamino-3''-oxonicotianamine

2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone biosynthesis , 4-hydroxy-2(1H)-quinolone biosynthesis , acridone alkaloid biosynthesis , tryptophan biosynthesis :
chorismate + L-glutamine ↔ anthranilate + L-glutamate + pyruvate + H+

4-amino-2-methyl-5-phosphomethylpyrimidine biosynthesis (yeast) , 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide biosynthesis I , 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide biosynthesis II , superpathway of 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide biosynthesis :
5-phospho-β-D-ribosylamine + L-glutamate + diphosphate ↔ 5-phospho-α-D-ribose 1-diphosphate + L-glutamine + H2O

4-aminobenzoate biosynthesis , candicidin biosynthesis :
chorismate + L-glutamine ↔ 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate + L-glutamate

4-aminobutyrate degradation , 4-aminobutyrate degradation II , 4-aminobutyrate degradation III , glutamate degradation IV , nicotine degradation I :
4-aminobutanoate + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ succinate semialdehyde + L-glutamate

4-aminobutyrate degradation V :
4-aminobutanoate + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ succinate semialdehyde + L-glutamate
L-glutamate + NAD+ + H2O ↔ 2-oxoglutarate + ammonium + NADH + H+

alanine biosynthesis I , valine biosynthesis , valine degradation II :
L-valine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate

alanine biosynthesis II , alanine degradation III :
2-oxoglutarate + L-alanine ↔ L-glutamate + pyruvate

alanine degradation II (to D-lactate) :
2-oxoglutarate + L-alanine ↔ L-glutamate + pyruvate
L-glutamate + NAD+ + H2O ↔ 2-oxoglutarate + ammonium + NADH + H+

anaerobic energy metabolism (invertebrates, cytosol) :
2-oxoglutarate + L-alanine ↔ L-glutamate + pyruvate
L-aspartate + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + oxaloacetate

archaeosine biosynthesis :
preQ0 at position 15 of an archaeal tRNA + L-glutamine + H2O ↔ archaeosine at position 15 of an archaeal tRNA + L-glutamate

arginine biosynthesis II (acetyl cycle) :
N-acetyl-L-ornithine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + N-acetyl-L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde
L-glutamate + acetyl-CoA ↔ N-acetyl-L-glutamate + coenzyme A + H+

arginine biosynthesis III (via N-acetyl-L-citrulline) :
N-acetyl-L-ornithine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + N-acetyl-L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde
L-glutamate + acetyl-CoA ↔ N-acetyl-L-glutamate + coenzyme A + H+

arginine biosynthesis IV (archaebacteria) :
an [L-2-aminoadipate carrier protein]-L-ornithine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + an [L-2-aminoadipate carrier protein]-L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde

arginine degradation I (arginase pathway) , arginine degradation VI (arginase 2 pathway) , citrulline biosynthesis , L-Nδ-acetylornithine biosynthesis , ornithine degradation II (Stickland reaction) , proline biosynthesis II (from arginine) , proline biosynthesis III :
L-ornithine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + L-glutamate-5-semialdehyde

arginine degradation II (AST pathway) :
N2-succinyl-L-ornithine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + N2-succinyl-L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde

arginine degradation XI :
L-arginine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + 2-ketoarginine

asparagine degradation III (mammalian) , aspartate biosynthesis , aspartate degradation I , aspartate degradation II , glutamate degradation II :
L-aspartate + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + oxaloacetate

β-alanine degradation I :
β-alanine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ malonate semialdehyde + L-glutamate

C4 photosynthetic carbon assimilation cycle, NAD-ME type :
2-oxoglutarate + L-alanine ↔ L-glutamate + pyruvate
L-aspartate + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + oxaloacetate
L-aspartate + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + oxaloacetate
2-oxoglutarate + L-alanine ↔ L-glutamate + pyruvate

