Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
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MetaCyc Compound: L-glutamate

Abbrev Name: glt

Synonyms: 1-amino-propane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid, glutacid, glutaminic acid, L-glutamic acid, α-aminoglutaric acid, E, glt, glu, glut, L-glu, 2-aminopentanedioic acid

Superclasses: an amino acid or its derivative an amino acid a glutamate
an amino acid or its derivative an amino acid a polar amino acid a negatively-charged polar amino acid
an amino acid or its derivative an amino acid an alpha amino acid a standard alpha amino acid
an amino acid or its derivative an amino acid an L-amino acid

Chemical Formula: C5H8NO4

Molecular Weight: 146.12 Daltons

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 147.0531577825 Daltons

pKa 1: 2.19

pKa 2: 4.25

pKa 3: 9.67

SMILES: C(CCC(C(=O)[O-])[N+])([O-])=O

InChI: InChI=1S/C5H9NO4/c6-3(5(9)10)1-2-4(7)8/h3H,1-2,6H2,(H,7,8)(H,9,10)/p-1/t3-/m0/s1

InChIKey: InChIKey=WHUUTDBJXJRKMK-VKHMYHEASA-M

Unification Links: CAS:56-86-0 , ChEBI:29985 , ChemSpider:4573882 , HMDB:HMDB00148 , IAF1260:33561 , KEGG:C00025 , KNApSAcK:C00001358 , MetaboLights:MTBLC29985 , PubChem:5460299

Standard Gibbs Free Energy of Change Formation (ΔfG in kcal/mol): -82.27311 Inferred by computational analysis [Latendresse13]

Reactions known to consume the compound:

ammonia assimilation cycle I , ammonia assimilation cycle II , glutamine biosynthesis I , glutamine biosynthesis III , nitrate reduction II (assimilatory) , nitrate reduction V (assimilatory) , nitrate reduction VI (assimilatory) :
ammonium + L-glutamate + ATP → L-glutamine + ADP + phosphate + H+

aniline degradation :
ATP + L-glutamate + aniline → ADP + N5-phenyl-L-glutamine + phosphate

arginine biosynthesis II (acetyl cycle) :
L-glutamate + N-acetyl-L-ornithine → N-acetyl-L-glutamate + L-ornithine

arginine biosynthesis IV (archaebacteria) :
L-glutamate + a [LysW protein]-L-glutamate + ATP → an [L-2-aminoadipate carrier protein]-L-glutamate + ADP + phosphate + H+

bactoprenyl-diphospho-acetamido-4-amino-6-deoxygalactopyranose biosynthesis :
UDP-2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-α-D-xylo-hex4-ulose + L-glutamate → UDP-acetamido-4-amino-6-deoxygalactopyranose + 2-oxoglutarate

butirosin biosynthesis :
a 4-amino butanoyl-[BtrI acyl-carrier protein] + L-glutamate + ATP → a 4-(γ-L-glutamylamino)butanoyl-[BtrI acyl-carrier protein] + ADP + phosphate + H+
a BtrI acyl-carrier protein + L-glutamate + ATP → an L-glutamyl-[BtrI acyl-carrier protein] + ADP + phosphate

citrulline biosynthesis , ornithine de novo biosynthesis , proline biosynthesis I :
L-glutamate + ATP → γ-L-glutamyl 5-phosphate + ADP

ergothioneine biosynthesis I (bacteria) , glutathione biosynthesis , homoglutathione biosynthesis :
L-glutamate + L-cysteine + ATP → γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine + ADP + phosphate + H+

factor 420 polyglutamylation :
L-glutamate + GTP + factor F420-0 → GDP + factor γ-F420-1 + phosphate + H+
L-glutamate + GTP + factor γ-F420-1 → GDP + oxidized coenzyme γ-F420-2 + phosphate + H+

folate polyglutamylation :
tetrahydropteroyl-[γ-Glu](n) + L-glutamate + ATP → tetrahydropteroyl-[γ-Glu](n+1) + ADP + phosphate
10-formyl-tetrahydropteroyl-[γ-Glu](n) + L-glutamate + ATP → 10-formyl-tetrahydropteroyl-[γ-Glu](n+1) + ADP + phosphate
methylene-tetrahydropteroyl-[γ-Glu](n) + L-glutamate + ATP → methylene-tetrahydropteroyl-[γ-Glu](n+1) + ADP + phosphate

GABA shunt , glutamate degradation IV , glutamate degradation IX (via 4-aminobutyrate) , glutamate dependent acid resistance :
L-glutamate + H+ → CO2 + 4-aminobutanoate

GDP-L-colitose biosynthesis :
GDP-4-dehydro-α-D-rhamnose + L-glutamate → GDP-(2S,3S,6R)-3-hydroxy-5-amino-6-methyl-3,6-dihydro-2H-pyran + 2-oxoglutarate + H2O + H+

gentamicin biosynthesis :
gentamicin A2 + S-adenosyl-L-methionine + L-glutamate + oxygen → gentamicin A + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + hydrogen peroxide + 2-oxoglutarate + H+
G-418 + L-glutamate + oxygen → JI-20B + hydrogen peroxide + 2-oxoglutarate
gentamicin X2 + L-glutamate + oxygen → JI-20A + hydrogen peroxide + 2-oxoglutarate

histidine biosynthesis :
imidazole acetol-phosphate + L-glutamate → L-histidinol-phosphate + 2-oxoglutarate

hopanoid biosynthesis (bacteria) :
formyl hopane + L-glutamate → aminobacteriohopanetriol + 2-oxoglutarate

indole-3-acetate conjugate biosynthesis II , indole-3-acetyl-amide conjugate biosynthesis :
indole-3-acetate + L-glutamate + ATP → indole-3-acetyl-glutamate + AMP + diphosphate + H+

isopropylamine degradation :
isopropylamine + L-glutamate + ATP → γ-glutamyl-isopropylamide + ADP + phosphate + H+

L-glutamine biosynthesis II (tRNA-dependent) :
tRNAgln + L-glutamate + ATP + H+ → L-glutamyl-tRNAGln + AMP + diphosphate

