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MetaCyc Compound: Ca2+

Synonyms: Ca+2, Ca++, calcium ion

Superclasses: an iona cationan inorganic cationa divalent inorganic cation
an ionan inorganic ionan inorganic cationa divalent inorganic cation

Component of:
calcium hydrogenphosphate
calcium chloride dihydrate
calcium pantothenate
calcium nitrate tetrahydrate
calcium chloride

Chemical Formula: Ca

Molecular Weight: 40.08 Daltons

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 39.9625912 Daltons

SMILES: [Ca++]

InChI: InChI=1S/Ca/q+2


Unification Links: ChEBI:29108, ChemSpider:266, HMDB:HMDB00464, IAF1260:33764, KEGG:C00076, MetaboLights:MTBLC29108, PubChem:271

Standard Gibbs Free Energy of Formation (ΔfG in kcal/mol): -1.2482376Inferred by computational analysis [Latendresse13]

In Transport reactions:
Ca2+[plastid stroma] + ATP + H2O ↔ Ca2+[cytosol] + ADP + phosphate + H+,
Ca2+[in] + ATP + H2O ↔ Ca2+[out] + ADP + phosphate + H+,
Ca2+[out] + ATP + H2O ↔ Ca2+[in] + ADP + phosphate + H+,

Enzymes activated by Ca2+, sorted by the type of activation, are:

Activator (Allosteric) of: polyvinyl alcohol dehydrogenase [Hatanaka95], cobinamide adenosyltransferase [Buan06], glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [MacDonald96], phosphorylase kinase [Farrar91], phosphorylase kinase [Farrar91], malonate semialdehyde:NADP+ oxidoreductase (malonate semialdehyde-forming) [Hugler02], pyruvic oxime dioxygenase [Ono96], diacetyl reductase [Takusagawa01], methanol dehydrogenase, dihydroxyacetone kinase [Daniel95], (S)-acetoin reductase [(S,S)-2,3-butanediol forming] [Takusagawa01], L-2,4-diaminobutyrate decarboxylase [Yamamoto92] Activator (Mechanism unknown) of: glutaminase B [Prusiner76a], D-mannonate oxidoreductase [Portalier72a], adenosylmethionine decarboxylase [Lu07], pyruvate kinase [Boiteux83, Comment 1], phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (ATP) [Goldie80a, Sudom03], GDP-mannose 4,6-dehydratase [Sturla97], dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase [Chen09d, Henrich93], lactose 2-epimerase [Taguchi08], 3-succinoylsemialdehyde-pyridine dehydrogenase [Tang09a], pseudooxynicotine oxidase [Tang09a], L-cystein oxidase (3-oxo-L-alanine-forming) [Fey01], brevianamide F reverse prenyltransferase [Yin13], cytosyl-glucuronate synthase [Gould94], benzodiazepinedione prenyltransferase [Yin09], caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03], caffeoylglucose 3-O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03], caffeate 3-O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03], quercetin 3'-O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03], gossypetin 8-methyl ester 3'-O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03], gossypetin 8-O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03], laricitrin 5'-O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03], myricetin 3'-O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03], patuletin 3'-O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03], quercetagetin 6O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03], quercetin 7-O-glucosyltransferase [Stich], gossypetin 7-O-glucosyltransferase [Stich], cellobiose 2-epimerase [Taguchi08], luteolin-7-O-glucuronide 2''-O-glucuronosyltransferase [Schulz88], luteolin 7-O-glucuronosyltransferase [Schulz88], synephrine dehydratase [Manne86], glycerophosphocholine cholinephosphodiesterase [Sugimori13], ginsenoside Rb1 20-O-glucosidase [Yu09a], ginsenoside Rb3 20-O-xylosidase [Yu09a], ginsenoside Rc 20-O arabinosidase [Yu09a], ginsenoside Rb2 20-O arabinosidase [Yu09a], protopanaxadiol ginsenoside 20-O-diglycoside glycosidase [Yu09a], NADH kinase [Shi05c], NAD(+) kinase [Shi05c], D-fructose-6-phosphate cytidylyltransferase [Wang12g], omega-hydroxypalmitate O-feruloyl transferase [Rautengarten12], UDPG:ginsenoside Rd glucosyltransferase [Yue05], phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate lipase C [Melin92], phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate phospholipase C [Melin92], nicotine dehydrogenase [Tang09a], pullulanase [Dong97], Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator [Namkung03], manganese-oxidizing peroxidase [Johnson08], manganese-oxidizing peroxidase [Anderson09], CDP reductase [Jordan97], 7-methylxanthine demethylase [Gluck88], 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate 5-dehydrogenase [Condemine84], peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase [Barrett05], inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase [Dewaste00], 1-D-myo-inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase [Dewaste02], 1-D-myo-inositol-trisphosphate 3-kinase [Takazawa91], phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase [Arcaro98], 1-phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase [Park92], 1-phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase, 1-phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase [Ozdener02], ε-N-trimethyllysine hydroxylase [Sachan80], iminodiacetate dehydrogenase [Uetz93], vitexin β-glucosyltransferase [Heinsbroek80], feruloyl-CoA:tyramine N-(hydroxycinnamoyl)transferase [Hohlfeld95], acetylpyruvate hydrolase [Davey75], phospholipase D [Fan99], phospholipase D [Fan99], phospholipase D [Wang01e], N-acetylglucosaminyldiphosphodolichol N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase [Sharma82], ceramide kinase [Liang03], 4-diphosphocytidyl-2C-methyl-D-erythritol synthase [Rohdich00a], acyl-CoA hydrolase (medium chain) [Alexson88], acyl-CoA hydrolase (short chain) [Alexson88], cis-4-hydroxy-D-proline dehydrogenase [Yoneya61]

