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MetaCyc Compound: Co2+

Synonyms: Co+2, Co++, cobalt ion

Superclasses: an iona cationan inorganic cationa divalent inorganic cation
an ionan inorganic ionan inorganic cationa divalent inorganic cation

Component of: cobalt chloride

Chemical Formula: Co

Molecular Weight: 58.93 Daltons

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 58.9332002 Daltons

SMILES: [Co++]

InChI: InChI=1S/Co/q+2


Unification Links: CAS:22541-53-3, ChEBI:48828, ChemSpider:94546, HMDB:HMDB00608, IAF1260:34141, KEGG:C00175, PubChem:104729

Standard Gibbs Free Energy of Formation (ΔfG in kcal/mol): -1.2482376Inferred by computational analysis [Latendresse13]

Reactions known to consume the compound:

cob(II)yrinate a,c-diamide biosynthesis I (early cobalt insertion) :
sirohydrochlorin + Co2+ → cobalt-sirohydrochlorin + 2 H+

cob(II)yrinate a,c-diamide biosynthesis II (late cobalt incorporation) :
hydrogenobyrinate a,c-diamide + Co2+ + ATP + H2O → cob(II)yrinate a,c-diamide + ADP + phosphate + 3 H+

In Reactions of unknown directionality:

Not in pathways:
precorrin-2 + Co2+ = cobalt-precorrin-2 + 4 H+

In Transport reactions:

Enzymes activated by Co2+, sorted by the type of activation, are:

Activator (Allosteric) of: L-fucose isomerase [Boulter73], pseudaminic acid synthase [Chou05], α-D-glucose-1-phosphate cytidylyltransferase [Thorson94], L-sorbose dehydrogenase [Sugisawa91], cytosolic leucyl aminopeptidase [Hiroi92], glycerol-3-phosphate cytidylyltransferase [Park93], diacetyl reductase [Takusagawa01], pyruvate carboxylase [Mukhopadhyay00], carnitine monooxygenase [Ditullio94], 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-independent phosphoglycerate mutase [vanderOost02], D-arabinose isomerase [Boulter73], N-methylhydantoin amidohydrolase [Ogawa95], pyruvate kinase, glucokinase [Porter82], β-phosphoglucomutase [Belocopitow74], glucokinase [Hansen03], (S)-acetoin reductase [(S,S)-2,3-butanediol forming] [Takusagawa01], UDP-N-acetylmuramoylalanine--D-glutamate ligase [Nathenson64], D-xylose isomerase [Kawai94] Activator (Mechanism unknown) of: acetylornithine deacetylase [JavidMajd00, Comment 1], adenosylmethionine decarboxylase [Lu07], argininosuccinate lyase, dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase [Chen09, Henrich93], nonspecific dipeptidase [Schroeder94], 5'-ribonucleotidase [McMillen03], UDP-sugar hydrolase [Glaser67], polyphosphate kinase [Haeusler92, Comment 2], 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 2'-phosphodiesterase [ANRAKU64], 3'-nucleotidase [ANRAKU64], GDP-glucose trehalose-6-phosphate synthase [Elbein68], phosphomannose isomerase [Shinabarger91], 3-succinoylsemialdehyde-pyridine dehydrogenase [Tang09], pseudooxynicotine oxidase [Tang09], (4S,5S)-4,5-dihydroxy-2,6-dioxohexanoate reductase [Takase10], 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene monooxygenase (quinone-forming) [Funa05], caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03], caffeoylglucose 3-O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03], caffeate 3-O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03], quercetin 3'-O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03], gossypetin 8-methyl ester 3'-O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03], gossypetin 8-O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03], laricitrin 5'-O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03], myricetin 3'-O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03], patuletin 3'-O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03], quercetagetin 6O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03], cyanidin 3-O-glucoside 6"-O-rhamnosyltransferase [Kamsteeg80], delphinidin 3-O-glucoside 6"-O-rhamnosyltransferase [Kamsteeg80], phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (ITP) [Rohrer86], NADH kinase [Shi05], NAD(+) kinase [Shi05], phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase [Veljanovski06], 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-N-acetyl-L-cysteine deacetylase [Tsirulnikov09], D-xylulose-5-phosphate cytidylyltransferase [Wang12], nicotine dehydrogenase [Tang09], 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate 8-phosphate phosphatase [Wu03], N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate deacetylase [Yamano96], 3-phosphonopyruvate hydrolase [Kulakova03], caffeine demethylase [Hohnloser80], exotrigalacturonate lyase [Shevchik99], digalacturonate lyase [Shevchik99], 2-phosphinomethylmalate synthase [Shimotohno88], 2-amino 3-carboxymuconate 6-semialdehyde decarboxylase [Pucci07], 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-nononate-9-phosphate synthase [Angata99], vitexin β-glucosyltransferase [Heinsbroek80], streptomycin 6-kinase [Sugiyama83], glucuronokinase [Neufeld59], acetylpyruvate hydrolase [Davey75], DL-methylmalonyl-CoA racemase [Stabler85], mandelate racemase [WeilMalherbe66], DAHP synthase [Jensen65, Comment 3], galactokinase [Dey83], 4-diphosphocytidyl-2C-methyl-D-erythritol synthase [Rohdich00], arabinose kinase [Neufeld60], UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase [Szumilo96], pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside-6''-O-rhamnosyltransferase [Kamsteeg80], 3-keto-5-aminohexanoate cleavage enzyme [Yorifuji77], myo-inosose-2 dehydratase [Berman66], UDP-D-glucose:delphinidin-3,5-diglucoside -O-β-D-glucosyltransferase [FukuchiMizutani03], UDP-D-glucose:delphinidin 3-O-glucosyl-5-O-caffeoylglucoside -O-β-D-glucosyltransferase [FukuchiMizutani03]

