Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
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Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
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MetaCyc Compound: Cu2+

Synonyms: Cu+2, Cu++, cupric ion, cupric copper, Cu(II)

Superclasses: an ion a cation

Component of:
copper sulfate pentahydrate
copper sulfate

Chemical Formula: Cu

Molecular Weight: 63.546 Daltons

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 62.9296011 Daltons

SMILES: [Cu++]

InChI: InChI=1S/Cu/q+2

InChIKey: InChIKey=JPVYNHNXODAKFH-UHFFFAOYSA-N

Unification Links: ChEBI:29036 , ChemSpider:25221 , HMDB:HMDB00657 , IAF1260:50600 , PubChem:27099

Standard Gibbs Free Energy of Change Formation (ΔfG in kcal/mol): -1.2482376 Inferred by computational analysis [Latendresse13]

Reactions known to produce the compound:

Not in pathways:
4 Cu+[periplasmic space] + 4 H+[periplasmic space] + oxygen[periplasmic space] → 4 Cu2+[periplasmic space] + 2 H2O[periplasmic space]

In Reactions of unknown directionality:

Not in pathways:
Cu2+ + NADH = Cu+ + NAD+ + H+

In Transport reactions:
Cu2+[out] + ATP + H2O ↔ Cu2+[in] + ADP + phosphate + H+ ,
Cu2+[cytosol] + ATP + H2O → Cu2+[extracellular space] + ADP + phosphate + H+ ,
Cu2+[periplasmic space]Cu2+[cytosol]

Enzymes activated by Cu2+, sorted by the type of activation, are:

Activator (Allosteric) of: parathion hydrolase [Mulbry89] , ammonia monooxygenase [Moir96] , o-aminophenol oxidase [Suzuki06] , alcohol oxidase [Sahm82]

Activator (Mechanism unknown) of: 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene monooxygenase (quinone-forming) [Funa05] , eugenol synthase [Koeduka06] , UDPG:ginsenoside Rd glucosyltransferase [Yue05] , homophytochelatin synthase [Loscos06] , homophytochelatin synthase [Oven02] , GA4 carboxyl methyltransferase [Varbanova07] , streptomycin 6-kinase [Sugiyama83] , feruloyl-CoA:tyramine N-(hydroxycinnamoyl)transferase [Hohlfeld95] , 6-hydroxymellein synthase [Guo93] , inosine-5'-phosphate nucleotidase [Bideon75] , 5'-AMP nucleotidase [Bideon75] , 5'-GMP-nucleotidase [Petritsch77] , UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase [Szumilo96]

Enzymes inhibited by Cu2+, sorted by the type of inhibition, are:

Inhibitor (Competitive) of: cytosine deaminase [Porter93, Comment 1] , hexulose-6-phosphate synthase [Kato78] , sulfur:ferric ion oxidoreductase [Comment 2] , glycine formimidoyltransferase [Uyeda65]

Inhibitor (Noncompetitive) of: furcatin hydrolase [IMASEKI61] , L-alanine dehydrogenase [Yoshida70]