Enzymes inhibited by Ca2+, sorted by the type of inhibition, are:

Inhibitor (Competitive) of: ribose-phosphate diphosphokinase [Bower89, Willemoes97], inorganic pyrophosphatase [Avaeva00], enolase [Miernyk84] Inhibitor (Noncompetitive) of: enolase [Miernyk84] Inhibitor (Mechanism unknown) of: 2-methylisocitrate lyase [Brock01], deoxyribose 1,5-phosphomutase [HammerJespersen70], adenine phosphoribosyltransferase [Hochstadt78a], hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase [Hochstadt78], phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthase [Hirabayashi76], dihydrofolate reductase [Baccanari75], pyruvate kinase [Speranza89, Comment 2], isocitrate lyase, acetoacetyl-[acp] reductase [Price04], lipopolysaccharide glucosyltransferase [Qian14], UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-glucosamine N-acyltransferase [Bartling08], diacylglycerol kinase [Walsh92], glycerol dehydrogenase [Tang79], inorganic triphosphatase [Kohn12], adenosine-3'(2'),5'-bisphosphate nucleotidase [Mechold06], RNase I endoribonuclease [Loskot78], RNase I endoribonuclease [Loskot78], adenylate cyclase [Yang83a, Comment 3], phosphodiesterase, c-di-GMP-specific [Schmidt05], acid phosphatase / phosphotransferase [Thaller97], isovitexin 7-O-xyloside 2"-O-arabinosyltransferase [Heinsbroek79], isovitexin 2"-O-arabinosyltransferase [Heinsbroek79], dihydrofolate reductase [Wilquet98], GTP cyclohydrolase [Weisberg86], lyso-phosphatidylethanolaminelipase [Merkel05], pyruvate kinase [deZwaan75], ecdysone 22-kinase [Sonobe06], phosphoribosylpyrophosphate amidotransferase [Satyanarayana71], 3,7,4'-trimethylquercetagetin 6-O-methyltransferase [De85b], 3-O-methylquercetin 7-O-methyltransferase [Khouri88], 3,7-dimethylquercetagetin 6-O-methyltransferase [De85b], 3,7,3'-methylquercetagetin 6-O-methyltransferase [De85b], thiobenzoate-S-methyltransferase [Zhao12], 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase [Orii06], 2-protocatechuoylphloroglucinolcarboxylate esterase [Child63], poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate) depolymerase [deEugenio07], farnesoic acid carboxyl methyltransferase [Yang06b], glycocholate hydrolase [Tanaka00], phosphatidate phosphatase [Wu96a], phosphatidylinositol synthase [Antonsson94], N-acetylneuraminate-9-phosphate phosphatase [Maliekal06], N-acetylneuraminate-9-phosphate phosphatase [Maliekal06], 27-O-demethyl-rifamycin SV methyltransferase [Xu03b], nitrilotriacetate monooxygenase [Uetz92], tetrahydroprotoberberine cis-N-methyltransferase [Liscombe07], pyruvate kinase [Singh98], S-formylglutathione hydrolase [Uotila74], ethanolaminephosphotransferase [Goode99], histidinol dehydrogenase [Nagai91a], L-lysine-α-ketoglutarate reductase [Hutzler75], ethanolamine kinase [Macher76], benzoyl-coenzyme A:benzyl alcohol benzoyltransferase [DAuria02], Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5 2-kinase [Phillippy94], 2-pyrazoline synthase [Brown90], pyrazolidine synthase [Brown90], L-carnitine dehydrogenase [Mori88], CDP-diacylglycerol glycerol-3-phosphate 3-phosphatidyltransferase [Muller01], cholinephosphotransferase [Goode99], cholinephosphotransferase [Goode99], 3-hydroxybenzoate-Coenzyme A ligase [Barillas00], pyrazole synthase [Brown90], CDP-choline:1,2-diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase [Goode99], phosphoribosylpyrophosphate amidotransferase [Satyanarayana71], UDP-glucuronate decarboxylase [Harper02], CDP-ethanolamine:1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol ethanolaminephosphotransferase [Goode99], ethanolamine N-methyltransferase [Prudhomme92a], 2-phospho-3-sulfolactate phosphohydrolase [Graham01], pectin methyltransferase [Ishikawa00], β-phosphoglucomutase [Belocopitow74], sucrose 3-dehydrogenase [Hayano67], CDP-choline:1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol cholinephosphotransferase [Goode99], S-adenosyl-L-methionine: (S)-scoulerine-9-O-methyltransferase [Sato93], δ-aminovaleramidase [Reitz70], phosphatidylglycerolphosphate synthase [Muller01], L-3-aminobutyryl coenzyme A deaminase [Jeng74], catechol O-methyltransferase [Jeffery84], glutamate synthase [Schreier84], α-D-galactosyl-(1-3)-1D-myo-inositol:raffinose galactosyltransferase [Gaudreault81] Inhibitor (Other types) of: D-sorbitol dehydrogenase [Yamaguchi94]

