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Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
12/28 - 12/31
for maintenance.
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
12/28 - 12/31
for maintenance.
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
12/28 - 12/31
for maintenance.
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
12/28 - 12/31
for maintenance.
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MetaCyc Compound: Co2+

Synonyms: Co+2, Co++, cobalt ion

Superclasses: an ion a cation

Component of: cobalt chloride

Chemical Formula: Co

Molecular Weight: 58.93 Daltons

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 58.9332002 Daltons

SMILES: [Co++]

InChI: InChI=1S/Co/q+2

InChIKey: InChIKey=XLJKHNWPARRRJB-UHFFFAOYSA-N

Unification Links: CAS:22541-53-3 , ChEBI:48828 , ChemSpider:94546 , HMDB:HMDB00608 , IAF1260:34141 , KEGG:C00175 , PubChem:104729

Standard Gibbs Free Energy of Change Formation (ΔfG in kcal/mol): -1.2482376 Inferred by computational analysis [Latendresse13]

Reactions known to consume the compound:

cob(II)yrinate a,c-diamide biosynthesis I (early cobalt insertion) :
sirohydrochlorin + Co2+ → cobalt-sirohydrochlorin + 2 H+

cob(II)yrinate a,c-diamide biosynthesis II (late cobalt incorporation) :
hydrogenobyrinate a,c-diamide + Co2+ + ATP + H2O → cob(II)yrinate a,c-diamide + ADP + phosphate + 3 H+

In Reactions of unknown directionality:

Not in pathways:
precorrin-2 + Co2+ = cobalt-precorrin-2 + 4 H+

In Transport reactions:
Co2+[periplasmic space]Co2+[cytosol]

Enzymes activated by Co2+, sorted by the type of activation, are:

Activator (Allosteric) of: L-fucose isomerase [Boulter73] , pseudaminic acid synthetase [Chou05] , α-D-glucose-1-phosphate cytidylyltransferase [Thorson94] , L-sorbose dehydrogenase [Sugisawa91] , phosphomannose isomerase [Shinabarger91] , cytosolic leucyl aminopeptidase [Hiroi92] , glycerol-3-phosphate cytidylyltransferase [Park93] , diacetyl reductase [Takusagawa01] , pyruvate carboxylase [Mukhopadhyay00] , carnitine monooxygenase [Ditullio94] , 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-independent phosphoglycerate mutase [vanderOost02] , D-arabinose isomerase [Boulter73] , N-methylhydantoin amidohydrolase [Ogawa95] , pyruvate kinase , GDP-glucose trehalose-6-phosphate synthase [Elbein68] , glucokinase [Porter82] , β-phosphoglucomutase [Belocopitow74] , glucokinase [Hansen03] , (S)-acetoin reductase [(S,S)-2,3-butanediol forming] [Takusagawa01] , UDP-N-acetylmuramoylalanine--D-glutamate ligase [Nathenson64] , D-xylose isomerase [Kawai94]