C4 photosynthetic carbon assimilation cycle, PEPCK type :
2-oxoglutarate + L-alanine ↔ L-glutamate + pyruvate
L-aspartate + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + oxaloacetate
L-aspartate + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + oxaloacetate
2-oxoglutarate + L-alanine ↔ L-glutamate + pyruvate

CMP-legionaminate biosynthesis I :
β-D-fructofuranose 6-phosphate + L-glutamine ↔ D-glucosamine 6-phosphate + L-glutamate
GDP-2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-α-D-xylo-hexos-4-ulose + L-glutamate ↔ GDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-α-D-N-acetylglucosamine + 2-oxoglutarate

CMP-pseudaminate biosynthesis :
UDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-N-acetyl-β-L-altrosamine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ UDP-2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-β-L-arabino-hexul-4-ose + L-glutamate

dehydrophos biosynthesis :
1-amino-2-phosphorylethylphosphonate + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ 1-oxo-2-phosphorylethylphosphonate + L-glutamate

dTDP-3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-α-D-galactose biosynthesis :
dTDP-3-amino-3,6-dideoxy-α-D-galactopyranose + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ dTDP-3-dehydro-6-deoxy-α-D-galactopyranose + L-glutamate

dTDP-3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-α-D-glucose biosynthesis , dTDP-α-D-mycaminose biosynthesis :
dTDP-3-amino-3,6-dideoxy-α-D-glucopyranose + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ dTDP-3-dehydro-6-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranose + L-glutamate

dTDP-β-L-4-epi-vancosamine biosynthesis , dTDP-L-megosamine biosynthesis :
dTDP-3-amino-4-dehydro-2,3,6-trideoxy-α-D-glucose + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ dTDP-3,4-didehydro-2,6-dideoxy-α-D-glucose + L-glutamate

dTDP-D-desosamine biosynthesis :
2-oxoglutarate + dTDP-viosamine ↔ L-glutamate + dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranose
dTDP-3-amino-3,4,6-trideoxy-α-D-glucopyranose + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ dTDP-3-dehydro-4,6-deoxy-α-D-glucose + L-glutamate

dTDP-D-forosamine biosynthesis :
dTDP-4-oxo-2,3,6-trideoxy-D-glucose + L-glutamate ↔ dTDP-4-amino-2,3,4,6-tetradeoxy-D-glucose + 2-oxoglutarate

dTDP-N-acetylthomosamine biosynthesis :
dTDP-thomosamine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranose + L-glutamate

dTDP-N-acetylviosamine biosynthesis :
2-oxoglutarate + dTDP-viosamine ↔ L-glutamate + dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranose

ectoine biosynthesis , norspermidine biosynthesis , pyoverdine I biosynthesis , rhizobactin 1021 biosynthesis :
L-2,4-diaminobutanoate + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-aspartate-semialdehyde + L-glutamate

ethylene biosynthesis IV , glutamate degradation I , glutamate degradation V (via hydroxyglutarate) :
L-glutamate + NAD+ + H2O ↔ 2-oxoglutarate + ammonium + NADH + H+

GABA shunt :
4-aminobutanoate + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ succinate semialdehyde + L-glutamate
L-glutamate + NAD(P)+ + H2O ↔ 2-oxoglutarate + ammonium + NAD(P)H + H+

GDP-D-perosamine biosynthesis :
GDP-α-D-perosamine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ GDP-4-dehydro-α-D-rhamnose + L-glutamate

glutamate biosynthesis II , glutamate degradation X :
L-glutamate + NAD(P)+ + H2O ↔ 2-oxoglutarate + ammonium + NAD(P)H + H+

glutamate biosynthesis III , nitrate reduction V (assimilatory) , nitrate reduction VI (assimilatory) :
L-glutamate + NADP+ + H2O ↔ ammonium + 2-oxoglutarate + NADPH + H+

glutamate degradation VI (to pyruvate) :
(2S, 3S)-3-methylaspartate ↔ L-glutamate

histidine degradation IV , imidazole-lactate degradation :
L-histidine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + imidazole-pyruvate

