MetaCyc Compound: Fe2+

Synonyms: Fe+2, Fe++, ferrous iron, Fe+2, ferrous ion, fe(ii)

Superclasses: an iona cationan inorganic cationa divalent inorganic cation
an ionan inorganic ionan inorganic cationa divalent inorganic cation

Component of:
ferrous sulfate heptahydrate
iron sulfate

Chemical Formula: Fe

Molecular Weight: 55.847 Daltons

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 55.9349421 Daltons

SMILES: [Fe++]

InChI: InChI=1S/Fe/q+2


Unification Links: ChEBI:29033, ChemSpider:25394, HMDB:HMDB00692, IAF1260:33552, KEGG:C14818, MetaboLights:MTBLC29033, PubChem:27284

Standard Gibbs Free Energy of Change Formation (ΔfG in kcal/mol): -20.098238Inferred by computational analysis [Latendresse13]

Reactions known to consume the compound:

ethylene biosynthesis III (microbes) :
hydrogen peroxide + Fe2+ → hydroxyl radical + Fe3+ + OH-
2 Fe2+ + 2 oxygen → 2 superoxide + 2 Fe3+

Fe(II) oxidation :
Fe3+[extracellular space] + a reduced rusticyanin[periplasm]Fe2+[extracellular space] + an oxidized rusticyanin[periplasm]

iron reduction and absorption :
2 Fe2+[extracellular space] → 2 Fe2+[cytosol]

reactive oxygen species degradation :
hydrogen peroxide + Fe2+ → hydroxyl radical + Fe3+ + OH-

siroheme amide biosynthesis :
siroamide + Fe2+ → siroheme amide + 2 H+

Not in pathways:
2 Fe2+ + hydrogen peroxide + 2 H2O → 2 [FeO(OH)] monomer + 4 H+
4 Fe2+ + oxygen + 6 H2O → 4 [FeO(OH)] monomer + 8 H+
2 Fe2+ + oxygen + 4 H2O → 2 [FeO(OH)] monomer + hydrogen peroxide + 4 H+
4 Fe2+ + 4 H+ + oxygen → 4 Fe3+ + 2 H2O
Fe2+ + L-nicotianamine → Fe(II)-nicotianamine

Reactions known to produce the compound:

ethylene biosynthesis III (microbes) , iron reduction and absorption :
an Fe(II)-siderophore + H+ → a siderophore + Fe2+

heme degradation , phycocyanobilin biosynthesis , phycoerythrobilin biosynthesis I , phycoerythrobilin biosynthesis II , phycourobilin biosynthesis , phycoviolobilin biosynthesis , phytochromobilin biosynthesis :
ferroheme b + 3 a reduced [NADPH-hemoprotein reductase] + 3 oxygen + 2 H+ → biliverdin-IX-α + Fe2+ + carbon monoxide + 3 an oxidized [NADPH-hemoprotein reductase] + 3 H2O

sulfur oxidation II (Fe+3-dependent) :
S-sulfanylglutathione + 4 Fe3+ + 3 H2O → sulfite + glutathione + 4 Fe2+ + 6 H+

Not in pathways:
L-ascorbate[in] + Fe3+[out] → monodehydroascorbate radical[in] + Fe2+[out]
ferroheme b + 4 an reduced unknown electron acceptor + 4 oxygen + 2 H+ → 15-oxo-β-bilirubin + Fe2+ + carbon monoxide + 4 an oxidized unknown electron acceptor + 4 H2O
ferroheme b + 4 an reduced unknown electron acceptor + 4 oxygen + 2 H+ → 5-oxo-δ-bilirubin + Fe2+ + carbon monoxide + 4 an oxidized unknown electron acceptor + 4 H2O
2 Fe2+ + 2 a siderophore + NADP+ + H+ ← 2 an Fe(III)-siderophore + NADPH
2 Fe2+ + 2 (2,3-dihydroxybenzoylserine)3 + NADP+ ← 2 ferric (2,3-dihydroxybenzoylserine)3 + NADPH + 9 H+

Reactions known to both consume and produce the compound:

heme biosynthesis I (aerobic) , heme biosynthesis II (anaerobic) , superpathway of heme biosynthesis from uroporphyrinogen-III :
protoporphyrin IX + Fe2+ ← ferroheme b + 2 H+

siroheme biosynthesis :
sirohydrochlorin + Fe2+ ↔ siroheme + 2 H+

sulfur oxidation II (Fe+3-dependent) :
sulfite + 2 Fe3+ + H2O ↔ sulfate + 2 Fe2+ + 2 H+