Activator (Mechanism unknown) of: acetylornithine deacetylase [JavidMajd00, Comment 1] , adenosylmethionine decarboxylase [Lu07a] , argininosuccinate lyase , 5'-ribonucleotidase [McMillen03] , UDP-sugar hydrolase [Glaser67] , polyphosphate kinase [Haeusler92, Comment 2] , nonspecific dipeptidase [Schroeder94] , 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 2'-phosphodiesterase [ANRAKU64] , 3'-nucleotidase [ANRAKU64] , 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene monooxygenase (quinone-forming) [Funa05] , caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03] , caffeoylglucose 3-O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03] , caffeate 3-O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03] , quercetin 3'-O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03] , gossypetin 8-methyl ester 3'-O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03] , gossypetin 8-O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03] , laricitrin 5'-O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03] , myricetin 3'-O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03] , patuletin 3'-O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03] , quercetagetin 6O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03] , cyanidin 3-O-glucoside 6"-O-rhamnosyltransferase [Kamsteeg80] , delphinidin 3-O-glucoside 6"-O-rhamnosyltransferase [Kamsteeg80] , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (ITP) [Rohrer86] , NADH kinase [Shi05b] , NAD(+) kinase [Shi05b] , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase [Veljanovski06] , 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-N-acetyl-L-cysteine deacetylase [Tsirulnikov09] , D-xylulose-5-phosphate cytidylyltransferase [Wang12a] , nicotine dehydrogenase [Tang09a] , pseudoroxynicotine dehydrogenase [Tang09a] , 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate 8-phosphate phosphatase [Wu03] , N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate deacetylase [Yamano96] , 3-phosphonopyruvate hydrolase [Kulakova03] , caffeine demethylase [Hohnloser80] , exotrigalacturonate lyase [Shevchik99] , digalacturonate lyase [Shevchik99] , 2-phosphinomethylmalate synthase [Shimotohno88] , 2-amino 3-carboxymuconate 6-semialdehyde decarboxylase [Pucci07] , 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-nononate-9-phosphate synthase [Angata99] , vitexin β-glucosyltransferase [Heinsbroek80] , streptomycin 6-kinase [Sugiyama83] , glucuronokinase [Neufeld59] , acetylpyruvate hydrolase [Davey75] , DL-methylmalonyl-CoA racemase [Stabler85] , mandelate racemase [WeilMalherbe66] , DAHP synthase [JENSEN65, Comment 3] , galactokinase [Dey83] , 4-diphosphocytidyl-2C-methyl-D-erythritol synthase [Rohdich00] , arabinose kinase [Neufeld60] , UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase [Szumilo96] , pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside-6''-O-rhamnosyltransferase [Kamsteeg80] , 3-keto-5-aminohexanoate cleavage enzyme [Yorifuji77] , myo-inosose-2 dehydratase [Berman66] , UDP-D-glucose:delphinidin-3,5-diglucoside -O-β-D-glucosyltransferase [FukuchiMizutani03] , UDP-D-glucose:delphinidin 3-O-glucosyl-5-O-caffeoylglucoside -O-β-D-glucosyltransferase [FukuchiMizutani03]

Enzymes inhibited by Co2+, sorted by the type of inhibition, are:

Inhibitor (Competitive) of: tyrosine 3-monooxygenase [Haavik91]

Inhibitor (Noncompetitive) of: L-alanine dehydrogenase [Yoshida70]

Inhibitor (Mechanism unknown) of: tetrahydrodipicolinate succinylase [Simms84] , cytochrome bo terminal oxidase [Kita84] , taurine dioxygenase [Eichhorn97] , methylglyoxal reductase (NADPH-dependent) [Saikusa87] , D-glucarate dehydratase [Comment 4] , sulfite reductase , D-aminopropanol dehydrogenase [Kelley84, Campbell78] , mannose isomerase [Itoh08a] , glutamate-5-semialdehyde dehydrogenase [Hayzer82] , hydrogenase [Ballantine86] , ribonucleoside-triphosphate reductase [Eliasson92] , GTPase [Sydor13] , L-α-amino acid ligase [Kino10] , L-α-amino acid ligase [Kino10] , L-α-amino acid ligase [Kino09] , L-α-amino acid ligase [Kino09] , quercetin 7-O-glucosyltransferase [Stich] , gossypetin 7-O-glucosyltransferase [Stich] , paxilline dimethylallyl diphosphate transferase [Liu14] , cellobiose 2-epimerase [Taguchi08] , acetylgalactosaminyl-O-glycosyl-glycoprotein β-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase [Brockhausen85] , synephrine dehydratase [Manne86] , glycerophosphocholine cholinephosphodiesterase [Sugimori13] , dTDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-D-glucose transaminase [Wang07d] , phosphoribosylpyrophosphate amidotransferase [Satyanarayana71] , 3-O-methylquercetin 7-O-methyltransferase [Khouri88] , 7'-O-demethylcephaeline 7'-O-methyltransferase [Cheong11] , UDPG:ginsenoside Rd glucosyltransferase [Yue05] , esculetin 7-O-glucosyltransferase [Taguchi00] , 4-oxalocrotonate decarboxylase [Orii06] , 2-amino-5-carboxymuconic 6-semialdehyde deaminase [Orii04] , pesudooxynicotine oxidase [Qiu12a] , NAD+-dependent L-rhamnofuranose 1-dehydrogenase [Rigo76] , N-cyclohexylformamide hydratase [Goda01] , 7-methylxanthine demethylase [Gluck88] , hypoxia-inducible factor-asparagine dioxygenase [Hewitson02] , UDP-D-xylose:β-D-glucoside α-1,3-D-xylosyltransferase [Ishimizu07] , β-alanine amide amidase [Komeda04] , 2-aminomuconate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase [Ichiyama65] , dihydropteridine reductase [Firgaira81] , 3-carboxymuconate cycloisomerase [Ornston66] , 27-O-demethyl-rifamycin SV methyltransferase [Xu03] , tetrahydroprotoberberine cis-N-methyltransferase [Liscombe07] , desoxyhemigossypol-6-O-methyltransferase [Liu99] , triazine hydrolase [Topp00] , deacetoxycephalosporin C hydroxylase [Baker91] , deacetoxycephalosporin C hydroxylase [Dotzlaf87] , deacetoxycephalosporin C synthase [Dotzlaf87] , isopenicillin N synthase [Castro88] , S-adenosyl-L-methionine:norcoclaurine 6-O-methyltransferase [Sato94] , 2-pyrone-4,6-dicarboxylate hydrolase [Kersten82] , L-lysine-α-ketoglutarate reductase [Hutzler75] , porphobilinogen deaminase [Jones94] , benzoyl-coenzyme A:benzyl alcohol benzoyltransferase [DAuria02] , 3'-hydroxy-N-methylcoclaurine 4'-O-methyltransferase [Morishige00] , lysine N6-acetyltransferase [Bode93] , L-lactate dehydrogenase [Wrba90a] , L-carnitine dehydrogenase [Mori88] , S-adenosyl-L-methionine: coclaurine N-methyltransferase [Choi01] , phosphoribosylpyrophosphate amidotransferase [Satyanarayana71] , trehalose phosphorylase [Wannet98] , arogenate dehydratase [Jung86] , sulfur:ferric ion oxidoreductase [Sugio89] , 2-pyrone-4,6-dicarboxylate hydrolase [Maruyama83] , UDP-glucose:phenylacetothiohydroximate glucosyltransferase [Reed93a] , δ-aminovaleramidase [Reitz70] , Δ1-piperideine-2-carboxylate reductase [Payton82] , L-sorbosone dehydrogenase [Asakura99] , L-lysine α-oxidase [Weber94] , L-lysine:pyruvate aminotransferase [Schmidt87] , α-D-galactosyl-(1-3)-1D-myo-inositol:raffinose galactosyltransferase [Gaudreault81]