homotaurine degradation :
homotaurine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ 3-sulfopropanal + L-glutamate

hydrogen sulfide biosynthesis I , L-cysteine degradation III :
2-oxoglutarate + L-cysteine ↔ L-glutamate + 3-mercaptopyruvate

indole-3-acetate biosynthesis II , tryptophan degradation IV (via indole-3-lactate) , tryptophan degradation VII (via indole-3-pyruvate) , tryptophan degradation VIII (to tryptophol) :
2-oxoglutarate + L-tryptophan ↔ L-glutamate + indole-3-pyruvate

isoleucine biosynthesis I (from threonine) , isoleucine biosynthesis II , isoleucine biosynthesis IV , isoleucine biosynthesis V , isoleucine degradation I , isoleucine degradation II :
L-isoleucine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + (S)-3-methyl-2-oxopentanoate

isoleucine biosynthesis III :
(2S, 3S)-3-methylaspartate ↔ L-glutamate
L-isoleucine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + (S)-3-methyl-2-oxopentanoate

kanamycin biosynthesis :
neamine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ 6'-dehydroparomamine + L-glutamate
2'-deamino-2'-hydroxy-6'-dehydroparomamine + L-glutamate ↔ 2'-deamino-2'-hydroxyneamine + 2-oxoglutarate

kanosamine biosynthesis II :
D-kanosamine 6-phosphate + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ 3-dehydro-D-glucose 6-phosphate + L-glutamate

L-cysteine degradation I :
3-sulfinoalanine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + 3-sulfinopyruvate

L-dopa degradation :
3-O-methyldopa + 2-oxoglutarate + H+ ↔ 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate + L-glutamate

leucine biosynthesis , leucine degradation I , leucine degradation III :
L-leucine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate

lysine biosynthesis I :
2-oxoglutarate + N-succinyl-L,L-2,6-diaminopimelate ↔ L-glutamate + N-succinyl-2-amino-6-ketopimelate

lysine biosynthesis IV , lysine degradation II (mammalian) , lysine degradation II (pipecolate pathway) , lysine degradation V :
L-2-aminoadipate + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + 2-oxoadipate

lysine biosynthesis V :
L-2-aminoadipate + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + 2-oxoadipate
a [LysW]-C-terminal-L-glutamyl-γ-L-lysine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ a [LysW]-C-terminal-L-glutamyl-γ-L-2-aminoadipate semialdehyde + L-glutamate

lysine biosynthesis VI :
L,L-diaminopimelate + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ (S)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydrodipicolinate + L-glutamate + H2O + H+

lysine degradation III :
N6-acetyl-L-lysine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + 2-keto-6-acetamidocaproate
5-aminopentanoate + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + glutarate semialdehyde

lysine degradation IV , lysine degradation X :
5-aminopentanoate + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + glutarate semialdehyde

lysine degradation VI :
2-oxoglutarate + L-lysine ↔ L-glutamate + (S)-2-amino-6-oxohexanoate

methylamine degradation II :
N5-methyl-L-glutamine + L-glutamate + H2O ↔ L-glutamate + N-methyl-L-glutamate + ammonium

methylaspartate cycle :
(2S, 3S)-3-methylaspartate ↔ L-glutamate
L-glutamate + NAD+ + H2O ↔ 2-oxoglutarate + ammonium + NADH + H+

neomycin biosynthesis :
neomycin C + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ 6'''-deamino-6'''-oxoneomycin C + L-glutamate

nylon-6 oligomer degradation :
6-aminohexanoate + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ 6-oxohexanoate + L-glutamate

ornithine biosynthesis :
N-acetyl-L-ornithine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + N-acetyl-L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde
L-glutamate + acetyl-CoA ↔ N-acetyl-L-glutamate + coenzyme A + H+

ornithine de novo biosynthesis :
L-ornithine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + L-glutamate-5-semialdehyde
L-glutamate + NAD(P)+ + H2O ↔ 2-oxoglutarate + ammonium + NAD(P)H + H+