Inhibitor (Mechanism unknown) of: tetrahydrodipicolinate succinylase [Simms84] , NADPH-dependent curcumin reductase [Hassaninasab11] , 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate 8-phosphate synthase [Ray80] , glyoxylate carboligase [Gupta66] , glutaminase [Hartman68] , deoxyribose 1,5-phosphomutase [HammerJespersen70] , D-galacturonate isomerase [Ashwell60] , D-glucuronate isomerase [Ashwell60] , N-acetylglutamate synthase [Marvil77] , N-acetylglutamylphosphate reductase [Vogel74] , acetylornithine aminotransferase [Vogel74a] , acetylornithine deacetylase [Vogel74b] , threonine dehydrogenase [Boylan81, Craig86] , 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate CoA ligase [Mukherjee87] , inosine kinase [Mori95] , guanosine kinase [Mori95] , allantoinase [Kim00a] , S-formylglutathione hydrolase [Gonzalez06] , lactaldehyde dehydrogenase [Sridhara69, Baldoma87] , glutamate decarboxylase A [Helmward89] , glutamate decarboxylase B [Helmward89] , trimethylamine N-oxide reductase [Shimokawa79, Silvestro88] , taurine dioxygenase [Eichhorn97] , L-serine deaminase [Newman80] , methylglyoxal reductase (NADPH-dependent) [Saikusa87] , S-formylglutathione hydrolase [Gonzalez06] , glyoxalase [Subedi11] , glycogen phosphorylase [Chen68, Chen68a] , N-acetylneuraminate lyase [Aisaka91, Uchida84] , N-acetyl-β-neuraminate lyase [Aisaka91, Uchida84] , glycerol dehydrogenase [Tang79] , D-aminopropanol dehydrogenase [Kelley84, Campbell78] , mannose isomerase [Itoh08] , glutamate-5-semialdehyde dehydrogenase [Hayzer82] , hydrogenase [Ballantine86] , dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase [Henrich93] , 7-α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase [Yoshimoto91] , lipoyl-adenylate--protein ligase [Green95] , polyphosphate kinase [Haeusler92] , 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 2'-phosphodiesterase [ANRAKU64] , 3'-nucleotidase [ANRAKU64] , amylomaltase [Wiesmeyer60] , cyclo-acetoacetyl-L-tryptophan dimethylallyltransferase [Liu09] , caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03] , caffeoylglucose 3-O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03] , caffeate 3-O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03] , quercetin 3'-O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03] , gossypetin 8-methyl ester 3'-O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03] , gossypetin 8-O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03] , laricitrin 5'-O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03] , myricetin 3'-O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03] , patuletin 3'-O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03] , quercetagetin 6O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03] , quercetin 7-O-glucosyltransferase [Stich] , gossypetin 7-O-glucosyltransferase [Stich] , 5'-demethoxy-6-methoxypodophyllotoxin 7-O-glucosyltransferase [Berim08] , 6-methoxypodophyllotoxin 7-O-glucosyltransferase [Berim08] , podophyllotoxin 7-O-glucosyltransferase [Berim08] , paxilline dimethylallyl diphosphate transferase [Liu14] , gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase [Feng99] , cellobiose 2-epimerase [Taguchi08] , 1,4-β-mannanase [Kawaguchi14] , maltose 1-epimerase [Shirokane95] , luteolin glucuronide β-glucuronidase [Schulz87] , luteolin triglucuronide β-glucuronidase [Schulz87] , synephrine dehydratase [Manne86] , cystathionine γ-lyase [Matsuo59] , glycerophosphocholine cholinephosphodiesterase [Sugimori13] , oleoyl-CoA: lysophosphatidate acyltransferase [Rajakumari10] , triacylglycerol lipase [Rajakumari10] , oleoyl-CoA:lysophosphatidate acyltransferase [Rajakumari10] , oleoyl-CoA:lysophosphatidylethanolamine acyltransferase [Rajakumari10] , dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxyglucose reductase [Wang08] , ginsenoside Rf 6-O-glucosidase [Wang11] , ginsenoside Rh1 6-O-glucosidase [Wang11] , ginsenoside Rg2 6-O-rhamnosidase [Wang11] , ginsenoside Re 6-O-rhamnosidase [Wang11] , ginsenoside Rg1 6-O-glucosidase [Wang11] , ginsenoside R1 6-O-xylosidase [Wang11] , protopanaxatriol-type ginsenoside with two glycosyl residues at position 6 6-glycosidase [Wang11] , NADH kinase [Shi05] , NAD(+) kinase [Shi05] , quercetin 3-O-β-D-galactoside-2"-O-glucosyltransferase [Vogt95] , kaempferol 3-O-β-D-galactoside-2"-O-glucosyltransferase [Vogt95] , cinnamate:CoA ligase [Gaid12] , kaempferide 3-O-glucosyltransferase (F3GT2) [Ishikura94] , kaempferide 3-O-glucosyltransferase (F3GT1) [Ishikura94] , 3,6,7,2',4'-pentamethylquercetagetin 3'-O-glucosyltransferase [Bajaj83] , 2'-hydroxy 