In Reactions of unknown directionality:

Not in pathways:
Fe3+ + a reduced c-type cytochrome = Fe2+ + an oxidized c-type cytochrome

In Transport reactions:
Fe2+[cytosol] + H+[periplasm]Fe2+[periplasm] + H+[cytosol],
Fe2+[periplasm] + H+[periplasm]Fe2+[cytosol] + H+[cytosol],

In Redox half-reactions:
Fe3+[out] + e-[membrane]Fe2+[out],
Fe3+[membrane] + e-[membrane]Fe2+[membrane]

Enzymes activated by Fe2+, sorted by the type of activation, are:

Activator (Allosteric) of: L-sorbosone dehydrogenase [Hoshino91], malonate semialdehyde:NADP+ oxidoreductase (malonate semialdehyde-forming) [Hugler02], tryptophan 5-hydroxylase [Tipper94], 4-sulfobenzoate 3,4-dioxygenase [Locher91], DCD dehydrogenase [Saller95], terephthalate 1,2-dioxygenase [Schlafli94], 4-toluene-sulfonate monooxygenase [Locher91a], 2-nitrobenzoate nitroreductase [Iwaki07], 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase [Muraki03], trihydroxytoluene dioxygenase [Haigler99], pyruvic oxime dioxygenase [Ono96], glycerol-3-phosphate cytidylyltransferase [Park93], carnitine monooxygenase [Ditullio94], cis-benzene glycol dehydrogenase [Axcell73], 4-aminoimidazole deaminase [Pricer56], L-serine ammonia-lyase [Benziman60], 4-ureido-5-imidazolecarboxylate amidohydrolase [Rabinowitz56a], thiosulfate reductase [Aketagawa85] Activator (Non-allosteric) of: tyrosine 3-monooxygenase [Haavik91] Activator (Mechanism unknown) of: D-altronate dehydratase [RobertBaudouy82, Smiley60, Dreyer87], D-mannonate dehydratase [RobertBaudouy73, Dreyer87], adenosylmethionine decarboxylase [Lu07], 2-dehydro-3-deoxyphosphoheptonate aldolase [Ray91], dimethyl sulfoxide reductase [Weiner88], 4-methylgentisate 1,2-dioxygenase [Feng99], 3-methylgentisate 1,2-dioxygenase [Feng99], 1,5-anhydro-D-glucitol dehydrogenase [Yoshida03a], 2,5-dihydroxypyridine dioxygenase [Tang12], 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene monooxygenase (quinone-forming) [Funa05], gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase [Feng99], synephrine dehydratase [Manne86], naringenin 2-oxoglutarate oxygen oxidoreductase [Lee08d], D-fructose-6-phosphate cytidylyltransferase [Wang12c], phenylalanine 3-hydroxylase [Zhang11c], phlorisobutyrophenone dimethylallyltransferase [Boubakir05], 4-amino-3-hydroxy-benzoate 2,3-dioxygenase [Takenaka02], hydroquinone 1,2-dioxygenase [Moonen08], D-xylulose-5-phosphate cytidylyltransferase [Wang12d], 1,3-dihydroxyacetone reductase [Wang10c], digalacturonate lyase [Shevchik99], phenylacetaldoxime dehydratase [Kato00a], 2-amino 3-carboxymuconate 6-semialdehyde decarboxylase [Pucci07], streptomycin 6-kinase [Sugiyama83], 2,6-dichloro-hydroquinone chlorohydrolase [Lee97c], 1,3-propanediol dehydrogenase [Daniel95a], 2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline 5,6 dioxygenase [Schach95], DL-methylmalonyl-CoA racemase [Stabler85], 1,3-propanediol dehydrogenase [Johnson87a], tyrosine 3-monooxygenase [Yamamoto01], 2,5-dihydroxypyridine dioxygenase [Gauthier71], UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase [Szumilo96], lysine decarboxylase [Hartmann80]

Enzymes inhibited by Fe2+, sorted by the type of inhibition, are:

Inhibitor (Competitive) of: glycine formimidoyltransferase [Uyeda65] Inhibitor (Mechanism unknown) of: deoxyribose 1,5-phosphomutase [HammerJespersen70], phosphoglucomutase [Joshi64], N-acetylglutamylphosphate reductase [Vogel74], o-succinylbenzoate-CoA ligase [Kwon96], N-acetylornithine aminotransferase [Vogel74b], NADPH-dependent curcumin reductase [Hassaninasab11], D-aminopropanol dehydrogenase [Kelley84], N-acetylneuraminate lyase [Aisaka91, Comment 1], N-acetyl-β-neuraminate lyase [Aisaka91, Comment 1], ribonucleoside-triphosphate reductase [Eliasson92], lactose 2-epimerase [Taguchi08], coniferyl alcohol 9-O-methyltransferase [Berim07], coniferyl alcohol 9-O-methyltransferase [Berim07], 6-hydroxy-deoxybrevianamide E prenyltransferase [Ding10a], deoxybrevianamide F synthase [Ding10a], quercetin 7-O-glucosyltransferase [Stich], gossypetin 7-O-glucosyltransferase [Stich], cellobiose 2-epimerase [Taguchi08], glycerophosphocholine cholinephosphodiesterase [Sugimori13], dTDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-D-glucose acetyltransferase [Wang07h], ginsenoside Rf 6-O-glucosidase [Wang11g], ginsenoside Rh1 6-O-glucosidase [Wang11g], ginsenoside Rg2 6-O-rhamnosidase [Wang11g], ginsenoside Re 6-O-rhamnosidase [Wang11g], ginsenoside Rg1 6-O-glucosidase [Wang11g], ginsenoside R1 6-O-xylosidase [Wang11g], protopanaxatriol-type ginsenoside with two glycosyl residues at position 6 6-glycosidase [Wang11g], phosphoribosylpyrophosphate amidotransferase [Satyanarayana71], NADH kinase [Shi05a], NAD(+) kinase [Shi05a], 3,6,7,2',4'-pentamethylquercetagetin 3'-O-glucosyltransferase [Bajaj83], 2'-hydroxy 3,6,7,4'-tetramethylquercetagetin 3'-O-glucosyltransferase [Bajaj83], 3,6,7,4'-tetramethylquercetagetin 3'-O-glucosyltransferase [Bajaj83], 3,7,4'-trimethylquercetagetin 3'-O-glucosyltransferase [Bajaj83], 2'-hydroxy 3,7,3',4'-tetramethylquercetin 2'-O-glucosyltransferase [Bajaj83], 2'-hydroxy 3,7,4'-trimethylquercetin 2'-O-glucosyltransferase [Bajaj83], kaempferol 3-O-glucosyltransferase [Owens], quercetin 3-O-glucosyltransferase [Owens], myricetin 3-O-glucosyltransferase [Owens], phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase [Veljanovski06], anol synthase [Koeduka09], eugenol synthase [Koeduka09], squalene-hopene cyclase [Ochs90], UDPG:ginsenoside Rd glucosyltransferase [Yue05], 4-oxalocrotonate decarboxylase [Orii06], 2-amino-5-carboxymuconic 6-semialdehyde deaminase [Orii04], L-rhamnono-γ-lactonase [Watanabe08a], farnesoic acid carboxyl methyltransferase [Yang06b], 7-methylxanthine demethylase [Gluck88], GA9 carboxyl methyltransferase [Varbanova07], UDP-D-xylose:β-D-glucoside α-1,3-D-xylosyltransferase [Ishimizu07], L-galactono-γ-lactone dehydrogenase [Shigeoka79a], methyl indole-3-acetate methylesterase, 4-oxalocrotonate decarboxylase [Takenaka00], cytidine 5'-monophosphate N-acetylneuraminate synthetase [RodriguezAparic92], indole-3-acetate carboxyl methyltransferase [Zhao07d], iminodiacetate dehydrogenase [Uetz93], kanosamine 6-kinase [Arakawa02], nitrilotriacetate monooxygenase [Uetz92], sterigmatocystin O-methyltransferase [Liu99a], carboxynorspermidine decarboxylase [Nakao90], isopenicillin N epimerase [Laiz90], β-keto-L-gulonic acid decarboxylase [WINKELMAN61], S-adenosyl-L-methionine:norcoclaurine 6-O-methyltransferase [Sato94], sucrose synthase [Elling95], 3'-hydroxy-N-methylcoclaurine 4'-O-methyltransferase [Morishige00], maltooligosyl-trehalose trehalohydrolase, lysine N6-acetyltransferase [Bode93], feruloyl-CoA:tyramine N-(hydroxycinnamoyl)transferase [Hohlfeld95], phosphoribosylpyrophosphate amidotransferase [Satyanarayana71], S-adenosyl-L-methionine:isoeugenol-O-methyltransferase [Wang98h], S-adenosyl-L-methionine:eugenol-O-methyltransferase [Wang98h], noradrenaline N-methyltransferase [Connett70], sulfite:ferric ion oxidoreductase [Comment 2], 2-phospho-3-sulfolactate phosphohydrolase [Graham01], α-galactosidase [Liebl98], maltooligosyl-trehalose trehalohydrolase [Nakada95], eriodictyol,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase [Martens98], naringenin,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase [Martens98], δ-aminovaleramidase [Reitz70], sulfur oxygenase reductase [Kletzin89], L-sorbosone dehydrogenase [Asakura99], L-asparaginase [Raha90], L-lysine:pyruvate aminotransferase [Schmidt87], α-D-galactosyl-(1-3)-1D-myo-inositol:raffinose galactosyltransferase [Peterbauer98], chlorophyllase [HorneroMendez] Inhibitor (Other types) of: iduronate-2-sulfatase [Dietrich73], chondroitin sulfate A endolyase [Hamai97], myo-inositol-hexakisphosphate 4-phosphohydrolase [Greiner02a], myo-inositol-hexakisphosphate 3-phosphohydrolase [Greiner02a], myo-inositol-hexakisphosphate phosphohydrolase [Greiner01], myo-inositol-hexakisphosphate 3-phosphohydrolase [Greiner02a], L-allo-threonine aldolase [Kataoka97a]