L-Nδ-acetylornithine biosynthesis , proline biosynthesis III :
L-glutamate + ATP + NADPH + H+ → ADP + L-glutamate-5-semialdehyde + NADP+ + phosphate

lysine biosynthesis II :
L-2-acetamido-6-oxoheptanedioate + L-glutamateN-acetyl-L,L-2,6-diaminopimelate + 2-oxoglutarate

lysine biosynthesis IV :
L-saccharopine + NADP+ + H2O ← L-glutamate + (S)-2-amino-6-oxohexanoate + NADPH + H+

mannojirimycin biosynthesis :
D-fructose 6-phosphate + L-glutamate → 2-amino-2-deoxy-mannitol-6-phosphate + 2-oxoglutarate

methanofuran biosynthesis :
4-[N-γ-L-glutamyl-)-p-(β-aminoethyl)phenoxy-methyl]-2-(aminomethyl)furan + L-glutamate → 4-[N-γ-L-glutamyl-γ-L-glutamyl-)-p-(β-aminoethyl)phenoxy-methyl]-2-(aminomethyl)furan + H2O
p-(β-aminoethyl)phenoxy-methyl-2-(aminomethyl)furan + L-glutamate → 4-[N-γ-L-glutamyl-)-p-(β-aminoethyl)phenoxy-methyl]-2-(aminomethyl)furan + H2O

methylamine degradation II :
methylamine + L-glutamate + ATP → N5-methyl-L-glutamine + ADP + phosphate + H+

putrescine degradation II :
putrescine + L-glutamate + ATP → γ-glutamyl-L-putrescine + ADP + phosphate + H+

pyoverdine I biosynthesis :
L-glutamate + L-tyrosine + L-2,4-diaminobutanoate + 2 L-serine + L-arginine + 2 N5-formyl-N5-hydroxy-L-ornithine + L-lysine + 2 L-threonine → ferribactin + 2 H+ + 12 H2O

tetrahydrofolate biosynthesis :
L-glutamate + 7,8-dihydropteroate + ATP → ADP + 7,8-dihydrofolate monoglutamate + phosphate + H+

tetrapyrrole biosynthesis I (from glutamate) , tRNA charging :
tRNAGlu + L-glutamate + ATP + H+ → L-glutamyl-tRNAGlu + AMP + diphosphate

Not in pathways:
ATP + citrate + L-glutamate → ADP + β-citryl-L-glutamate + phosphate + H+
2 ATP + N-acetyl-L-aspartate + 2 L-glutamate → 2 ADP + N-acetyl-α-L-aspartyl-L-glutamyl-L-glutamate + 2 phosphate + 2 H+
N-acetyl-L-aspartate + L-glutamate + ATP → N-acetyl-α-L-aspartyl-L-glutamate + ADP + phosphate + H+
L-glutamate + oxygen + H2O → ammonium + hydrogen peroxide + 2-oxoglutarate
a [protein] C-terminal L-glutamate + L-glutamate + ATP → a [protein] with C-terminal α-L-glutamate-α-L-glutamate + ADP + phosphate + H+
L-glutamate + ATP + tetrahydromethanopterin → ADP + tetrahydrosarcinapterin + phosphate + H+
tRNAGlx + L-glutamate + ATP + H+ → L-glutamyl-tRNAGlx + AMP + diphosphate
queuosine at position 34 of a tRNAAsp + ATP + L-glutamate → glutamyl-queuosine at position 34 of a tRNAAsp + AMP + diphosphate + 2 H+
ethylamine + L-glutamate + ATP → γ-glutamyl-ethylamide + ADP + phosphate + H+
4-hydroxybenzoate + L-glutamate + ATP → N-(4-hydroxybenzoyl)-L-glutamate + AMP + diphosphate + H+
benzoate + L-glutamate + ATP → N-benzoyl-L-glutamate + AMP + diphosphate + H+
vanillate + L-glutamate + ATP → N-vanillate-L-glutamate + AMP + diphosphate + H+
4-aminobenzoate + L-glutamate + ATP → p-aminobenzoyl glutamate + AMP + diphosphate + H+
L-glutamate + ATP + oxidized coenzyme γ-F420-2 → coenzyme α-F420-3 + ADP + phosphate + H+
histamine + L-glutamate + ATP → N-α-γ-L-glutamylhistamine + ADP + phosphate + H+

γ-glutamyl cycle :
glutathione + a standard α amino acid → L-cysteinyl-glycine + an (γ-L-glutamyl)-L-amino acid

leukotriene biosynthesis :
leukotriene-C4 + a standard α amino acid → an (γ-L-glutamyl)-L-amino acid + leukotriene-D4

methanofuran biosynthesis :
2-furaldehyde phosphate + a standard α amino acid → 2-methylamine-furan phosphate + a 2-oxo carboxylate


a standard α amino acid + oxygen + H2O → ammonium + hydrogen peroxide + a 2-oxo carboxylate

prodigiosin biosynthesis :
(S)-3-acetyloctanal + an L-amino acid → 2-methyl-3-n-amyl-dihydropyrrole + a 2-oxo acid + H2O

rhizocticin A and B biosynthesis :
2-keto-5-phosphono-3-cis-pentenoate + an L-amino acidL-2-amino-5-phosphono-3-cis-pentenoate + a 2-oxo carboxylate
2-keto-4-hydroxy-5-phosphonopentanoate + an L-amino acid → 2-amino-4-hydroxy-5-phosphonopentanoate + a 2-oxo carboxylate


ATP + 2 an L-amino acid → ADP + a dipeptide + phosphate + H+

Reactions known to produce the compound:

4-hydroxy-2-nonenal detoxification :
4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-glutathione conjugate + H2O → 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-[Cys-Gly] conjugate + L-glutamate