Enzymes inhibited by Co2+, sorted by the type of inhibition, are:

Inhibitor (Competitive) of: tyrosine 3-monooxygenase [Haavik91] Inhibitor (Noncompetitive) of: L-alanine dehydrogenase [Yoshida70] Inhibitor (Mechanism unknown) of: taurine dioxygenase [Eichhorn97], methylglyoxal reductase (NADPH-dependent) [Saikusa87], tetrahydrodipicolinate succinylase [Simms84], ubiquinol oxidase (H+-transporting) [Kita84], hydrogen:menaquinone oxidoreductase [Ballantine86], lipopolysaccharide glucosyltransferase [Qian14], glutamate-5-semialdehyde dehydrogenase [Hayzer82], sulfite reductase, mannose isomerase [Itoh08], D-aminopropanol dehydrogenase [Kelley84, Campbell78], D-glucarate dehydratase [Comment 4], GTPase [Sydor13], ribonucleoside-triphosphate reductase [Eliasson92], lactose 2-epimerase [Taguchi08], coniferyl alcohol 9-O-methyltransferase [Berim07], coniferyl alcohol 9-O-methyltransferase [Berim07], L-α-amino acid ligase [Kino10], L-α-amino acid ligase [Kino10], L-α-amino acid ligase [Kino09], L-α-amino acid ligase [Kino09], quercetin 7-O-glucosyltransferase [Stich], gossypetin 7-O-glucosyltransferase [Stich], paxilline dimethylallyl diphosphate transferase [Liu14], cellobiose 2-epimerase [Taguchi08], acetylgalactosaminyl-O-glycosyl-glycoprotein β-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase [Brockhausen85], synephrine dehydratase [Manne86], glycerophosphocholine cholinephosphodiesterase [Sugimori13], dTDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-D-glucose transaminase [Wang07], phosphoribosylpyrophosphate amidotransferase [Satyanarayana71], 3-O-methylquercetin 7-O-methyltransferase [Khouri88], 7'-O-demethylcephaeline 7'-O-methyltransferase [Cheong11], UDPG:ginsenoside Rd glucosyltransferase [Yue05], esculetin 7-O-glucosyltransferase [Taguchi00], 4-oxalocrotonate decarboxylase [Orii06], 2-amino-5-carboxymuconic 6-semialdehyde deaminase [Orii04], pesudooxynicotine oxidase [Qiu12], NAD+-dependent L-rhamnofuranose 1-dehydrogenase [Rigo76], N-cyclohexylformamide hydratase [Goda01], 7-methylxanthine demethylase [Gluck88], hypoxia-inducible factor-asparagine dioxygenase [Hewitson02], UDP-D-xylose:β-D-glucoside α-1,3-D-xylosyltransferase [Ishimizu07], β-alanine amide amidase [Komeda04], 2-aminomuconate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase [Ichiyama65], dihydropteridine reductase [Firgaira81], 3-carboxymuconate cycloisomerase [Ornston66], 27-O-demethyl-rifamycin SV methyltransferase [Xu03], tetrahydroprotoberberine cis-N-methyltransferase [Liscombe07], desoxyhemigossypol-6-O-methyltransferase [Liu99], triazine hydrolase [Topp00], deacetoxycephalosporin C hydroxylase [Baker91], deacetoxycephalosporin C hydroxylase [Dotzlaf87], deacetoxycephalosporin C synthase [Dotzlaf87], isopenicillin N synthase [Castro88], S-adenosyl-L-methionine:norcoclaurine 6-O-methyltransferase [Sato94], 2-pyrone-4,6-dicarboxylate hydrolase [Kersten82], L-lysine-α-ketoglutarate reductase [Hutzler75], porphobilinogen deaminase [Jones94], benzoyl-coenzyme A:benzyl alcohol benzoyltransferase [DAuria02], 3'-hydroxy-N-methylcoclaurine 4'-O-methyltransferase [Morishige00], lysine N6-acetyltransferase [Bode93], L-lactate dehydrogenase [Wrba90], L-carnitine dehydrogenase [Mori88], S-adenosyl-L-methionine: coclaurine N-methyltransferase [Choi01], phosphoribosylpyrophosphate amidotransferase [Satyanarayana71], trehalose phosphorylase [Wannet98], arogenate dehydratase [Jung86], sulfur:ferric ion oxidoreductase [Sugio89], 2-pyrone-4,6-dicarboxylate hydrolase [Maruyama83], UDP-glucose:phenylacetothiohydroximate glucosyltransferase [Reed93], δ-aminovaleramidase [Reitz70], Δ1-piperideine-2-carboxylate reductase [Payton82], L-sorbosone dehydrogenase [Asakura99], L-lysine α-oxidase [Weber94], L-lysine:pyruvate aminotransferase [Schmidt87], α-D-galactosyl-(1-3)-1D-myo-inositol:raffinose galactosyltransferase [Gaudreault81] Inhibitor (Other types) of: iduronate-2-sulfatase [Dietrich73], geranylgeranyl diphosphate diphosphatase [Nualkaew06], 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene dioxygenase [Patel80]