paromomycin biosynthesis :
paromomycin + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ 6'''-oxoparomomycin + L-glutamate

phenazine-1-carboxylate biosynthesis :
chorismate + L-glutamine ↔ 2-amino-4-deoxy-chorismate + L-glutamate

phenylalanine biosynthesis (cytosolic, plants) , phenylalanine biosynthesis I , phenylalanine degradation II (anaerobic) , phenylalanine degradation III :
2-oxo-3-phenylpropanoate + L-glutamate ↔ L-phenylalanine + 2-oxoglutarate

phenylalanine biosynthesis II , tyrosine biosynthesis II , tyrosine biosynthesis III :
L-arogenate + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ prephenate + L-glutamate

phenylalanine degradation IV (mammalian, via side chain) :
L-phenylalanine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ 2-oxo-3-phenylpropanoate + L-glutamate

photorespiration :
2-oxoglutarate + glycine ↔ L-glutamate + glyoxylate

polymyxin resistance :
UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-β-L-arabinopyranose + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ UDP-β-L-threo-pentapyranos-4-ulose + L-glutamate

proline biosynthesis IV :
L-ornithine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + 2-keto-ornithine

pyridoxal 5'-phosphate biosynthesis I :
2-oxo-3-hydroxy-4-phosphobutanoate + L-glutamate ↔ 4-phospho-hydroxy-L-threonine + 2-oxoglutarate

ribostamycin biosynthesis :
neamine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ 6'-dehydroparomamine + L-glutamate

serine biosynthesis :
3-phospho-L-serine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + 3-phospho-hydroxypyruvate

taurine degradation III :
taurine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + sulfoacetaldehyde

TCA cycle V (2-oxoglutarate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase) :
2-oxoglutarate + an aminated amino group acceptor ↔ L-glutamate + a deaminated amino group acceptor

TCA cycle VI (obligate autotrophs) :
L-aspartate + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + oxaloacetate
L-glutamate + NADP+ + H2O ↔ ammonium + 2-oxoglutarate + NADPH + H+

In Reactions of unknown directionality:

Not in pathways:
γ-glutamyl-ethylamide + H2O = L-glutamate + ethylamine
L-serine + 2-oxoglutarate = L-glutamate + hydroxypyruvate
an N-long-chain-fatty-acyl-L-glutamate + H2O = L-glutamate + a long-chain carboxylate
cob(II)yrinate c-monoamide + L-glutamine + ATP + H2O = cob(II)yrinate a,c-diamide + L-glutamate + ADP + phosphate + H+
(S)-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate + NAD(P)+ + 2 H2O = L-glutamate + NAD(P)H + H+
cobyrinate + L-glutamine + ATP + H2O = cob(II)yrinate c-monoamide + L-glutamate + ADP + phosphate + H+
L-glutamate + 2 an oxidized ferredoxin + H2O = ammonium + 2-oxoglutarate + 2 a reduced ferredoxin + 2 H+
methylamine + L-glutamate = N-methyl-L-glutamate + ammonium
L-glutamate = 3-aminopentanedioate
poly (D-glutamate)n + L-glutamate + ATP = poly (D-glutamate)(n+1) + ADP + phosphate
an N5-formyl-tetrahydrofolate + L-glutamate + ATP = 5-formyl-THF-Glun+1 + ADP + phosphate
L-glutamate + ATP = α-L-glutamyl phosphate + ADP


an L-amino acid = a D-amino acid
an L-amino acid + NAD+ + H2O = a 2-oxo carboxylate + ammonium + NADH + H+
an N-carbamoyl-L-amino acid + H2O + 2 H+ = an L-amino acid + ammonium + CO2
S-ureidoglycine + a 2-oxo carboxylate = oxalurate + an L-amino acid