5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide biosynthesis I , 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide biosynthesis II , superpathway of 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide biosynthesis :
ATP + N2-formyl-N1-(5-phospho-β-D-ribosyl)glycinamide + L-glutamine + H2O → L-glutamate + ADP + 2-(formamido)-N1-(5-phospho-β-D-ribosyl)acetamidine + phosphate + H+

adenosylcobalamin biosynthesis from cobyrinate a,c-diamide I , adenosylcobalamin biosynthesis from cobyrinate a,c-diamide II :
adenosyl-cobyrinate a,c-diamide + 4 L-glutamine + 4 ATP + 4 H2O → 4 L-glutamate + adenosylcobyrate + 4 ADP + 4 phosphate + 4 H+

ammonia assimilation cycle I , glutamate biosynthesis IV :
2 L-glutamate + NAD+ ← L-glutamine + 2-oxoglutarate + NADH + H+

ammonia assimilation cycle II , glutamate biosynthesis V , glutamine biosynthesis III :
2 L-glutamate + 2 an oxidized ferredoxin ← 2-oxoglutarate + L-glutamine + 2 a reduced ferredoxin + 2 H+

aniline degradation :
N5-phenyl-L-glutamine + H2O → L-glutamate + aniline + H+
γ-glutamylanilide diol + H2O → 1-aminocyclohexa-3,5-diene-1,2-diol + L-glutamate

arginine biosynthesis I (via L-ornithine) , arginine biosynthesis II (acetyl cycle) , arginine biosynthesis III (via N-acetyl-L-citrulline) , arginine biosynthesis IV (archaebacteria) , UMP biosynthesis :
2 ATP + L-glutamine + hydrogen carbonate + H2O → L-glutamate + carbamoyl-phosphate + 2 ADP + phosphate + 2 H+

arginine degradation I (arginase pathway) , ethylene biosynthesis II (microbes) , proline degradation :
L-glutamate-5-semialdehyde + NAD+ + H2O → L-glutamate + NADH + 2 H+

arginine degradation II (AST pathway) :
N2-succinylglutamate + H2O → L-glutamate + succinate

asparagine biosynthesis I :
L-glutamine + L-aspartate + ATP + H2O → L-glutamate + L-asparagine + AMP + diphosphate + H+

asparagine biosynthesis III (tRNA-dependent) :
L-glutamine + L-aspartyl-tRNAasn + ATP + H2O → L-glutamate + L-asparaginyl-tRNAasn + ADP + phosphate + H+

camalexin biosynthesis :
indole-3-acetonitrile-γ-glutamylcysteine conjugate + H2O → indole-3-acetonitrile-cysteine conjugate + L-glutamate

citrulline biosynthesis , glutamine degradation I :
L-glutamine + H2O → L-glutamate + ammonium

cob(II)yrinate a,c-diamide biosynthesis I (early cobalt insertion) :
cobyrinate + 2 L-glutamine + 2 ATP + 2 H2O → cob(II)yrinate a,c-diamide + 2 L-glutamate + 2 ADP + 2 phosphate + 2 H+

cob(II)yrinate a,c-diamide biosynthesis II (late cobalt incorporation) :
hydrogenobyrinate + 2 L-glutamine + 2 ATP + 2 H2O → 2 L-glutamate + hydrogenobyrinate a,c-diamide + 2 ADP + 2 phosphate + 2 H+

ergothioneine biosynthesis I (bacteria) :
γ-glutamyl-hercynylcysteine S-oxide + H2O → hercynylcysteine S-oxide + L-glutamate

γ-glutamyl cycle :
5-oxoproline + ATP + 2 H2O → L-glutamate + ADP + phosphate + H+

glucosinolate biosynthesis from dihomomethionine :
5-methylthiopentylhydroximoyl-glutathione + H2O → 5-methylthiopentylhydroximoyl-cysteinylglycine + L-glutamate

glucosinolate biosynthesis from hexahomomethionine :
9-methylthiononylhydroximoyl-glutathione + H2O → 9-methylthiononylhydroximoyl-cysteinylglycine + L-glutamate

glucosinolate biosynthesis from homomethionine :
4-methylthiobutylhydroximoyl-glutathione + H2O → 4-methylthiobutylhydroximoyl-cysteinylglycine + L-glutamate

glucosinolate biosynthesis from pentahomomethionine :
8-methylthiooctylhydroximoyl-glutathione + H2O → 8-methylthiooctylhydroximoyl-cysteinylglycine + L-glutamate

glucosinolate biosynthesis from phenylalanine :
phenylacetohydroximoyl-glutathione + H2O → phenylacetohydroximoyl-cysteinylglycine + L-glutamate

glucosinolate biosynthesis from tetrahomomethionine :
7-methylthioheptylhydroximoyl-glutathione + H2O → 7-methylthioheptylhydroximoyl-cysteinylglycine + L-glutamate

glucosinolate biosynthesis from trihomomethionine :
6-methylthiohexylhydroximoyl-glutathione + H2O → 6-methylthiohexylhydroximoyl-cysteinylglycine + L-glutamate

glucosinolate biosynthesis from tryptophan :
indole-3-acetohydroximoyl-glutathione + H2O → indole-3-acetohydroximoyl-cysteinylglycine + L-glutamate

glutamate biosynthesis I , glutamine degradation II :
2 L-glutamate + NADP+ ← L-glutamine + 2-oxoglutarate + NADPH + H+

glutamate removal from folates :
tetrahydropteroyl-[γ-Glu](n) + H2O → tetrahydropteroyl-[γ-Glu](n-1) + L-glutamate

glutathione degradation (DUG pathway - yeast) :
glutathione + H2O → L-cysteinyl-glycine + L-glutamate

glutathione-mediated detoxification I :
a glutathione-toxin conjugate + H2O → a [Cys-Gly]-S-conjugate + L-glutamate

glutathione-mediated detoxification II :
a glutathione-toxin conjugate + H2O → a [Cys-Gly]-S-conjugate + L-glutamate
a [Glu-Cys]-S-conjugate + H2O → an L-cysteine-S-conjugate + L-glutamate

guanosine ribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis :
XMP + L-glutamine + ATP + H2O → L-glutamate + GMP + AMP + diphosphate + 2 H+