This compound has been characterized as a cofactor or prosthetic group of the following enzymes: acyl carrier protein phosphodiesterase, allulose-6-phosphate 3-epimerase, peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase, allantoinase, isopentenyl-diphosphate:NAD(P)+ oxidoreductase, dimethylallyl-diphosphate:NAD(P)+ oxidoreductase, 3-dehydroquinate synthase, N-succinyl-L-diaminopimelate desuccinylase, phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase, RNase T exonuclease, aminopeptidase, diacylglycerol kinase, tRNA nucleotidyltransferase, examinopeptidase, RNase BN exoribonuclease, deoxyribonucleoside 5'-monophosphate phosphatase, dUMP phosphohydrolase, dAMP phosphohydrolase, dCMP phosphohydrolase, deoxyribonucleoside 5'-monophosphate phosphatase, 3'-nucleotidase, 5'-nucleotidase, ethylmalonyl-CoA epimerase, methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase, 7-O-acetyl-N-acetylneuraminate synthase, scyllo-inosose dehydratase, methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase, (+)-germacrene D synthase, β-farnesene synthase, aldehyde decarbonylase, 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose synthase, 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose synthase, 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose synthase, chitin synthase, L-olivosyl-oleandolide 3-O-methyltransferase, phosphoenolpyruvate mutase, FAD synthetase, cyclodextrinase, 2-keto-3-deoxy-L-rhamnoate aldolase, mannosylglucosylglycerate synthase, 3-cyanopyridine hydratase, peptidoglycan-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase, glycerate 2-kinase, IMP 5'-nucleotidase, cytidine 5'-monophosphate N-acetylneuraminate synthetase, kanosamine 6-kinase, methylmalonyl CoA epimerase, methylmalonyl-CoA carboxyltransferase, 2,3-dihydroxy-isovalerate dehydratase, 2,3-dihydroxy-3-methylvalerate hydro-lyase, trichloroethene-reductive dehalogenase, tetrachloroethene-reductive dehalogenase, N-succinyl-L,L-diaminopimelate desuccinylase, sulfate adenylyltransferase, nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase, ADP-dependent phosphofructokinase, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase, N-formylglutamate amidohydrolase, nitrile hydratase

This compound has been characterized as an alternative cofactor or prosthetic group of the following enzymes: 4-diphosphocytidyl-2C-methyl-D-erythritol synthase, NMN adenylyltransferase, methionine adenosyltransferase, phenylhydantoinase, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase, 3-dehydroquinate synthase, cobaltochelatase, acetate kinase, adenylylsulfate kinase, cytosine deaminase, anthranilate synthase, aspartate ammonia-lyase, carbamoyl phosphate synthetase, phosphonoacetate hydrolase

This compound has been characterized as an alternative substrate of the following enzymes: Zn2+-exporting ATPase


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