a 5-L-glutamyl-[peptide] + an amino acid = a 5-L-glutamyl-amino acid + a peptide

In Transport reactions:
L-glutamate[cytosol] + L-cystine[extracellular space] → L-cystine[cytosol] + L-glutamate[extracellular space] ,
L-glutamate[cytosol]L-glutamate[mitochondrial lumen] ,
L-glutamate[chloroplast stroma]L-glutamate[cytosol] ,
2 L-glutamate[out] + 2 H+[out] ↔ 2 L-glutamate[in] + 2 H+[in] ,
4-aminobutanoate[cytosol] + L-glutamate[periplasmic space]L-glutamate[cytosol] + 4-aminobutanoate[periplasmic space] ,
2 Na+[periplasmic space] + L-glutamate[periplasmic space] → 2 Na+[cytosol] + L-glutamate[cytosol] ,
L-glutamate[periplasmic space] + 2 H+[periplasmic space]L-glutamate[cytosol] + 2 H+[cytosol] ,
ATP + L-glutamate[periplasmic space] + H2O → ADP + L-glutamate[cytosol] + phosphate + H+ ,
a polar amino acid[extracellular space] + ATP + H2O ↔ a polar amino acid[cytosol] + ADP + phosphate ,
an L-amino acid[cytosol]an L-amino acid[periplasmic space]

Enzymes activated by L-glutamate, sorted by the type of activation, are:

Activator (Allosteric) of: glutaminase B [Prusiner76, Prusiner76a]

Activator (Mechanism unknown) of: malate dehydrogenase [Bologna07]

Enzymes inhibited by L-glutamate, sorted by the type of inhibition, are:

Inhibitor (Competitive) of: diaminopimelate decarboxylase [White65] , L-glutamine:D-fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [Badet88, Isupov96, Comment 1] , glutaminase [Hartman68] , glutaminase B [Prusiner76, Comment 2] , L-glutamate γ-semialdehyde dehydrogenase [ForteMcRobbie89] , tyrosine/phenylalanine aminotransferase [Comment 3] , glutamate synthase (NADH-dependent) [Boland77]

Inhibitor (Noncompetitive) of: glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD-dependent) [Bonete89, Comment 4] , formiminoglutamate formiminohydrolase [Kaminskas70] , glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP-dependent) [Bonete90, Comment 5]

Inhibitor (Allosteric) of: pyruvate kinase [Smith00] , pyruvate kinase [Turner00]

Inhibitor (Mechanism unknown) of: 4-hydroxyglutamate transaminase [MAITRA64] , S-methyl-L-methionine decarboxylase [Kocsis00] , citrate lyase deacetylase [Giffhorn80] , L-lysine-α-ketoglutarate reductase [Hutzler75]


References

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Boland77: Boland MJ, Benny AG (1977). "Enzymes of nitrogen metabolism in legume nodules. Purification and properties of NADH-dependent glutamate synthase from lupin nodules." Eur J Biochem 79(2);355-62. PMID: 21790

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Bonete90: Bonete MJ, Camacho ML, Cadenas E (1990). "Analysis of the kinetic mechanism of halophilic NADP-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase." Biochim Biophys Acta 1990;1041(3);305-10. PMID: 1980084

ForteMcRobbie89: Forte-McRobbie C, Pietruszko R (1989). "Human glutamic-gamma-semialdehyde dehydrogenase. Kinetic mechanism." Biochem J 261(3);935-43. PMID: 2803253

Giffhorn80: Giffhorn F, Rode H, Kuhn A, Gottschalk G (1980). "Citrate lyase deacetylase of Rhodopseudomonas gelatinosa. Isolation of the enzyme and studies on the inhibition by L-glutamate." Eur J Biochem 111(2);461-71. PMID: 7460909

Hartman68: Hartman SC (1968). "Glutaminase of Escherichia coli. I. Purification and general catalytic properties." J Biol Chem 1968;243(5);853-63. PMID: 4966660

Hutzler75: Hutzler J, Dancis J (1975). "Lysine-ketoglutarate reductase in human tissues." Biochim Biophys Acta 377(1);42-51. PMID: 235294

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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