histidine biosynthesis :
phosphoribulosylformimino-AICAR-P + L-glutamine → L-glutamate + D-erythro-imidazole-glycerol-phosphate + 5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxamide + H+

histidine degradation I :
N-formimino-L-glutamate + H2O → L-glutamate + formamide

histidine degradation II :
N-formyl-L-glutamate + H2O → L-glutamate + formate

histidine degradation III :
a 5-formiminotetrahydrofolate + L-glutamateN-formimino-L-glutamate + a tetrahydrofolate

indole glucosinolate breakdown (active in intact plant cell) :
indol-3-ylmethylisothiocyanate-glutathione + 2 H2O → 3-aminomethylindole + raphanusamic acid + L-glutamate + glycine
4-methoxy-3-indolylmethylisothiocyanate-glutathione + 2 H2O → 4-methoxy-3-indolylmethylamine + raphanusamic acid + L-glutamate + glycine

indole-3-acetate conjugate biosynthesis II :
indole-3-acetyl-glutamate-N-beta-D-glucose + H2O → indole-3-acetyl-N-beta-D-glucose + L-glutamate

isoleucine biosynthesis III :
(2S, 3S)-3-methylaspartate + 2-oxoglutarate → L-glutamate + methyloxaloacetate

isopropylamine degradation :
γ-glutamyl-L-alaninol + H2O → L-alaninol + L-glutamate

L-glutamine biosynthesis II (tRNA-dependent) :
L-glutamine + L-glutamyl-tRNAGln + ATP + H2O → L-glutamate + L-glutaminyl-tRNAgln + ADP + phosphate + H+

leucine degradation II :
(3R)-β-leucine + 2-oxoglutarate → L-glutamate + β-ketoisocaproate

lysine degradation II (mammalian) :
L-saccharopine + NAD+ + H2O → L-glutamate + (S)-2-amino-6-oxohexanoate + NADH + H+

lysine degradation II (pipecolate pathway) :
L-lysine + 2-oxoglutarate → 2-keto-6-aminocaproate + L-glutamate

methylamine degradation II :
N-methyl-L-glutamate + an oxidized electron acceptor + H2O → L-glutamate + formaldehyde + a reduced electron acceptor

muropeptide degradation :
L-alanyl-L-glutamate + H2O → L-alanine + L-glutamate

N-acetylglutaminylglutamine amide biosynthesis :
N-acetylglutaminylglutamine + L-glutamine → N-acetylglutaminylglutamine amide + L-glutamate

NAD biosynthesis from 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde , NAD biosynthesis I (from aspartate) , NAD salvage pathway I , pyridine nucleotide cycling (plants) :
ATP + nicotinate adenine dinucleotide + L-glutamine + H2O → L-glutamate + AMP + NAD+ + diphosphate + H+

putrescine degradation I :
putrescine + 2-oxoglutarate → L-glutamate + 4-aminobutanal

putrescine degradation II :
4-(γ-L-glutamylamino)butanoate + H2O → L-glutamate + 4-aminobutanoate

pyridoxal 5'-phosphate biosynthesis II :
keto-D-ribose 5-phosphate + D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate + L-glutamine → pyridoxal 5'-phosphate + L-glutamate + phosphate + 3 H2O + H+

siroheme amide biosynthesis :
sirohydrochlorin + L-glutamine + ATP + H2O → L-glutamate + siroamide + ADP + phosphate + H+

UTP and CTP de novo biosynthesis , UTP and CTP dephosphorylation I , UTP and CTP dephosphorylation II :
ATP + UTP + L-glutamine + H2O → ADP + CTP + L-glutamate + phosphate + 2 H+

Not in pathways:
p-aminobenzoyl glutamate + H2O → 4-aminobenzoate + L-glutamate
L-saccharopine + oxygen + H2O → (S)-2-amino-6-oxohexanoate + L-glutamate + hydrogen peroxide
glutathione[periplasmic space] + H2O[periplasmic space] → L-cysteinyl-glycine[periplasmic space] + L-glutamate[periplasmic space]
a peptide + H2O → a peptide + L-glutamate
glycyl-L-glutamate + H2O → glycine + L-glutamate
L-glutamyl-L-glutamate + H2O → 2 L-glutamate
(S)-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate + NAD+ + 2 H2O → L-glutamate + NADH + H+
leukotriene-C4 + H2O → leukotriene-D4 + L-glutamate
a [protein] N-terminal L-glutamate + H2O → L-glutamate + a protein + H+

dimethylsulfoniopropionate biosynthesis I (Wollastonia) :
S-methyl-L-methionine + a 2-oxo carboxylate + H+ → 3-dimethylsulfoniopropionaldehyde + CO2 + a standard α amino acid

seed germination protein turnover , wound-induced proteolysis I :
amino acids(n) + H2O → a standard α amino acid + amino acids(n-1)


a dipeptide + H2O → 2 amino acids
amino acids(n) + H2O → amino acids(n-1) + a standard α amino acid
β-aspartyl dipeptide + H2O → L-aspartate + a standard α amino acid
amino acids(n) + H2O → amino acids(n-1) + a standard α amino acid
a protein + H2O → a peptide + a standard α amino acid
a dipeptide + H2O → 2 a standard α amino acid
a peptide + H2O → a standard α amino acid + a peptide
a peptide + H2O → a peptide + a standard α amino acid
a peptide + H2O → a peptide + a standard α amino acid
an oligopeptide + H2O → a peptide + a standard α amino acid
a dipeptide + H2O → a standard α amino acid + a standard α amino acid
a protein + H2O → a peptide + a standard α amino acid
a protein + H2O → a peptide + a standard α amino acid
a protein + H2O → a standard α amino acid + a peptide
a peptide + H2O → a standard α amino acid + a peptide
a protein + H2O → a standard α amino acid + a peptide
a tripeptide + H2O → a dipeptide + a standard α amino acid
a dipetide with L-aspartate at the N-terminal + H2O → L-aspartate + a standard α amino acid
a dipetide with L-histidine at the C-terminal + H2O → a standard α amino acid + L-histidine
a dipeptide with L-methionine at the N-terminal + H2O → a standard α amino acid + L-methionine
a dipeptide with proline at the C-terminal + H2O → L-proline + a standard α amino acid
a dipeptide + H2O → a standard α amino acid + a standard α amino acid
a dipeptide + H2O → a standard α amino acid + a standard α amino acid
amino acids(n) + H2O → a standard α amino acid + amino acids(n-1)