This compound has been characterized as a cofactor or prosthetic group of the following enzymes: acyl carrier protein phosphodiesterase, taurine dioxygenase, galactarate dehydratase, threonine dehydrogenase, 3-(2,3-dihydroxyphenyl)propionate 1,2-dioxygenase, L-1,2-propanediol oxidoreductase, glycolaldehyde reductase, 2-dehydro-3-deoxyphosphoheptonate aldolase, ribulose-5-phosphate 3-epimerase, UDP-glucose:α-D-galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase, L-glutamate:NADP+ oxidoreductase (transaminating), acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, peptide deformylase, protein-arginine oxygenase, cAMP phosphodiesterase, ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase, catalase, adenine deaminase, methionine aminopeptidase, cytosine deaminase, N1-methyladenine demethylase, N3-methylcytosine demethylase, 1-ethyladenine demethylase, formate dehydrogenase, 6-dehydroguadinomine B 6-hydroxylase, stipitaldehyde synthase, caffeoyll 2'-hydroxylase, 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate 8-dehydrogenase, 2,5-dihydroxypyridine dioxygenase, anditomin synthase, preandiloid B dehydrogenase, mercaptosuccinate dioxygenase, hercynylcysteine S-oxide synthase, 2-aminoethylphosphonate dioxygenase, 2-amino-1-hydroxyethylphosphonate dioxygenase, FR-33289 synthase, 4-feruloyl 2'-hydroxylase, 4-coumaroyl 2'-hydroxylase, 4-coumaroyl 2'-hydroxylase, feruloyl-coA 6'-hydroxylase, (R,S)-butanediol dehydrogenase [(R)-acetoin-forming], 3-dimethylallyl-4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate oxygenase, 3-dimethylallyl-4-hydroxymandelate oxygenase, tRNAPhe (7-(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)wyosine37-C2)-hydroxylase, hercynine oxygenase (γ-glutamyl-hercynylcysteine sulfoxide-forming), kanamycin B dioxygenase, uridine-5'-monophosphate:2-oxoglutarate dioxygenase, 3-methyl-branched 2,3,4-saturated fatty acyl-CoA hydroxylase, 3-methyl-branched 2,3,4-saturated fatty acyl-CoA 2-hydroxylase, β-carotene 15,15′-dioxygenase, all-trans-8′-apo-β-carotenal 15,15′-oxygenase, 9-cis-β-carotene 9',10'-cleavage dioxygenase, ketoisocaproate dioxygenase, β-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase, chromopyrrolate synthase, 4-amino-3-hydroxy-benzoate 2,3-dioxygenase, L-dopa 2,3-dioxygenase, androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione 9α-hydroxylase, 3,4-dihydroxy-9,10-secoandrosta-1,3,5(10)-triene-9,17-dione 4,5-dioxygenase, 1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione 9α-hydroxylase, neopentalenolactone D dioxygenase, neopentalenolactone E dioxygenase, 1-deoxypentalenate 11-hydroxylase, retinyl-ester 13-cis-isomerohydrolase, β,β-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase, 2-oxoglutarate oxygenase/decarboxylase (ethylene-forming), 7,8-dihydro-D-neopterin 2',3'-cyclic phosphate phosphodiesterase (7,8-dihydroneopterin 3'-phosphate-forming), 7,8-dihydro-D-neopterin 2',3'-cyclic phosphate phosphodiesterase (7,8-dihydroneopterin 2'-phosphate-forming), phosphoprotein phosphatase, dimethylsulfide monooxygenase, cyclodextrin