Inhibitor (Other types) of: geranylgeranyl diphosphate diphosphatase [Nualkaew06] , 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene dioxygenase [Patel80]

This compound has been characterized as a cofactor or prosthetic group of the following enzymes: N-succinyl-L-diaminopimelate desuccinylase , acyl carrier protein phosphodiesterase , allulose-6-phosphate 3-epimerase , allantoinase , phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase , peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase , 3-dehydroquinate synthase , isopentenyl-diphosphate:NAD(P)+ oxidoreductase , dimethylallyl-diphosphate:NAD(P)+ oxidoreductase , deoxyribonucleoside 5'-monophosphate phosphatase , tRNA nucleotidyltransferase , aminopeptidase , RNase T exonuclease , examinopeptidase , RNase BN exoribonuclease , dUMP phosphohydrolase , dAMP phosphohydrolase , dCMP phosphohydrolase , deoxyribonucleoside 5'-monophosphate phosphatase , 3'-nucleotidase , 5'-nucleotidase , diacylglycerol kinase , 7-O-acetyl-N-acetylneuraminate synthase , scyllo-inosose dehydratase , methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase , (+)-germacrene D synthase , β-farnesene synthase , aldehyde decarbonylase , 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose synthase , 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose synthase , 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose synthase , chitin synthase , L-olivosyl-oleandolide 3-O-methyltransferase , phosphoenolpyruvate mutase , FAD synthetase , cyclodextrinase , 2-keto-3-deoxy-L-rhamnoate aldolase , mannosylglucosylglycerate synthase , 3-cyanopyridine hydratase , peptidoglycan-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase , glycerate 2-kinase , IMP 5'-nucleotidase , cytidine 5'-monophosphate N-acetylneuraminate synthetase , kanosamine 6-kinase , methylmalonyl CoA epimerase , methylmalonyl-CoA carboxyltransferase , 2,3-dihydroxy-isovalerate dehydratase , 2,3-dihydroxy-3-methylvalerate hydro-lyase , trichloroethene-reductive dehalogenase , tetrachloroethene-reductive dehalogenase , N-succinyl-L,L-diaminopimelate desuccinylase , sulfate adenylyltransferase , nicotineamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase , ADP-dependent phosphofructokinase , S-adenosylmethionine synthetase , N-formylglutamate amidohydrolase , nitrile hydratase


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