folate + H2O → pteroate + a glutamate

γ-glutamyl cycle :
an (γ-L-glutamyl)-L-amino acid → an L-amino acid + 5-oxoproline


a peptide + H2O → an L-amino acid + a peptide
a peptide + H2O → a peptide + an L-amino acid
a N-methyl L-amino acid + oxygen + H2O → an L-amino acid + formaldehyde + hydrogen peroxide
a polypeptide + H2O → a polypeptide + an L-amino acid


amino acids(n) + H2O → amino acids(n-1) + an α amino acid
an α amino acid ester + H2O → an alcohol + an α amino acid + H+
a protein + H2O → a protein + an α amino acid

Reactions known to both consume and produce the compound:

(R)-cysteate degradation , coenzyme M biosynthesis II , sulfolactate degradation III : L-cysteate + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ 3-sulfopyruvate + L-glutamate (S)-reticuline biosynthesis I , 4-hydroxybenzoate biosynthesis I (eukaryotes) , 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate biosynthesis , atromentin biosynthesis , rosmarinic acid biosynthesis I , tyrosine biosynthesis I , tyrosine degradation I , tyrosine degradation II , tyrosine degradation III , tyrosine degradation IV (to 4-methylphenol) : L-tyrosine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate + L-glutamate (S)-reticuline biosynthesis II , rosmarinic acid biosynthesis II : L-dopa + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpyruvate + L-glutamate 2'-deoxymugineic acid phytosiderophore biosynthesis : nicotianamine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + 3''-deamino-3''-oxonicotianamine 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone biosynthesis , 4-hydroxy-2(1H)-quinolone biosynthesis , acridone alkaloid biosynthesis , tryptophan biosynthesis : chorismate + L-glutamine ↔ anthranilate + L-glutamate + pyruvate + H+ 4-amino-2-methyl-5-phosphomethylpyrimidine biosynthesis (yeast) , 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide biosynthesis I , 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide biosynthesis II , superpathway of 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide biosynthesis : 5-phospho-β-D-ribosylamine + L-glutamate + diphosphate ↔ 5-phospho-α-D-ribose 1-diphosphate + L-glutamine + H2O 4-aminobenzoate biosynthesis , candicidin biosynthesis : chorismate + L-glutamine ↔ 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate + L-glutamate 4-aminobutyrate degradation , 4-aminobutyrate degradation II , 4-aminobutyrate degradation III , glutamate degradation IV , nicotine degradation I : 4-aminobutanoate + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ succinate semialdehyde + L-glutamate 4-aminobutyrate degradation V : 4-aminobutanoate + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ succinate semialdehyde + L-glutamate L-glutamate + NAD+ + H2O ↔ 2-oxoglutarate + ammonium + NADH + H+ alanine biosynthesis I , valine biosynthesis , valine degradation II : L-valine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate alanine biosynthesis II , alanine degradation III : 2-oxoglutarate + L-alanine ↔ L-glutamate + pyruvate alanine degradation II (to D-lactate) : 2-oxoglutarate + L-alanine ↔ L-glutamate + pyruvate L-glutamate + NAD+ + H2O ↔ 2-oxoglutarate + ammonium + NADH + H+ anaerobic energy metabolism (invertebrates, cytosol) : 2-oxoglutarate + L-alanine ↔ L-glutamate + pyruvate L-aspartate + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + oxaloacetate archaeosine biosynthesis : preQ0 at position 15 of an archaeal tRNA + L-glutamine + H2O ↔ archaeosine at position 15 of an archaeal tRNA + L-glutamate arginine biosynthesis II (acetyl cycle) : N-acetyl-L-ornithine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + N-acetyl-L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde L-glutamate + acetyl-CoA ↔ N-acetyl-L-glutamate + coenzyme A + H+ arginine biosynthesis III (via N-acetyl-L-citrulline) : N-acetyl-L-ornithine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + N-acetyl-L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde L-glutamate + acetyl-CoA ↔ N-acetyl-L-glutamate + coenzyme A + H+ arginine biosynthesis IV (archaebacteria) : an [L-2-aminoadipate carrier protein]-L-ornithine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + an [L-2-aminoadipate carrier protein]-L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde arginine degradation I (arginase pathway) , arginine degradation VI (arginase 2 pathway) , citrulline biosynthesis , L-Nδ-acetylornithine biosynthesis , ornithine degradation II (Stickland reaction) , proline biosynthesis II (from arginine) , proline biosynthesis III : L-ornithine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + L-glutamate-5-semialdehyde arginine degradation II (AST pathway) : N2-succinyl-L-ornithine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + N2-succinyl-L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde arginine degradation XI : L-arginine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + 2-ketoarginine asparagine degradation III (mammalian) , aspartate biosynthesis , aspartate degradation I , aspartate degradation II , glutamate degradation II : L-aspartate + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + oxaloacetate β-alanine degradation I : β-alanine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ malonate semialdehyde + L-glutamate C4 photosynthetic carbon assimilation cycle, NAD-ME type : 2-oxoglutarate + L-alanine ↔ L-glutamate + pyruvate L-aspartate + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + oxaloacetate L-aspartate + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + oxaloacetate 2-oxoglutarate + L-alanine ↔ L-glutamate + pyruvate C4 photosynthetic carbon assimilation cycle, PEPCK type : 2-oxoglutarate + L-alanine ↔ L-glutamate + pyruvate L-aspartate + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + oxaloacetate L-aspartate + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + oxaloacetate 2-oxoglutarate + L-alanine ↔ L-glutamate + pyruvate CMP-legionaminate biosynthesis I : β-D-fructofuranose 6-phosphate + L-glutamine ↔ D-glucosamine 6-phosphate + L-glutamate GDP-2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-α-D-xylo-hexos-4-ulose + L-glutamate ↔ GDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-α-D-N-acetylglucosamine + 2-oxoglutarate CMP-pseudaminate biosynthesis : UDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-N-acetyl-β-L-altrosamine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ UDP-2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-β-L-arabino-hexul-4-ose + L-glutamate dehydrophos biosynthesis : 1-amino-2-phosphorylethylphosphonate + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ 1-oxo-2-phosphorylethylphosphonate + L-glutamate dTDP-3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-α-D-galactose biosynthesis : dTDP-3-amino-3,6-dideoxy-α-D-galactopyranose + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ dTDP-3-dehydro-6-deoxy-α-D-galactopyranose + L-glutamate dTDP-3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-α-D-glucose biosynthesis , dTDP-α-D-mycaminose biosynthesis : dTDP-3-amino-3,6-dideoxy-α-D-glucopyranose + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ dTDP-3-dehydro-6-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranose + L-glutamate dTDP-β-L-4-epi-vancosamine biosynthesis , dTDP-L-megosamine biosynthesis : dTDP-3-amino-4-dehydro-2,3,6-trideoxy-α-D-glucose + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ dTDP-3,4-didehydro-2,6-dideoxy-α-D-glucose + L-glutamate dTDP-D-desosamine biosynthesis : 2-oxoglutarate + dTDP-viosamine ↔ L-glutamate + dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranose dTDP-3-amino-3,4,6-trideoxy-α-D-glucopyranose + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ dTDP-3-dehydro-4,6-deoxy-α-D-glucose + L-glutamate dTDP-D-forosamine biosynthesis : dTDP-4-oxo-2,3,6-trideoxy-D-glucose + L-glutamate ↔ dTDP-4-amino-2,3,4,6-tetradeoxy-D-glucose + 2-oxoglutarate dTDP-N-acetylthomosamine biosynthesis : dTDP-thomosamine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranose + L-glutamate dTDP-N-acetylviosamine biosynthesis : 2-oxoglutarate + dTDP-viosamine ↔ L-glutamate + dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranose ectoine biosynthesis , norspermidine biosynthesis , pyoverdine I biosynthesis , rhizobactin 1021 biosynthesis : L-2,4-diaminobutanoate + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-aspartate-semialdehyde + L-glutamate ethylene biosynthesis IV , glutamate degradation I , glutamate degradation V (via hydroxyglutarate) : L-glutamate + NAD+ + H2O ↔ 2-oxoglutarate + ammonium + NADH + H+ GABA shunt : 4-aminobutanoate + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ succinate semialdehyde + L-glutamate L-glutamate + NAD(P)+ + H2O ↔ 2-oxoglutarate + ammonium + NAD(P)H + H+ GDP-D-perosamine biosynthesis : GDP-α-D-perosamine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ GDP-4-dehydro-α-D-rhamnose + L-glutamate glutamate biosynthesis II , glutamate degradation X : L-glutamate + NAD(P)+ + H2O ↔ 2-oxoglutarate + ammonium + NAD(P)H + H+ glutamate biosynthesis III , nitrate reduction V (assimilatory) , nitrate reduction VI (assimilatory) : L-glutamate + NADP+ + H2O ↔ ammonium + 2-oxoglutarate + NADPH + H+ glutamate degradation VI (to pyruvate) : (2S, 3S)-3-methylaspartate ↔ L-glutamate histidine degradation IV , imidazole-lactate degradation : L-histidine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + imidazole-pyruvate homotaurine degradation : homotaurine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ 3-sulfopropanal + L-glutamate hydrogen sulfide biosynthesis I , L-cysteine degradation III : 2-oxoglutarate + L-cysteine ↔ L-glutamate + 3-mercaptopyruvate indole-3-acetate biosynthesis II , tryptophan degradation IV (via indole-3-lactate) , tryptophan degradation VII (via indole-3-pyruvate) , tryptophan degradation VIII (to tryptophol) : 2-oxoglutarate + L-tryptophan ↔ L-glutamate + indole-3-pyruvate isoleucine biosynthesis I (from threonine) , isoleucine biosynthesis II , isoleucine biosynthesis IV , isoleucine biosynthesis V , isoleucine degradation I , isoleucine degradation II : L-isoleucine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + (S)-3-methyl-2-oxopentanoate isoleucine biosynthesis III : (2S, 3S)-3-methylaspartate ↔ L-glutamate L-isoleucine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + (S)-3-methyl-2-oxopentanoate kanamycin biosynthesis : neamine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ 6'-dehydroparomamine + L-glutamate 2'-deamino-2'-hydroxy-6'-dehydroparomamine + L-glutamate ↔ 2'-deamino-2'-hydroxyneamine + 2-oxoglutarate kanosamine biosynthesis II : D-kanosamine 6-phosphate + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ 3-dehydro-D-glucose 6-phosphate + L-glutamate L-cysteine degradation I : 3-sulfinoalanine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + 3-sulfinopyruvate L-dopa degradation : 3-O-methyldopa + 2-oxoglutarate + H+ ↔ 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate + L-glutamate leucine biosynthesis , leucine degradation I , leucine degradation III : L-leucine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate lysine biosynthesis I : 2-oxoglutarate + N-succinyl-L,L-2,6-diaminopimelate ↔ L-glutamate + N-succinyl-2-amino-6-ketopimelate lysine biosynthesis IV , lysine degradation II (mammalian) , lysine degradation II (pipecolate pathway) , lysine degradation V : L-2-aminoadipate + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + 2-oxoadipate lysine biosynthesis V : L-2-aminoadipate + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + 2-oxoadipate a [LysW]-C-terminal-L-glutamyl-γ-L-lysine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ a [LysW]-C-terminal-L-glutamyl-γ-L-2-aminoadipate semialdehyde + L-glutamate lysine biosynthesis VI : L,L-diaminopimelate + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ (S)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydrodipicolinate + L-glutamate + H2O + H+ lysine degradation III : N6-acetyl-L-lysine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + 2-keto-6-acetamidocaproate 5-aminopentanoate + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + glutarate semialdehyde lysine degradation IV , lysine degradation X : 5-aminopentanoate + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + glutarate semialdehyde lysine degradation VI : 2-oxoglutarate + L-lysine ↔ L-glutamate + (S)-2-amino-6-oxohexanoate methylamine degradation II : N5-methyl-L-glutamine + L-glutamate + H2O ↔ L-glutamate + N-methyl-L-glutamate + ammonium methylaspartate cycle : (2S, 3S)-3-methylaspartate ↔ L-glutamate L-glutamate + NAD+ + H2O ↔ 2-oxoglutarate + ammonium + NADH + H+ neomycin biosynthesis : neomycin C + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ 6'''-deamino-6'''-oxoneomycin C + L-glutamate nylon-6 oligomer degradation : 6-aminohexanoate + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ 6-oxohexanoate + L-glutamate ornithine biosynthesis : N-acetyl-L-ornithine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + N-acetyl-L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde L-glutamate + acetyl-CoA ↔ N-acetyl-L-glutamate + coenzyme A + H+ ornithine de novo biosynthesis : L-ornithine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + L-glutamate-5-semialdehyde L-glutamate + NAD(P)+ + H2O ↔ 2-oxoglutarate + ammonium + NAD(P)H + H+ paromomycin biosynthesis : paromomycin + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ 6'''-oxoparomomycin + L-glutamate phenazine-1-carboxylate biosynthesis : chorismate + L-glutamine ↔ 2-amino-4-deoxy-chorismate + L-glutamate phenylalanine biosynthesis (cytosolic, plants) , phenylalanine biosynthesis I , phenylalanine degradation II (anaerobic) , phenylalanine degradation III : 2-oxo-3-phenylpropanoate + L-glutamate ↔ L-phenylalanine + 2-oxoglutarate phenylalanine biosynthesis II , tyrosine biosynthesis II , tyrosine biosynthesis III : L-arogenate + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ prephenate + L-glutamate phenylalanine degradation IV (mammalian, via side chain) : L-phenylalanine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ 2-oxo-3-phenylpropanoate + L-glutamate photorespiration : 2-oxoglutarate + glycine ↔ L-glutamate + glyoxylate polymyxin resistance : UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-β-L-arabinopyranose + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ UDP-β-L-threo-pentapyranos-4-ulose + L-glutamate proline biosynthesis IV : L-ornithine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + 2-keto-ornithine pyridoxal 5'-phosphate biosynthesis I : 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-4-phosphobutanoate + L-glutamate ↔ 4-phospho-hydroxy-L-threonine + 2-oxoglutarate ribostamycin biosynthesis : neamine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ 6'-dehydroparomamine + L-glutamate serine biosynthesis : 3-phospho-L-serine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + 3-phospho-hydroxypyruvate taurine degradation III : taurine + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + sulfoacetaldehyde TCA cycle V (2-oxoglutarate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase) : 2-oxoglutarate + an aminated amino group acceptor ↔ L-glutamate + a deaminated amino group acceptor TCA cycle VI (obligate autotrophs) : L-aspartate + 2-oxoglutarate ↔ L-glutamate + oxaloacetate L-glutamate + NADP+ + H2O ↔ ammonium + 2-oxoglutarate + NADPH + H+

