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MetaCyc Compound Class: D-glucose

Synonyms: D-gluco-hexose

Superclasses: all carbohydrates a carbohydrate a glycan a sugar a monosaccharide a hexose a D-hexose a D-aldohexose
all carbohydrates a carbohydrate a glycan a sugar a monosaccharide a hexose an aldohexose a D-aldohexose
all carbohydrates a carbohydrate a glycan a sugar a monosaccharide a hexose glucose
all carbohydrates a carbohydrate a glycan a sugar a monosaccharide an aldose a D-aldose a D-aldohexose
all carbohydrates a carbohydrate a glycan a sugar a monosaccharide an aldose an aldohexose a D-aldohexose
an aldehyde or ketone an aldehyde an aldose a D-aldose a D-aldohexose
an aldehyde or ketone an aldehyde an aldose an aldohexose a D-aldohexose

Summary:
D-Glucose is an extremely abundant monosaccharide that is used as an energy source in most organisms, from bacteria to humans. In humans D-glucose is the key source of energy, through aerobic respiration, but other organisms can also metabolize glucose by anaerobic respiration and fermentation.

D-Glucose is also one of the main products of photosynthesis, and is used as a precursor for the synthesis of several important substances, such as cellulose and chitin. Many organisms store glucose as an energy and carbon reserve in the form of plymers such as starch and glycogen.

In addition, D-glucose is often added onto certain proteins and lipids through glycosylation, which is often critical for their functioning.

Child Classes: D-glucopyranose (2)

Instances:
aldehydo-D-glucose

Unification Links: ChEBI:17634 , Wikipedia:Glucose

Reactions known to consume the compound:

salicortin biosynthesis :
salicyl-6-hydroxy-2-cyclohexene-on-oyl + glucose → salicortin + H2O

NAD/NADP-NADH/NADPH mitochondrial interconversion (yeast) :
an aldehyde + NAD+ + H2O → a carboxylate + NADH + 2 H+
an aldehyde + NADP+ + H2O → a carboxylate + NADPH + 2 H+

Not in pathways:
an aldehyde + FMNH2 + oxygen → hν + a carboxylate + FMN + H2O + 2 H+
an aldehyde + oxygen + H2O → a carboxylate + hydrogen peroxide + H+

Reactions known to produce the compound:

Not in pathways:
starch + H2O → maltose + glucose
maltose + H2O → 2 glucose
a dextran + H2O → n glucose

Not in pathways:
a sugar alcohol + oxygen → an aldose + hydrogen peroxide

Not in pathways:
a protopanaxatriol-type ginsenoside with two glycosyl residues at position 6 + 2 H2O → a protopanaxatriol-type ginsenoside with no glycosidic modification at position 6 + a monosaccharide + D-glucopyranose
a protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside with two glycosyl residues at position 20 + H2O → a protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside with a single glucosyl residue at position 20 + a monosaccharide

Not in pathways:
a thioglucoside + H2O → a sugar + a thiol
a sugar phosphate + H2O → a sugar + phosphate
glycosyl-N-acylsphingosine + H2O → a ceramide + a sugar

ceramide degradation :
a sphingoid 1-phosphate → O-phosphoethanolamine + an aldehyde

two-component alkanesulfonate monooxygenase :
an alkylsulfonate + FMNH2 + oxygen → an aldehyde + sulfite + FMN + H2O + 2 H+

Not in pathways:
a primary amine[periplasmic space] + H2O[periplasmic space] + oxygen[periplasmic space]an aldehyde[periplasmic space] + ammonium[periplasmic space] + hydrogen peroxide[periplasmic space]
an aliphatic amine + H2O + oxygen → an aldehyde + ammonium + hydrogen peroxide
a monoamine + H2O + oxygen → an aldehyde + a primary amine + hydrogen peroxide
a primary alcohol + oxygen → hydrogen peroxide + an aldehyde

Not in pathways:
a nitroalkane + oxygen + H2O → an aldehyde or ketone + nitrite + hydrogen peroxide + H+

Reactions known to both consume and produce the compound:

Not in pathways:
a primary alcohol + NAD+an aldehyde + NADH + H+

In Reactions of unknown directionality:

Not in pathways:
an α-D-aldosyl-β-D-fructoside + a D-aldose = an α-D-aldosyl-β-D-fructoside + a D-aldose

Not in pathways:
a D-hexose + an acyl phosphate = a D-hexose-phosphate + a carboxylate
a D-hexose + ATP = D-hexose 6-phosphate + ADP + H+
phosphoramidate + a D-hexose = an α-hexose 1-phosphate + ammonium

Not in pathways:
sucrose + a [1-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2->1)n--α-D-glucopyranoside = glucose + a [1-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2->1)n+1--α-D-glucopyranoside