glucanotransferase, acetylacetone:oxygen oxidoreductase, phophonoacetaldehyde reductase, phosphonoacetaldehyde reductase, gallate dioxygenase, salicylate 1,2-dioxygenase, 2'-aminobiphenyl-2,3-diol 1,2-dioxygenase, aliphatic nitrile hydratase, 2,5-dihydroxypyridine dioxygenase, thebaine 6-O-demethylase, oripavine 6-O-demethylase, thebane O-demethylase, codeine O-demethylase, hypoxia-inducible factor-proline dioxygenase, benzoate 4-monooxygenase, 2-amino-5-formylamino-6-ribosylaminopyrimidin-4(3H)-one 5'-monophosphate deformylase, ammonia monooxygenase, pyrogallol transhydroxylase, norcoclaurine synthase, protocatechuate 2,3-dioxygenase, 2,2',3-trihydroxy-3'-methoxy-5,5'-dicarboxybiphenyl dioxygenase, gallate dioxygenase, 3-O-methylgallate:oxygen 4,5-oxidoreductase (decyclizing), hydroxyethylphosphonate dioxygenase, 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase, 2-fluorobenzoate 1,2-dioxygenase, chlorocatechol 2,3-dioxygenase, 2-aminophenol 1,6-dioxygenase, 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetate hydroxylase, 2,6-dichlorohydroquinone dioxygenase, GTP cyclohydrolase IV, S-ribosylhomocysteine lyase, S-ribosylhomocysteine lyase, S-ribosylhomocysteine lyase, N-acetylneuraminate 9-phosphate synthase, γ-butyrobetaine hydroxylase, ε-N-trimethyllysine hydroxylase, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate dioxygenase, histidinol phosphate phosphatase, stearoyl-CoA Δ9-desaturase, enamidase, dimethylmaleate hydratase, (S)-2-hydroxypropylphosphonate epoxidase, alkane hydroxylase, deacetoxycephalosporin C hydroxylase, deacetoxycephalosporin C synthase, deacetoxycephalosporin C hydroxylase, deacetoxycephalosporin C synthase, 2-aminophenol-1,6-dioxygenase, emodin deoxygenase, flavone synthase, desacetoxyvindoline 4-hydroxylase, lysine 2,3-aminomutase, thiohydroximate-O-sulfate sulfohydrolase (nitrile-forming), thiohydroximate-O-sulfate sulfohydrolase (nitrile-forming), alkenyl thiohydroximate-O-sulfate sulfohydrolase (epithionitrile-forming), alkenyl thiohydroximate-O-sulfate sulfohydrolase (epithionitrile-forming), homogentisate oxygenase, homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase, 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase, nucleoside oxidase, 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase, 2,3-dihydroxy-isovalerate dehydratase, 2,3-dihydroxy-3-methylvalerate hydro-lyase, (S)-canadine oxidase, catechol 2,3-dioxygenase, amidase, anthranilate dioxygenase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate ferredoxin oxidoreductase, nicotinate hydroxylase, quinoline 2-oxidoreductase, tyrosine 3-monooxygenase, cysteine dioxygenase, acireductone dioxygenase [iron(II)-requiring], protocatechuate 4,5-dioxygenase, 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase, gibberellin A15,oxoglutarate:oxygen oxidoreductase, nitrile hydratase

This compound has been characterized as an alternative cofactor or prosthetic group of the following enzymes: phenylhydantoinase, anthranilate synthase


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