3,6,7,4'-tetramethylquercetagetin 3'-O-glucosyltransferase [Bajaj83] , 3,6,7,4'-tetramethylquercetagetin 3'-O-glucosyltransferase [Bajaj83] , 3,7,4'-trimethylquercetagetin 3'-O-glucosyltransferase [Bajaj83] , 2'-hydroxy 3,7,3',4'-tetramethylquercetin 2'-O-glucosyltransferase [Bajaj83] , 2'-hydroxy 3,7,4'-trimethylquercetin 2'-O-glucosyltransferase [Bajaj83] , 3-O-methylquercetin 7-O-methyltransferase [Khouri88] , kaempferol 3-O-glucosyltransferase [Owens] , quercetin 3-O-glucosyltransferase [Owens] , myricetin 3-O-glucosyltransferase [Owens] , 6-O-methyl-deacetylisoipecoside beta-glucosidase [Nomura08] , rutin-3-O-diglycosidase (f3gII) [Suzuki02] , isoquercitrin-3-O-glucosidase (f3gII) [Suzuki02] , rutin-3-O-diglycosidase (f3gI) [Suzuki02] , isoquercitrin-3-O-glucosidase (f3gI) [Suzuki02] , quercetin-4'-O-glucosyltransferase [LatchinianSadek91] , D-fructose-6-phosphate cytidylyltransferase [Wang12] , omega-hydroxypalmitate O-feruloyl transferase [Rautengarten12] , thiobenzoate-S-methyltransferase [Zhao12] , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase [Veljanovski06] , vicianin hydrolase [Lizotte88] , anol synthase [Koeduka09] , eugenol synthase [Koeduka09] , SAM:t-anol O-methyltransferase [Koeduka09] , isoeugenol synthase [Koeduka06] , squalene-hopene cyclase [Ochs90] , (+)-germacrene D synthase [Picaud06] , esculetin 7-O-glucosyltransferase [Taguchi00] , daphnetin 8-O-β-glucosyltransferase [Sato71] , daphnin transglucosylase (β-glucosidase activity) [Sato71] , 6-oxocamphor hydrolase [Grogan01] , UDP-GlcNAc:ribostamycin N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase [Yokoyama08] , 2-hydroxybiphenyl-3-monooxygenase [Suske97] , 2-hydroxymuconate 6-semialdehyde dehydrogenase [Orii06] , 4-amino-3-hydroxy-benzoate 2,3-dioxygenase [Takenaka02] , D-xylulose-5-phosphate cytidylyltransferase [Wang12a] , pesudooxynicotine oxidase [Qiu12] , 6-hydroxy-3-succinoyl-pyridine hydroxylase [Tang11] , nicotine dehydrogenase [Tang09] , pseudoroxynicotine dehydrogenase [Tang09] , N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate deacetylase [Yamano96] , 3-phosphonopyruvate hydrolase [Kulakova03] , choline kinase [Kim98a] , oligoxyloglucan β-glycosidase [Kato85] , pullulanase [Dong97] , L-rhamnono-γ-lactonase [Watanabe08] , NAD+-dependent L-rhamnofuranose 1-dehydrogenase [Rigo76] , glycerol-2-phosphate cytidylyltransfrase [Wang10] , 1,3-dihydroxyacetone reductase [Wang10] , N-cyclohexylformamide hydratase [Goda01] , N-benzylformamide deformylase [Fukatsu04] , chondroitin sulfate A endolyase [Hamai97] , farnesoic acid carboxyl methyltransferase [Yang06] , L-iduronidase [Rome78] , 7-methylxanthine demethylase [Gluck88] , cholate 12α-hydroxy dehydrogenase [Braun91] , glycocholate hydrolase [Tanaka00] , GA9 carboxyl methyltransferase [Varbanova07] , peptidoglycan-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase [Psylinakis05] , benzaldehyde dehydrogenase [Ibdah09] , UDP-D-xylose:β-D-glucoside α-1,3-D-xylosyltransferase [Ishimizu07] , L-galactono-γ-lactone dehydrogenase [Shigeoka79] , β-alanine amide amidase [Komeda04] , 2-aminomuconate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase [Ichiyama65] , methyl indole-3-acetate methylesterase , tropinone reductase (TR-II) [Hashimoto92] , tropinone reductase (TR-I) [Hashimoto92] , putrescine N-methyltransferase [Hibi92] , 6-hydroxynicotinate 3-monooxygenase [Nakano99] , N-methylputrescine oxidase [Hashimoto90] , 3-carboxymuconate cycloisomerase [Ornston66] , sinapoylglucose:choline O-sinapoyltransferase [Vogt93] , hydrogenase [Schink79] , 4-oxalocrotonate decarboxylase [Takenaka00] , 2-aminomuconate deaminase [Takenaka00] , 2-aminophenol 1,6-dioxygenase [Takenaka97] , cytidine 5'-monophosphate N-acetylneuraminate synthetase [RodriguezAparic92] , (25R)-3α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholestanoyl-CoA racemase [Schmitz94] , indole-3-acetate carboxyl methyltransferase [Zhao07] , iminodiacetate dehydrogenase [Uetz93] , kanosamine 6-kinase [Arakawa02] , N-acetylneuraminate synthase [Komaki97] , sterigmatocystin O-methyltransferase [Liu99b] , L-sorbosone dehydrogenase [Hoshino91] , L-sorbose dehydrogenase [Sugisawa91] , desoxyhemigossypol-6-O-methyltransferase [Liu99c] , deacetoxycephalosporin C hydroxylase [Dotzlaf87] , isopenicillin N epimerase [Laiz90] , L-lysine ε-dehydrogenase [Misono89] , 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase [Muraki03] , β-keto-L-gulonic acid decarboxylase [WINKELMAN61] , succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase [Chambliss92] , S-adenosyl-L-methionine:norcoclaurine 