In Reactions of unknown directionality:

Not in pathways:
γ-glutamyl-ethylamide + H2O = L-glutamate + ethylamine
L-serine + 2-oxoglutarate = L-glutamate + hydroxypyruvate
an N-long-chain-fatty-acyl-L-glutamate + H2O = L-glutamate + a long-chain carboxylate
cob(II)yrinate c-monoamide + L-glutamine + ATP + H2O = cob(II)yrinate a,c-diamide + L-glutamate + ADP + phosphate + H+
(S)-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate + NAD(P)+ + 2 H2O = L-glutamate + NAD(P)H + H+
cobyrinate + L-glutamine + ATP + H2O = cob(II)yrinate c-monoamide + L-glutamate + ADP + phosphate + H+
L-glutamate + 2 an oxidized ferredoxin + H2O = ammonium + 2-oxoglutarate + 2 a reduced ferredoxin + 2 H+
methylamine + L-glutamate = N-methyl-L-glutamate + ammonium
L-glutamate = 3-aminopentanedioate
poly (D-glutamate)n + L-glutamate + ATP = poly (D-glutamate)(n+1) + ADP + phosphate
an N5-formyl-tetrahydrofolate + L-glutamate + ATP = 5-formyl-THF-Glun+1 + ADP + phosphate
L-glutamate + ATP = α-L-glutamyl phosphate + ADP


an L-amino acid = a D-amino acid
an L-amino acid + NAD+ + H2O = a 2-oxo carboxylate + ammonium + NADH + H+
an N-carbamoyl-L-amino acid + H2O + 2 H+ = an L-amino acid + ammonium + CO2
S-ureidoglycine + a 2-oxo carboxylate = oxalurate + an L-amino acid


a 5-L-glutamyl-[peptide] + an amino acid = a 5-L-glutamyl-amino acid + a peptide

In Transport reactions:
L-glutamate[cytosol] + L-cystine[extracellular space] → L-cystine[cytosol] + L-glutamate[extracellular space] ,
L-glutamate[cytosol]L-glutamate[mitochondrial lumen] ,
L-glutamate[chloroplast stroma]L-glutamate[cytosol] ,
2 L-glutamate[out] + 2 H+[out] ↔ 2 L-glutamate[in] + 2 H+[in] ,
4-aminobutanoate[cytosol] + L-glutamate[periplasmic space]L-glutamate[cytosol] + 4-aminobutanoate[periplasmic space] ,
2 Na+[periplasmic space] + L-glutamate[periplasmic space] → 2 Na+[cytosol] + L-glutamate[cytosol] ,
L-glutamate[periplasmic space] + 2 H+[periplasmic space]L-glutamate[cytosol] + 2 H+[cytosol] ,
ATP + L-glutamate[periplasmic space] + H2O → ADP + L-glutamate[cytosol] + phosphate + H+ ,
a polar amino acid[extracellular space] + ATP + H2O ↔ a polar amino acid[cytosol] + ADP + phosphate ,
an L-amino acid[cytosol]an L-amino acid[periplasmic space]

