Alcohols are organic compounds in which the hydroxyl functional group (-OH) is bound to a carbon atom. Alcohols are classified into primary, secondary, and tertiary, based upon the number of carbon atoms connected to the carbon atom that bears the hydroxyl group. The primary alcohols have general formulas RCH2OH; secondary alcohols are RR'CHOH; and tertiary ones are RR'R"COH, where R, R', and R" stand for alkyl groups.
Alcohols are also classified based on the length of the alkyl groups.
Short-chain alcohols have alkyl chains with fewer than six carbons.
Medium-chain alcohols have alkyl chains of 6-12 carbons.
Long-chain alcohols (also known as fatty alcohols) have alkyl chains of 13-22 carbons.
Very long-chain alcohols have alkyl chains of 23 carbons or longer.
Reactions known to produce the compound:
Not in pathways:
an organic hydroperoxide + NADH + H+ → an alcohol + NAD+ + H2O
an α-D-glucuronoside + H2O → D-glucopyranuronate + an alcohol
an α amino acid ester + H2O → an alcohol + an α amino acid + H+
a phosphate monoester + H2O → an alcohol + phosphate
RH + a reduced [NADPH-hemoprotein reductase] + oxygen → ROH + an oxidized [NADPH-hemoprotein reductase] + H2O
an oligosaccharide with β-L-arabinopyranose at the non-reducing end + H2O → β-L-arabinopyranose + an alcohol
an N-acetyl-β-D-hexosaminide + H2O → an N-acetyl-β-D-hexosamine + an alcohol
a carboxylic ester + H2O → an alcohol + a carboxylate + H+
an acetic ester + H2O → an alcohol + acetate + H+
a reduced thioredoxin + an organic hydroperoxide → an oxidized thioredoxin + an alcohol + H2O
a 6-O-(β-D-xylopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside + H2O → β-primeverose + an alcohol
an organic molecule + H2O + 2 oxygen → an alcohol + 2 superoxide + 2 H+
an N5-acyl-L-ornithine-ester + H2O → an N5-acyl-L-ornithine + an alcohol
α-L-fucoside + H2O → L-fucopyranose + an alcohol
a 2-deoxy-α-D-glucoside + H2O → 2-deoxy-D-glucose + an alcohol
a 6-phospho-β-D-galactoside + H2O → α-D-galactose 6-phosphate + an alcohol
In Reactions of unknown directionality:
Not in pathways:
an alcohol + 3'-phosphoadenylyl-sulfate = adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate + an organosulfate + H+
an alcohol + NAD(P)+ = an aldehyde + NAD(P)H + H+
an alcohol + NADP+ = an aldehyde + NADPH + H+
trans-cinnamoyl-β-D-glucoside + an alcohol = β-D-glucopyranose + alkyl cinnamate
an alcohol + acetyl-CoA = an acetic ester + coenzyme A
2 protein cysteines + an organic hydroperoxide = a protein disulfide + an alcohol + H2O
an organic molecule + an organic hydroperoxide = 2 an alcohol
an organic molecule + hydrogen peroxide = an alcohol + H2O
Enzymes activated by a short-chain alcohol, sorted by the type of activation, are:
Izui83: Izui K, Matsuda Y, Kameshita I, Katsuki H, Woods AE (1983). "Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase of Escherichia coli. Inhibition by various analogs and homologs of phosphoenolpyruvate." J Biochem (Tokyo) 1983;94(6);1789-95. PMID: 6368527
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