6-O-methyltransferase [Sato94] , 2-pyrone-4,6-dicarboxylate hydrolase [Kersten82] , histidinol dehydrogenase [Nagai91] , glutathione amide reductase [Vergauwen01] , myo-inositol-hexakisphosphate 4-phosphohydrolase [Greiner02] , L-lysine-α-ketoglutarate reductase [Hutzler75] , myo-inositol-hexakisphosphate 3-phosphohydrolase [Greiner02] , glycerol-3-phosphate cytidylyltransferase [Park93] , S-adenosyl-L-methionine:cinnamic acid carboxymethyltransferase [Qualley05] , benzoyl-coenzyme A:benzyl alcohol benzoyltransferase [DAuria02] , maltooligosyl-trahalose synthase [Nakada96] , β-ureidopropionase [Walsh01] , phloroglucinol reductase [Haddock89, Comment 3] , sucrose synthase [Elling95] , trehalose synthase [Nishimoto96] , 3'-hydroxy-N-methylcoclaurine 4'-O-methyltransferase [Morishige00] , phospho-β-galactosidase [Hengstenberg70] , maltooligosyl-trehalose trehalohydrolase , lysine N6-acetyltransferase [Bode93] , L-carnitine dehydrogenase [Mori88] , S-adenosyl-L-methionine: coclaurine N-methyltransferase [Choi01] , 4-hydroxy-tetrahydrodipicolinate reductase [Kimura75] , trehalose phosphorylase [Kizawa95] , kynurenine formamidase [Brown86] , trehalose synthase [Lee05] , choline dehydrogenase [Nagasawa76] , acetylpyruvate hydrolase [Davey75] , L-carnitine dehydrogenase [Hanschmann96] , trehalose phosphorylase [Wannet98] , S-adenosyl-L-methionine:isoeugenol-O-methyltransferase [Wang98] , S-adenosyl-L-methionine:eugenol-O-methyltransferase [Wang98] , kynurenine formamidase [Brown86] , trehalose synthase [Nishimoto96a] , noradrenaline N-methyltransferase [Connett70] , 3-dehydroquinate synthase [Hasan78] , trehalose phosphorylase [Saito98] , arogenate dehydratase [Jung86] , 2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline 5,6 dioxygenase [Schach95] , maltooligosyl-trehalose synthase [Nakada95] , glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase [Krishnan90] , DL-methylmalonyl-CoA racemase [Stabler85] , DIMBOA-glucoside 4-O-methyltransferase [Oikawa02] , glutathione peroxidase [Takahashi87] , myo-inositol-hexakisphosphate phosphohydrolase [Greiner01] , myo-inositol-hexakisphosphate 3-phosphohydrolase [Greiner02] , N-carbamoylsarcosine amidohydrolase [Kim86] , DAHP synthase [Huang74] , amidase [Nawaz94] , pectin methyltransferase [Ishikawa00] , α-galactosidase [Liebl98] , allantoicase [Trijbels66] , 2-pyrone-4,6-dicarboxylate hydrolase [Maruyama83] , maltooligosyl-trehalose trehalohydrolase [Nakada95a] , UDP-glucose:phenylacetothiohydroximate glucosyltransferase [Reed93] , D-carnitine dehydrogenase [Setyahadi97] , galactokinase [Dey83] , S-adenosyl-L-methionine: (S)-scoulerine 9-O-methyltransferase [Muemmler85] , S-adenosyl-L-methionine: (S)-scoulerine-9-O-methyltransferase [Sato93] , hydrogenase [Schneider79] , naringenin 7-O-methyltransferase [Rakwal00] , 2,3-dihydroxy-isovalerate dehydratase [Xing91] , 2,3-dihydroxy-3-methylvalerate hydro-lyase [Xing91] , isoliquiritigenin 4'-glucosyltransferase [Stich94] , butein 4'-glucosyltransferase [Stich94] , butein 4'-glucosyltransferase [Halbwirth97] , sulfuretin 4'-glucosyltransferase [Halbwirth97] , eriodictyol: 2-oxoglutarate oxygen oxidoreductase [Britsch90] , naringenin,2-oxoglutarate oxygen oxidoreductase [Britsch90] , guanosine deaminase [Negishi94] , tyrosine 3-monooxygenase [Yamamoto01] , nicotinate dehydrogenase [Hurh94] , uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase [Jones93] , D-galactonate dehydratase [Szumilo81] , malonyl-CoA:shisonin 6-O-malonyltransferase [Suzuki01] , δ-aminovaleramidase [Reitz70] , strictosidine glucosidase [Gerasimenko02] , L-sorbosone dehydrogenase [Asakura99] , L-sorbosone dehydrogenase [Miyazaki06] , 2-coumarate O-β-glucosyltransferase [Kleinhofs67] , anthocyanidin-3-O-glucoside-6"-O-malonyltransferase [Suzuki02a] , malonyl-CoA:pelargonidin-3-O-(6-caffeoyl-β-D-glucoside)-5-O-β-D-glucoside 6-O-malonyltransferase [Suzuki01] , anthocyanin 5-O-glucoside-4'''-O-malonyltransferase [Suzuki04] , 3-keto-5-aminohexanoate cleavage enzyme [Yorifuji77] , acetyl-CoA:salutaridinol-7-O-acetyltransferase [Lenz95] , L-asparaginase [Raha90] , L-lysine α-oxidase [Weber94] , L-lysine:pyruvate aminotransferase [Schmidt87] , α-D-galactosyl-(1-3)-1D-myo-inositol:raffinose galactosyltransferase [Peterbauer98] , flavone synthase [Britsch90] , α-D-galactosyl-(1-3)-1D-myo-inositol:raffinose galactosyltransferase [Gaudreault81] , 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetate dioxygenase [Gibello94] , betanidin 5-O-glucosyltransferase [Vogt97] , betanidin 6-O-glucosyltransferase [Vogt97] , alanine dehydrogenase [Chowdhury98]