Enzymes activated by L-glutamate, sorted by the type of activation, are:

Activator (Allosteric) of: glutaminase B [Prusiner76a, Prusiner76]

Activator (Mechanism unknown) of: malate dehydrogenase [Bologna07]

Enzymes inhibited by L-glutamate, sorted by the type of inhibition, are:

Inhibitor (Competitive) of: diaminopimelate decarboxylase [White65] , L-glutamine:D-fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [Badet88, Isupov96, Comment 1] , glutaminase [Hartman68] , glutaminase B [Prusiner76a, Comment 2] , L-glutamate γ-semialdehyde dehydrogenase [ForteMcRobbie89] , tyrosine/phenylalanine aminotransferase [Comment 3] , glutamate synthase (NADH-dependent) [Boland77]

Inhibitor (Noncompetitive) of: glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD-dependent) [Bonete89, Comment 4] , formiminoglutamate formiminohydrolase [Kaminskas70] , glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP-dependent) [Bonete90, Comment 5]

Inhibitor (Allosteric) of: pyruvate kinase [Smith00] , pyruvate kinase [Turner00]

Inhibitor (Mechanism unknown) of: 4-hydroxyglutamate transaminase [MAITRA64] , S-methyl-L-methionine decarboxylase [Kocsis00] , citrate lyase deacetylase [Giffhorn80] , L-lysine-α-ketoglutarate reductase [Hutzler75]


References

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Boland77: Boland MJ, Benny AG (1977). "Enzymes of nitrogen metabolism in legume nodules. Purification and properties of NADH-dependent glutamate synthase from lupin nodules." Eur J Biochem 79(2);355-62. PMID: 21790

Bologna07: Bologna FP, Andreo CS, Drincovich MF (2007). "Escherichia coli malic enzymes: two isoforms with substantial differences in kinetic properties, metabolic regulation, and structure." J Bacteriol 189(16);5937-46. PMID: 17557829

Bonete89: Bonete MJ, Camacho ML, Cadenas E (1989). "Kinetic mechanism of Halobacterium halobium NAD+-glutamate dehydrogenase." Biochim Biophys Acta 1989;990(2);150-5. PMID: 2917175

Bonete90: Bonete MJ, Camacho ML, Cadenas E (1990). "Analysis of the kinetic mechanism of halophilic NADP-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase." Biochim Biophys Acta 1990;1041(3);305-10. PMID: 1980084

ForteMcRobbie89: Forte-McRobbie C, Pietruszko R (1989). "Human glutamic-gamma-semialdehyde dehydrogenase. Kinetic mechanism." Biochem J 261(3);935-43. PMID: 2803253

Giffhorn80: Giffhorn F, Rode H, Kuhn A, Gottschalk G (1980). "Citrate lyase deacetylase of Rhodopseudomonas gelatinosa. Isolation of the enzyme and studies on the inhibition by L-glutamate." Eur J Biochem 111(2);461-71. PMID: 7460909

Hartman68: Hartman SC (1968). "Glutaminase of Escherichia coli. I. Purification and general catalytic properties." J Biol Chem 1968;243(5);853-63. PMID: 4966660

Hutzler75: Hutzler J, Dancis J (1975). "Lysine-ketoglutarate reductase in human tissues." Biochim Biophys Acta 377(1);42-51. PMID: 235294

Isupov96: Isupov MN, Obmolova G, Butterworth S, Badet-Denisot MA, Badet B, Polikarpov I, Littlechild JA, Teplyakov A (1996). "Substrate binding is required for assembly of the active conformation of the catalytic site in Ntn amidotransferases: evidence from the 1.8 A crystal structure of the glutaminase domain of glucosamine 6-phosphate synthase." Structure 4(7);801-10. PMID: 8805567

Kaminskas70: Kaminskas E, Kimhi Y, Magasanik B (1970). "Urocanase and N-formimino-L-glutamate formiminohydrolase of Bacillus subtilis, two enzymes of the histidine degradation pathway." J Biol Chem 1970;245(14);3536-44. PMID: 4990470

Kocsis00: Kocsis MG, Hanson AD (2000). "Biochemical evidence for two novel enzymes in the biosynthesis of 3-dimethylsulfoniopropionate in Spartina alterniflora." Plant Physiol 123(3);1153-61. PMID: 10889264

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

MAITRA64: MAITRA U, DEEKKER E (1964). "PURIFICATION OF RAT-LIVER GAMMA-HYDROXYGLUTAMATE TRANSAMINASE AND ITS PROBABLE IDENTITY WITH GLUTAMATE-ASPARTATE TRANSAMINASE." Biochim Biophys Acta 81;517-32. PMID: 14170323

Prusiner76: Prusiner S, Stadtman ER (1976). "Regulation of glutaminase B in Escherichia coli. III. Control by nucleotides and divalent cations." J Biol Chem 1976;251(11);3463-9. PMID: 776970

Prusiner76a: Prusiner S, Stadtman ER (1976). "Regulation of glutaminase B in Escherichia coli. II. Modulaltion of activity by carbosylate and borate ions." J Biol Chem 1976;251(11);3457-62. PMID: 776969

Smith00: Smith CR, Knowles VL, Plaxton WC (2000). "Purification and characterization of cytosolic pyruvate kinase from Brassica napus (rapeseed) suspension cell cultures: implications for the integration of glycolysis with nitrogen assimilation." Eur J Biochem 267(14);4477-85. PMID: 10880971

Turner00: Turner WL, Plaxton WC (2000). "Purification and characterization of cytosolic pyruvate kinase from banana fruit." Biochem J 352 Pt 3;875-82. PMID: 11104698

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White65: White PJ, Kelly B (1965). "Purification and properties of diaminopimelate decarboxylase from Escherichia coli." Biochem J 96;75-84. PMID: 14343156


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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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