Not in pathways:
an aldose[periplasmic space] + an oxidized unknown electron acceptor[periplasmic space] + H2O[periplasmic space] = an aldonate[periplasmic space] + an reduced unknown electron acceptor[periplasmic space] + H+[periplasmic space]
a sugar alcohol + NAD(P)+ = an aldose + NAD(P)H + H+

Not in pathways:
a protopanaxatriol-type ginsenoside with two glycosyl residues at position 6 + H2O = a protopanaxatriol-type ginsenoside with a single glucosyl at position 6 + a monosaccharide

Not in pathways:
an aldehyde + NAD(P)+ + H2O = a carboxylate + NAD(P)H + 2 H+
an aldehyde + 2 an oxidized ferredoxin + H2O = a carboxylate + 2 a reduced ferredoxin + 3 H+
an aldehyde + an oxidized unknown electron acceptor + H2O = a carboxylate + an reduced unknown electron acceptor + H+
an aldehyde[periplasmic space] + FAD[periplasmic space] + H2O[periplasmic space] = a carboxylate[periplasmic space] + FADH2[periplasmic space]
an aldehyde + an electron-transfer quinone + H2O = a carboxylate + an electron-transfer quinol + H+
a primary alcohol + 2 an oxidized cytochrome cL = an aldehyde + 2 a reduced cytochrome cL + 2 H+
an aliphatic amine + an oxidized cytochrome c550 + H2O = an aldehyde + ammonium + a reduced cytochrome c550
an alkylamine + 2 an oxidized cytochrome c550 + H2O = an aldehyde + ammonium + 2 a reduced cytochrome c550
a 2-oxo carboxylate + H+ = an aldehyde + CO2
an alcohol + NADP+ = an aldehyde + NADPH + H+
a primary alcohol + an oxidized unknown electron acceptor = an aldehyde + an reduced unknown electron acceptor
an alcohol + NAD(P)+ = an aldehyde + NAD(P)H + H+
a primary alcohol + an oxidized azurin = an aldehyde + a reduced azurin
a 1-O-(alk-1-enyl)glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O = sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + an aldehyde
a 1-alkenylglycerophosphoethanolamine + H2O = sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine + an aldehyde
a primary alcohol + 2 an oxidized cytochrome c550 = an aldehyde + 2 a reduced cytochrome c550

In Transport reactions:
a [PTS enzyme I]-Nπ-phospho-L-histidine + D-glucose[periplasmic space] → D-glucose 6-phosphate[cytosol] + a [PTS enzyme I]-L-histidine ,
glucose[chloroplast stroma]glucose[cytosol] ,
a monosaccharide[extracellular space] + ATP + H2O ↔ a monosaccharide[cytosol] + ADP + phosphate ,
a [PTS enzyme I]-Nπ-phospho-L-histidine + a sugar[out] → a [PTS enzyme I]-L-histidine + a sugar phosphate[in]

Enzymes inhibited by D-glucose, sorted by the type of inhibition, are:

Inhibitor (Competitive) of: transport of D-xylose [Sun12a]

Inhibitor (Allosteric) of: glycogen phosphorylase [Arrese95]

Inhibitor (Mechanism unknown) of: arginine kinase [Yao09] , glycogen phosphorylase [Dombradi85]

This compound has been characterized as an alternative substrate of the following enzymes: L-sorbosone dehydrogenase , D-xylose reductase , N-acetylmannosamine kinase , D-galacturonate reductase , β-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-L-rhamnose phosphorylase , D-glucuronate reductase , L-sorbosone dehydrogenase , D-xylose dehydrogenase , N-acetylglucosamine kinase , fructokinase , D-allose kinase , L-glucose 1-dehydrogenase , galactose-1-epimerase

Credits:
Revised 27-Mar-2013 by Caspi R , SRI International


References

Arrese95: Arrese EL, Rojas-Rivas BI, Wells MA (1995). "Purification and properties of glycogen phosphorylase from the fat body of larval Manduca sexta." Insect Biochem Mol Biol 25(2);209-16. PMID: 7711751

Dombradi85: Dombradi V, Hajdu J, Friedrich P, Bot G (1985). "Purification and characterization of glycogen phosphorylase from Drosophila melanogaster." Insect Biochem. Vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 403-410.

Sun12a: Sun L, Zeng X, Yan C, Sun X, Gong X, Rao Y, Yan N (2012). "Crystal structure of a bacterial homologue of glucose transporters GLUT1-4." Nature 490(7420);361-6. PMID: 23075985

Yao09: Yao CL, Ji PF, Kong P, Wang ZY, Xiang JH (2009). "Arginine kinase from Litopenaeus vannamei: cloning, expression and catalytic properties." Fish Shellfish Immunol 26(3);553-8. PMID: 19239924


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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 19.0 on Wed Aug 5, 2015, BIOCYC13A.