Inhibitor (Other types) of: mycophenolic acid acyl-glucuronide esterase [Iwamura12] , xylan 1,3-β-xylosidase [Umemoto08] , endo-1,3-β-xylanase , fluoroacetaldehyde dehydrogenase [Murphy01] , cis-aconitate decarboxylase [Bentley57] , diacetyl reductase , (S)-acetoin reductase [(S,S)-2,3-butanediol forming] [Takusagawa01] , nitrilase [Nagasawa90] , 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene dioxygenase [Patel80] , β-ketoadipyl CoA thiolase [Kaschabek02]

This compound has been characterized as a cofactor or prosthetic group of the following enzymes: cytochrome bo terminal oxidase , superoxide dismutase , examinopeptidase , amine oxidase , phenylethylamine oxidase , Mn(III) oxidase , indole 2,3-dioxygenase , indole 2,3-dioxygenase , indole 2,3-dioxygenase , tyramine β-monooxygenase , nitrite reductase , aldehyde decarbonylase , L-tyrosine monooxygenase , L-dopa oxidase , L-tyrosine monooxygenase , L-dopa oxidase , N-methylcoclaurine 3′-monooxygenase , hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA lyase , quercetin 2,3-dioxygenase , quercetin 2,3-dioxygenase , ascorbate oxidase , ferroxidase , tyrosinase , putrescine oxidase , galactose oxidase , ammonia monooxygenase , histamine oxidase , laccase , urate hydroxylase , 4-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase , nitrite reductase , dopamine β-monooxygenase , monophenol,L-dopa:oxygen oxidoreductase , N-methylputrescine oxidase , dihydrobenzophenanthridine oxidase , spermidine oxidase , tryptophan dioxygenase , nitrous oxide reductase , indole-3-acetyl-leu hydrolase , acid phosphomonoesterase


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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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