This compound has been characterized as a cofactor or prosthetic group of the following enzymes: peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase, glycerophosphoryl diester phosphodiesterase, periplasmic, NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (H+-transporting), α-amylase, lipid kinase, uridine nucleosidase, acyl-CoA thioesterase, lysophospholipase, DNA endonuclease, aldose sugar dehydrogenase, 2,4-dihydroxy-5-methyl-6-oxohexa-2,4-dienoate isomerase, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine–dolichyl-phosphate N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, N-sulfoglucosamine sulfohydrolase, photosystem II, β-L-arabinobiosidase, pectate trisaccharide-lyase, cytochrome c peroxidase, nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase, nucleoside diphosphate phosphohydrolase, ATP diphosphohydrolase, ADP phosphohydrolase, UTP diphosphohydrolase, phosphatidyl-N-methylethanolamine N-methyltransferase, neocarratetraose 4-O-monosulfate β-hydrolase, α-agarase, α-agarase, UDP phosphatase, UDP phosphatase, phospholipase D, phospholipase A2, phospholipase C, phospholipase C, cellulose 1,4-β-cellobiosidase (non-reducing end), cellulase, rhamnogalacturonan exolyase, cyclodextrinase, cyclodextrin glucanotransferase, peroxygenase, myeloperoxidase, L-threo-3-hydroxy aspartate dehydratase, gelatinase A, Activated factor Xa heavy chain, pectate lyase, pectate lyase, pectate lyase, pyidine-3-aldoxime dehydratase, alcohol dehydrogenase, glucose dehydrogenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, pseudolysin, cytidine 5'-monophosphate N-acetylneuraminate synthetase, lignin peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, 4-hydroxy-2-keto-5-methyl-6-oxo-3-hexenoate hydrolase, phospholipase A2, phospholipase A2, methanol dehydrogenase, peptidylarginine deiminase, peptidylarginine deiminase, peptidylarginine deiminase, peptidylarginine deiminase, nitric-oxide synthase, nitric-oxide synthase, methanol dehydrogenase

This compound has been characterized as an alternative cofactor or prosthetic group of the following enzymes: nucleoside diphosphate kinase, NMN adenylyltransferase, methionine adenosyltransferase, phenylhydantoinase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (ATP), acetate kinase, heme O synthase, dihydroneopterin triphosphate 2'-epimerase


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